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Trait theory


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Trait theory

  1. 1.  Trait theory – a model of personality thatseeks to identify the basic traits necessary todescribe personality. Traits – consistent personality characteristicsand behaviors displayed in differentsituations.
  2. 2.  Developed byHyppocrates (460-370 BC) as medicaltheory I. Pavlovresearched howdogs with differenttemperamentsreacts to stimuli Sanguine Choleric Melancholic Phlegmatic
  3. 3.  Developed by R. Cattell (1965) using factors analysis List of all 16 traits:• Warm• Reasoning• Emotional Stability• Dominance• Liveliness• Rule-Consciousness• Social Boldness• Sensitivity• Vigilance• Abstractedness• Privateness• Apprehension• Openness to Change• Self-Reliance• Perfectionism• Tension
  4. 4.  This theory was also developed using factorsanalysis. R. Cattell used inductive method, while H.Eyesenck used deductive one. 3 main personality traits: extraversion,neuroticism and psychoticism. These 3 traits are largely unrelated.
  5. 5.  Five-factor personality inventory was createdin 1985 by P. T. Costa and R. R. McCare. Main 5 personality traits are Extraversion,Neuroticism, Conscientiousness,Agreebleness and Openness to experience. These 5 factors can be abbreviated asOCEAN. Each of 5 factors has 6 subfactors calledfacets. The Big Five is the most popular andinfluential trait approach today.
  6. 6.  Extraversion meansenergy, positiveemotions and thetendency to seekstimulation in thecompany of others.
  7. 7.  Neuroticism is anenduring tendencyto experiencenegativeemotional states.Neuroticism
  8. 8.  Conscientiousnessincludes traits likebeing organizedand planful.
  9. 9. Which room’s owner more likely has highconscientiousness?Which one of 6 facets of conscientiousness thesepictures represent?
  10. 10.  Agreebleness traitdistinguishes soft-hearted peoplefrom ruthless ones.
  11. 11.  Openness to experiencetrait distinguishespeople who prefervariety from whose whoprefer familiar andtraditional things.Itincludes traits likehaving wide interestsand being imaginative.
  12. 12.  Everyone has the same personality traits atvarying degree. There are many different trait theories, butno one of them can encompass the wholepersonality. Trait theories allow easy comparisonbetween individuals. Trait theories only describe personality –they do not explain it.