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  1. 1. DEFINITION Sugar substitute is based on the concept of replacing sucrose in food stuff which are proved to be highly cariogenic
  2. 2. TYPESThese are of two types:(C) Non nutritive sweeteners(B) Nutritive sweeteners
  3. 3. NON NUTRITIVE SWEETNERSThese are intense sweeteners,non caloric sweetenersMuch sweeter than sugarYield little or no energy,provide nobulkUsed in small quantities in drinks orblended with sugar substitutes infood & snacks
  4. 4. Approved products in marketare ASPARTATE SACCHARINE CYCLANATE SUCRALASE ACESULFAME-KFrom dental point of view caloricsweeteners are very useful as they arenot fermented to acid by oral bacteria
  5. 5. ASPARTATEWhite, crystalline, odourless, slightlywater soluble non carbohydratepowderAbout 150 to 200 times sweeter thansucroseUsed as low calorie sugar substitutein soft drinks,table sweeteners &other food products
  6. 6. SACCHARINEWhite, crystalline, odourless, slightly watersoluble powder produced synthetically500 times sweeter than sugar in dilutesolutionIts soluble sodium salt is used as a noncaloric sugar substituteAlso called as benzosulfimide or glusideWidely used in “diet” soft drinks, dieticfoods,mouth washes,medicines & as asweetener for table use since 1940
  7. 7. DISADVANTAGEMay cause bladder cancerbanned in USA & Canada
  8. 8. CYCLAMATE An organic sweetener 30 times sweeter than sucrose When ingested,absorbed intoblood streams & excreted almostunchanged in urine
  9. 9. However part of it is converted toCyclohexylamine by microorganism inlower intestinal tractBanned in USA & Canada as it cancause cancerCyclohexylamine can producevasoconstriction & hypertensiveeffect by affecting sympatheticnervous system
  10. 10. NUTRITIVE SWEETENERS sugarCaloric sweetener, carbohydratesubstituteIncludes a large number ofmonosaccharide & disaccharides,various polyols & starch hydrolysates& hydrogenatesRelative sweetness of thesecompounds is only occasionally morethan equal to sucrose, in mostinstances it is lower
  11. 11. CLASSIFICATION NUTRITIVE SWEETENERS SUGAR SUGAR ALCOHOLo Glucose Sorbitolo Fructose Mannitolo Lactose Xylitolo Maltose
  12. 12. SUGARSSugars other than sucrose used now adays in a large scale in various fooditems,reason for this is not dentalbut rather technological oreconomicalLactose used in most of baby foodsHas lower cariogenicity thansucrose,glucose & fructose
  13. 13. Since people can not tolerate its largeamount so it has a little practicalimportance as a sugar substituteNow palatinose is used as a sugarsubstituteIt is a disaccharides & “couplingsugar” & a mixture of variousfructose –glucose polymers
  14. 14. SUGAR ALCOHOLSNot good substrate for plaquebacteria & therefore produces only aminimal drop in plaque pHOn metabolism it get oxidized toeither to ketose or aldose
  15. 15. SORBITOL White, crystalline, water solublepowder Used as sugar substitute indiabetes Prepared from glucose byhydrogenation
  16. 16. About half as sweet as sucrose &used alone or with other polyalcoholsto provide a sweetener in dairy foods,especially in chewing gumsFollowing absorption,dietary sorbitolis oxidised to fructose by “sorbitoldehydrogenase” & further metabolismis like fructoseWHO recommended intake rate ofsorbitol is up to 150mg/kg/day
  17. 17. MANNITOLWhite ,crystalline,watersoluble carbohydrate alcohol
  18. 18. XYLITOLWell established that it is non cariogenic& is used in chewing gumsIt is one of a sugar sweetner approvedfor use in food & other items in manycountriesIt has specific as well as non specificeffects on oral flora & especially oncertain strains of mutans streptococciadd to its caries preventive profile
  19. 19. PLAQUE1.non fermentability by plaque organism2.reduction in plaque quantity3.selective reduction of mutans streptococci4.introduction of mutans streptococcus strain with reduced virulence. It has some proposed actions5.increased conc. Of ammonia in plaque
  20. 20. 6.accumulation of xylitol-5PO4 in some plaque streptococci7.participation in a futile metabolic cycle in some plaque organisms8.reduced adhesion of plaque flora9.reduced transmission of mutans streptococci
  21. 21. SALIVA1.changes in quantity & quality of salivaENAMEL1.aids remineralisation