Open Access MegaJournals - Have They Changed Everything

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This is the powerpoint and audio of the Keynote Presentation to the University of British Columbia "UBC Open" event 10/22/2013.

See the original streaming video at: http://mediasitemob1.mediagroup.ubc.ca/Mediasite/Play/2cdc95b2d56a4c56a6606a6c116a58b01d

Download the excel dataset at: http://figshare.com/articles/MegaJournal_Publication_Data/833828

Read the Blog Post at: http://creativecommons.org.nz/2013/10/open-access-megajournals-have-they-changed-everything/

"The Open Access ‘Megajournal’ (a class of journal defined by the success of PLOS ONE) is a reasonably recent phenomenon, but one that some observers believe is poised to change the publishing world very rapidly.

A megajournal is typically understood to be an online-only journal; covering a very broad subject area; selecting content based only on scientific and methodological soundness; and with a business model which allows each article to cover its own costs. With these attributes, megajournals are not limited in potential output and as such are able to grow commensurate with any growth in submissions. PLOS ONE pioneered this category of journal and is currently expected to publish in excess of 30,000 articles in 2013 alone – possibly approaching 3% of all STM articles published that year. Recognizing the success of this model, many other publishers (such as Nature, Springer, SAGE, BioONE, PeerJ, , BMJ, F1000 and so on) have launched similar journals and each of these publishers is seeing their megajournal grow in volume, month on month. In many ways, the growth of the megajournal has been one of the most visible successes of the open access movement."

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Open Access MegaJournals - Have They Changed Everything

  1. 1. Open Access MegaJournals Have They Changed Everything? Pete Binfield Co-Founder and Publisher PeerJ @p_binfield pete@peerj.com @ThePeerJ https://peerj.com UBC Open - 10/22/2013 Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  2. 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Megamouth_shark_japan.jpg http://www.factmag.com/2012/03/05/portisheads-geoff-barrowreveals-more-about-judge-dredd-inspired-new-project/ http://galearning.com/fun-analysis/megalodon-shark-analysis/ Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  3. 3. „MegaJournals‟ • An online-only, peer-reviewed, open access journal • covering a very broad subject area • selecting content based only on „technical soundness‟ (or similar) • with a business model which allows each article to cover its own costs Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  4. 4. The MegaJournal ‘Editorial Model’ • Objective Editorial criteria – Scientifically rigorous ; Ethical ; Properly reported ; Conclusions supported by the data etc – Accept negative results, accept replication studies, accept protocols etc • Editors and reviewers do not ask subjective questions such as: – How important is the work? – Which is the relevant audience? • Everything that deserves to be published, will be published – Therefore the journal is not artificially limited in size • Online tools are used to evaluate, sort & filter the content after publication, not before Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  5. 5. PLOS ONE Output – Jul 2008
  6. 6. 2 July 2008
  7. 7. PLOS ONE Output – Jan 2011
  8. 8. Jan, 2011
  9. 9. PLOS ONE Quarterly Output 8000 Year 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Pubs 1,200 2,800 4,400 6,750 13,800 23,500 Notes Larger than ~ 95% of all journals Largest OA journal in world 3rd largest journal in world Largest journal in world ~1.4% of PubMed output in that year ~2.4% of PubMed output in that year 2013 ~31,000 >3% of the literature 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  10. 10. Known MegaJournals (Oct 2013) Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  11. 11. And Coming Soon… Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  12. 12. Known MegaJournals Today Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  13. 13. PLOS ONE Quarterly Output 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  14. 14. (monthly)
  15. 15. (monthly)
  16. 16. Mega? Mega = 106 (one million) Kilo = 103 (one thousand) But „MegaJournal‟ = ? Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  17. 17. It‟s About the Editorial Criteria • “Reviewing only for scientific and methodological soundness” (PLOS ONE) • “rigorous but inclusive review“ (BioONE) • "impact neutral" (Hindawi) • “publishing all sound science - separating the question of level of interest from the decision about publishability” (BMC) • “technically sound” (Scientific Reports) • “properly conducted medical research” (BMJ Open) • “objective determination of scientific and methodological soundness, not subjective determinations of 'impact,' 'novelty' or 'interest„” (PeerJ). Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  18. 18. The MegaJournal Editorial Model • Objective Editorial criteria – Scientifically rigorous ; Ethical ; Properly reported ; Conclusions supported by the data etc – Accept negative results, accept replication studies, sometimes accept protocols etc • Editors and reviewers do not ask subjective questions such as: – How important is the work? – Which is the relevant audience? • Everything that deserves to be published, will be published – Therefore the journal is not artificially limited in size • Online tools are used to evaluate, sort & filter the content after publication, not before Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  19. 19. The MegaJournal Editorial Model • Objective Editorial criteria – Scientifically rigorous ; Ethical ; Properly reported ; Conclusions supported by the data etc – Accept negative results, accept replication studies, sometimes accept protocols etc • Editors and reviewers do not ask subjective questions such as: – How important is the work? – Which is the relevant audience? • Everything that deserves to be published, will be published – Therefore the journal is not artificially limited in size • Online tools are used to evaluate, sort & filter the content after publication, not before Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  20. 20. If we define using the same Editorial Criteria but allow for „niche‟ journals… Then we should include: •All of the “Frontiers in…” Series (part of Nature) •All of the “BMC Series” (~ half of BMC) •~ 1/3 of Hindawi‟s current output And if we do that…. Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  21. 21. Why is it better to operate the ‘full’ MegaJournal model? – Improves the author experience – single review and decision – Improves the „global reviewer‟ experience – only review any given paper once – „subjective filtering‟ pre-publication is an outdated approach to determining quality – In an Author Pays OA model, there is no economic reason for artificially limiting the size of a journal – The journal only needs to be indexed once (e.g. MedLine, WoS) – A large journal attracts high usage / high visibility – Many aspects of the journal can be „consolidated‟ (e.g. one blog, one twitter stream, one marketing plan) – Economies of scale naturally develop, making the journal more efficient – The journal has the opportunity to set consistent standards which may become de facto standards in it‟s field Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  22. 22. Regardless of Name, Have They „Changed Everything‟? • Rapidly Approaching ~10% of all published content, spurring new developments • Require (and have stimulated) Article-Level Metrics • Publish Negative Results, Replication Studies, Incremental Articles • Dramatic Improvement to the Speed of the Ecosystem • Dramatic Improvement to the Efficiency of the Ecosystem Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  23. 23. Regardless of Name, Have They „Changed Everything‟? • Rapidly Approaching ~10% of all published content, spurring new developments • Require (and have stimulated) Article-Level Metrics • Publish Negative Results, Replication Studies, Incremental Articles • Dramatic Improvement to the Speed of the Ecosystem • Dramatic Improvement to the Efficiency of the Ecosystem Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  24. 24. An OA future containing MegaJournals PLoS ONE ALL OTHER OA SAGE Open JOURNALS PeerJ etc. etc. Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  25. 25. New Innovations Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  26. 26. Regardless of Name, Have They „Changed Everything‟? • Rapidly Approaching ~10% of all published content, spurring new developments • Require and have stimulated Article-Level Metrics • Publish Negative Results, Replication Studies, Incremental Articles • Dramatic Improvement to the Speed of the Ecosystem • Dramatic Improvement to the Efficiency of the Ecosystem Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  27. 27. Screenshot from ~ Nov 2009 but Way Back Machine has examples from April 2008 Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  28. 28. PLOS ALMs Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  29. 29. Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  30. 30. Regardless of Name, Have They „Changed Everything‟? • Rapidly Approaching ~10% of all published content, spurring new developments • Require (and have stimulated) Article-Level Metrics • Publish Negative Results, Replication Studies, Incremental Articles • Dramatic Improvement to the Speed of the Ecosystem • Dramatic Improvement to the Efficiency of the Ecosystem Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  31. 31. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v483/n7391/full/483531a.html http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21588057-scientists-think-science-self-correcting-alarming-degree-it-not-trouble http://blog.scienceexchange.com/2013/10/reproducibility-initiative-receives-1-3m-grant-to-validate-50-landmark-cancer-studies/ Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  32. 32. Regardless of Name, Have They „Changed Everything‟? • Rapidly Approaching ~10% of all published content, spurring new developments • Require (and have stimulated) Article-Level Metrics • Publish Negative Results, Replication Studies, Incremental Articles • Dramatic Improvement to the Speed of the Ecosystem • Dramatic Improvement to the Efficiency of the Ecosystem Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  33. 33. http://blog.rubriq.com/2013/06/03/how-we-found-15-million-hours-of-lost-time/ “…in a recent report Kassab and his colleagues estimated that Elsevier currently rejects 700,000 out of 1 million articles each year.” http://poynder.blogspot.co.uk/2013/10/media-research-analyst-at-exane-bnp.html Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  34. 34. “rejected from at least six journals (including Nature, Nature Genetics, Nature Methods, Science) and took a year to publish before going on to be my most cited research paper (150 last time I looked)” – Cameron Neylon Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  35. 35. Academic Publishing is Evolving… http://grigoriefflab.janelia.org/rejections
  36. 36. Regardless of Name, Have They „Changed Everything‟? • Rapidly Approaching ~10% of all published content, spurring new developments • Require (and have stimulated) Article-Level Metrics • Publish Negative Results, Replication Studies, Incremental Articles • Dramatic Improvement to the Speed of the Ecosystem • Dramatic Improvement to the Efficiency of the Ecosystem Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  37. 37. Stacked area graph of the contribution of major „APC‟ OA publishers (articles per year) http://figshare.com/articles/Scale_of_OA_Publishing/650794
  38. 38. Predicted „Disruption Timeframe‟ of OA vs Subscription model Source: “The Inevitability of Open Access”, David Lewis http://crl.acrl.org/content/73/5/493.full.pdf+html (College and Research Libraries, Sep 2012
  39. 39. The Net Result • New business models, new innovations and new thinking can flourish in a new ecosystem • „Mistakes‟ or „non-results‟ are actually reported – future researchers save time, energy, resources • Previously „uninteresting‟ results are actually reported – the potential to incrementally build on these „micro findings‟ is enabled • Reporting standards are raised and standardized • The process of publication is made more transparent and „fair‟ for the author • Less time is wasted by multiple reviewers on the same content • Better methods of filtering, evaluating and sorting publications will evolve • Science is published more rapidly, saving author time and improving the overall speed of discovery Academic Publishing is Evolving…
  40. 40. Thank You Pete Binfield Co-Founder and Publisher @p_binfield pete@peerj.com @ThePeerJ Academic Publishing is Evolving…

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