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  1. 1. GINGIVA
  2. 2. Part of oral mucosa that covers the alveolar processes of the jaws and surrounds the necks of the teeth.
  3. 3. GINGIVA Marginal gingiva Attached Gingiva Gingival Sulcus Interdental Gingiva
  4. 6. Marginal Gingiva <ul><li>Terminal edge of the Gingiva surrounding the teeth in collar like fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5-2mm wide. </li></ul><ul><li>Sluice Way. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Rounded free gingiva forming a sulcus between tooth and gingiva. Gingival pocket seen while probing.
  6. 8. Gingival Sulcus <ul><li>V-Shaped shallow Crevice </li></ul><ul><li>1.8mm </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of crevicular fluid </li></ul>
  7. 9. Interdental gingiva <ul><li>Occupy gingival embrasure </li></ul><ul><li>Site of initial lesion on gingivitis </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior region-Pyramidal form and flattened over Molar region </li></ul><ul><li>Scalloped Form </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of Interdental COL </li></ul>
  8. 11. Attached Gingiva <ul><li>Functional Mucosa. </li></ul><ul><li>Firm,resilient and tightly bound to alveolar Bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Pale,pink and Stippled appearance </li></ul>Incisal Molars Maxilla 3.5- 4.5mm 1.9mm Mandible 3.3-3.9mm 1.8mm
  9. 12. Free gingival groove Muco-gingival junction Attached Gingiva
  10. 14. Free gingival Margin
  11. 15. Clinical Features <ul><li>Color :-Coral pink </li></ul><ul><li>Size :-0-2mm for Marginal gingiva </li></ul><ul><li>0-9mm for attached gingiva </li></ul><ul><li>Contour :-Scalloped </li></ul><ul><li>Shape :-Goverend by contour of proximal tooth surface </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency :- Firm & resilient </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Texture :- Stippled(Absent over marginal gingiva) </li></ul>
  12. 16. Stippling Appearance
  13. 17. MICROSCOPIC FEATURES <ul><li>Gingival epithelium </li></ul>Oral Epithelium Sulcular Epithelium Junctional epithelium
  14. 19. Oral Epithelium <ul><li>Keratinized,stratified,sqamous epithelium. </li></ul><ul><li>Parakeratinized :-75% </li></ul><ul><li>Orthokeratinized :-15% </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Keratinized :-10% </li></ul><ul><li>Cells of epithelium </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>Keratinocytes (90%) Melanocytes Langerhans Cells Merkel Cells </li></ul>Cells Of Epithelium
  16. 21. Keratinized Epithelium
  17. 22. Layers of Oral Epithelium
  18. 23. Presence of KERATOHYALINE granules in S.Granulosum
  19. 24. Sulcular Epithelium <ul><li>Thin,nonkeratintzed,stratified Squamous Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Extends From Coronal Limit of J.E to the crest of gingival margin </li></ul>
  20. 25. Junctional Epithelium <ul><li>Collar Like band of stratified,Non-keratinized Stratified Sqamous epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from base of sulcus to cemento-enamel junctional-a distance of 2mm </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from reduced Enamel epithelium </li></ul>
  21. 27. Gingival Connective Tissue <ul><li>Lamina Propia </li></ul><ul><li>Dense Collagen network </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of glycoproteins & proteoglycans </li></ul><ul><li>Cells :-Fibroblast,cementocytes,macrophages ,mast cells,neutrophils,plasma cells & lymphocytes. </li></ul>
  22. 30. Blood Supply <ul><li>Supra-periosteal vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Vessels from PDL </li></ul><ul><li>Arterioles from Crest of interdental bone </li></ul>
  23. 33. Lymphatic Supply
  24. 34. Nerve Supply Mainly by Trigeminal Nerve And its branches
  25. 35. Gingival Fibers PRINICIPAL FIBERS SECONDARY GP.FIBERS Dentogingival Alveolar Dentoperiosteal Transseptal Circular Periosteo – gingival Interpappilary Transgingival Intercircular Intergingival Semicircular
  26. 36. Nerve Supply Mainly by Trigeminal Nerve And its branches
  27. 37. Gingival fibers