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Summer Training Report on Jaypee Greens Wish Town Sector 128, Noida

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Summer Training Report on Jaypee Greens Wish Town Sector 128, Noida.

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Summer Training Report on Jaypee Greens Wish Town Sector 128, Noida

  1. 1. PROJECT REPORT ON JAYPEE GREENS WISH TOWN NOIDA SECTOR 128 (KOSMOS-TOWERS)
  2. 2. Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................................. 4 Jaiprakash Associates Ltd. (JAL) .............................................................................................................. 5 Business Interests of Jaypee Group .................................................................................................... 8 Civil Engineering: ............................................................................................................................. 8 Hydropower: ................................................................................................................................... 8 Cement: ........................................................................................................................................... 8 Hospitality: ...................................................................................................................................... 8 Real Estate Development: ............................................................................................................... 8 Expressways & Highways: ............................................................................................................... 9 Information Technology:................................................................................................................. 9 Thermal Power: ............................................................................................................................... 9 Transmission System:...................................................................................................................... 9 Milestones:........................................................................................................................................ 10 Achievements/ recognition:- ............................................................................................................ 12 Certifications: ........................................................................................................................................ 13 Facts and Figures................................................................................................................................... 14 Fire safety:- ........................................................................................................................................... 15 Maintainence and Repair .................................................................................................................. 16 FIRE FIGHTING WORKS...................................................................................................................... 17 SANITARY&PLUMBING WORKS............................................................................................................. 19 GYPSUM BORD/ VENEER CEILING ......................................................................................................... 21 PVC Laminated Gypsum Ceiling Tile (TR576) .................................................................................... 21 Gypsum Board (6809) ....................................................................................................................... 21 PILES FOUNDATION .............................................................................................................................. 23 Pile foundation systems .................................................................................................................... 23 Types of Piles................................................................................................................................. 23 Steel Piles ...................................................................................................................................... 23 Concrete Piles ............................................................................................................................... 24
  3. 3. SHEAR WALL.......................................................................................................................................... 25 Methods of Analysis .......................................................................................................................... 26 1.Finite Element Method .............................................................................................................. 26 2.Stringer Panel Model ................................................................................................................. 26 Retaining wall........................................................................................................................................ 27 RAFT FOUNDATION ............................................................................................................................... 29 Non destructive testing......................................................................................................................... 30 Sieve analysis Procedure ....................................................................................................................... 31 Result .................................................................................................................................................... 32 Aggregate impact value .................................................................................................................... 33 Procedure to determine Aggregate Impact Value: ....................................................................... 34 CONCRETE ADMIXTURES ...................................................................................................................... 35 MINERAL ADMIXTURES ......................................................................................................................... 36 FLY ASH ............................................................................................................................................. 36 Conclusions of using Fly Ash in Cement ........................................................................................ 38 AAC BLOCKS ...................................................................................................................................... 38 Raw materials ............................................................................................................................... 38 Kosmos Tower ....................................................................................................................................... 40 Technical specification ...................................................................................................................... 40 Mivan shuttering ............................................................................................................................... 41 Mivan Formwork System .............................................................................................................. 41 ADVANTAGES OF MIVAN FORMWORK SYSTEM ........................................................................... 42 Sample room ..................................................................................................................................... 44
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to express my heartfelt appreciation for my project guide Mr. Rajneesh Bhatnagar(Project Manager), for his wonderful support and constant encouragement to achieve that next level. Apart from this, I am thankful to the team of engineers of Jaypee whom expert guidance in various departments helped me immensely. Thank you.
  5. 5. Jaiprakash Associates Ltd. (JAL) Jaypee Group Type Private Industry Conglomerate Founded 1957 Founder(s) Jaiprakash Gaur Headquarters Noida, India Key people Jaiprakash Gaur (Chairman) Products Engineering Construction
  6. 6. Cement Power Hospitality Real Estate Expressways and Highways Employees Over 30000 Jaiprakash Associates Ltd. (JAL), the flagship company of the Jaypee Group, was incorporated in 1996. In 2003 JAL was formed due to merger of Jaiprakash Industries (JIL) and Jaiprakash Cement (JCL). JAL is the engineering and construction arm of the Jaypee group focused on development of river valley and hydro electric projects and a leader in construction of river valley and hydropower projects on turnkey basis for more than four decades. Shri. Jaiprakash Gaur, the founding father of Jaiprakash Associates Limited, after acquiring a Diploma in civil engineering in 1950 from the University of Roorkee, had a stint with government of UP and with steadfast determination to contribute in nation building, branched off on his own, to start as a civil contractor in 1958. The company is currently executing various projects in hydropower / irrigation / other infrastructure fields and has had the distinction of executing simultaneously 13 hydropower projects spread over six states and the neighbouring country Bhutan for generating 10,290 MW of power. The Jaypee Group undertakes projects involving:Large quantities of rock excavation (both surface and underground) Controlled earth/rock fill Concrete manufacture and placement (including chilling) Fabrication and erection of penstock liners Hydro-mechanical equipment procurement and erection Steel Structures Expressway Construction Real Estate Development The projects that have been commissioned or in the advance stages of completion have been undertaken by it either as a successful EPC contractor or as a Non EPC contractor. Transforming challenges into opportunities has been the hallmark of the Jaypee Group, ever since its inception four decades ago. The group is a diversified infrastructure conglomerate and has a formidable presence in Engineering & Construction along with interests in the power, cement and hospitality. The infrastructure conglomerate has also
  7. 7. expanded into real estate & expressways. The group has been assigned “CR1” grade by ICRA Ltd indicating very “Strong Contract Execution Capacity with best prospects of timely completion of projects without cost overruns etc. for projects with average value of Rs.2500 crores.” It is the only group in India, which pre-qualifies on its own for the bidding of various projects that are awarded in the country. The Jaypee Group is a Rs 6,500 crore well diversified infrastructural industrial conglomerate in India. Over the decades it has maintained its salience with leadership in its chosen line of businesses. Jaypee group is the 3rd largest cement producer in the country. The group produces special blend of portland pozzolana cement under the brand name ‘Jaypee Cement’ (PPC). The group also has secured three BOT contracts in the private hydropower generation sector after the opening up of the doors by the Government of India in 1991 for private sector power generation companies. The Group is a pioneer in the development of India’s first golf centric real estate. Jaypee Greens -- a world class fully integrated complex consists of an 18 hole Greg Norman Golf Course. Stretching over 450 acres, it also includes residences, commercial spaces, corporate park, entertainment and nature in abundance. Business area of the company: Jaiprakash Associates- The engineering and construction wing of the Group is an acknowledged leader in the construction of multi-purpose river valley and hydropower projects. It has had the unique distinction of executing simultaneously 13 hydropower projects spread over 6 states and the neighboring country Bhutan for generating 10,290 MW of power. The company also has the distinction of executing three out of five hydropower projects contracted on an EPC basis in the country till March 2007. Two of these, 300 MW Chamera - II and 520 MW Omkareshwar, have been completed ahead of schedule. The 900 MW Baglihar (Stage-I and II) hydroelectric project in Jammu & Kashmir, in the challenging environment of the State with 22 million cubic meters of concrete, has been the largest EPC project executed in the country in hydropower sector. The group has various working divisions: Civil Engineering Private HydroPower Cement Hospitalitty Integrated Towenship Information Technology
  8. 8. Expressway Business Interests of Jaypee Group Civil Engineering: Jaiprakash Associates Ltd., the flagship company of the Group, is a pioneer in construction of river valley and hydropower projects on turnkey basis in India. Jaypee Group has executed 13 Hydropower projects spread over 6 states of India and neighbouring Bhutan to generate 10,290 MW of power. Hydropower: Jaypee Group ventured into hydropower in 1992, with the formation of Jaiprakash Hydro Power Ltd (JHPL) and Jaiprakash Power Venture Ltd. (JPVL). The group has undertaken following hydroprojects: Baspa Hydro - Electric Project Stage II (300 MW) on the river Baspa, in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pardesh; Vishnu Prayag, 400MW project on the river Alaknanada; and Karcham Wangtoo 1000 MW project. Cement: Jaypee Group is the 4th largest cement producer in the country. It produces Ordinary Portland Cement and Pozzolana Portland Cement under the brand names "Buland" and "Buniyad". The group has plants at Rewa, and Bela. Jaypee Group is poised to achieve cement production capacity of 20 MTPA by the year 2009. Hospitality: Jaypee Group owns and operates four Five Star Deluxe hotels through a subsidiary company, Jaypee Hotels Limited. These hotels are: Hotel Siddharth and Hotel Vasant Continental in New Delhi, Hotel Jaypee Palace Agra, and Jaypee Residency Manor, Mussoorie. Real Estate Development:
  9. 9. Jaypee Group is developing real estate in Greater Noida. Its property, Jaypee Greens, is spread over an area of 450 acres. It comprises golf resorts, villas, townhouses, penthouses, condominiums, studio apartments, commercial complexes and shopping malls. Expressways & Highways: Jaypee Group is constructing the prestigious 160 km long Expressway with Six lane access that would connect the historical city of Agra with Greater Noida. Information Technology: Jaypee Group Company JIL Information Technology Limited (JILIT) specializes in: Hardware & Networking, Multimedia Services & Software, and Enterprise Resource Planning. Thermal Power: Jaypee Group has formed a Joint Venture company with Madhya Pradesh State Mining Corporation Limited (MPSMCL) to undertake coal production and sale of coal from coal block/blocks which might be allotted to MPSMCL. The company is called Madhya Pradesh Jaypee Minerals Limited. The company has plans to set up 1000 MW Thermal Power Plant in Madhya Pradesh. Transmission System: Jaiprakash Hydro-Power Limited has plans to venture into the development of transmission systems with the Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd (PGCIL)
  10. 10. Milestones: 31 Mar 2011 - Jaypee Group forays into edible oil business 15 Jan 2011 - Jaypee Group to invest Rs 33000 crores in Gujarat 01 Nov 2010 Power Trading Application 09 Sep 2010 -Expression of interest for structural designing of high rise residential and commercial towers with pre-cast RCC technology 09 Feb 2010 -Expression of Interest for (i) Drilling Services & Material Supply , (ii) Geochemical Survey for Oil & Gas exploration / development of SR-ONN-2004/1 onshore Block in South Rewa Basin, Madya Pradesh,India 10 Dec 2009 -Budawada Limestone Mine, District Krishna, A.P. of Jaiprakash Associates. Environment Clearance 02 Dec 2009 Jaiprakash Associates Cement Plant in Gujarat 26 Nov 2009 Jaypee Balaji Cement Project - MoEF clearance for Cement Plant alongwith Captive Power Plant 12 Aug 2009 Jaypee Group and L&T sign agreement 31 Jul 2009 Jaiprakash Associates to set up cement plant in Assam 14 Apr 2009 Sachin Tendulkar to Endorse Jaypee Cement 17 Feb 2009 National Awards for Performance in Power 03 July 2008 Yamuna(Erstwhile Taj) Expressway Project Feb 2008 Jaypee Group dedicates their 6th Cement plant to the nation bringing Haryana on the cement Map. Feb 2008 Jaypee & SAIL JV
  11. 11. 21 Feb 2008 Bokaro Cement Plant:JV between JAL and SAIL 11 Jan 2008 Jaiprakash Power Ventures files DRHP with SEBI 20 Dec 2007 Jaiprakash Associates wins Good Corporate Citizen Award 03 Aug 2007 Jaiprakash Associates ventures into steel making 04 Jun 2007 Jaiprakash Associates on Expansion Spree Feb 2007 Private Sector Investment in H.P. 23 Feb 2007 Jaypee - Power grid from Joint Venture Company 29 Jun 2006 Vishnu Prayag Hydro Electric Project Commissioned 23 Mar 2006 JHPL signed an MOU with the Power Grid Corporation of India 27 Jan 2006 JAL has been selected by MPSMCL as a JV partner 26 Aug 2005 JAL signed an agreement with Irrigation and CAD Department of Andhra Pradesh
  12. 12. Achievements/ recognition:National Safety Award. Corporate Excellence Award, Presented By Dalal Street Journal for Outstanding Performance in the Activity Category. Maharashtra Chapter of American Concrete Institute Award, Presented By Maharashtra Chapter of American Concrete Institute for Most Outstanding Concrete Structure in India Arch Cum Gravity Dam Chamera in H.P. OCCI Export Award, for Maximum Turnover in Overseas Projects OCCI Award, Presented By Overseas Construction Council of India for Maximum Foreign Exchange repatriated from Overseas Construction Contracts.
  13. 13. Certifications: Jaiprakash Associates Ltd. has been awarded ISO 9001 : 2000 Quality Certification Accredited by UKAS, RVA, ANAB and NABCB. ISO 2006 : ISO 14001 : 2004 OHSAS 2006 : OHSAS 18001 : 1999 Safety , Health and Environment Policy Year 2005 : CR1 Grading Year 2005 : CT1 Grading
  14. 14. Facts and Figures The group has executed 13 Hydropower projects spread over 6 states of India and neighbouring country of Bhutan to generate 10,290 MW of power. Only E & C Company in India with the capacity to execute EPC contracts on its own strength from concept to completion. Has won three out of the five EPC contracts awarded in the last 20 years. The group is the largest private sector hydro power producer with an installed capacity of 700 MW. Sardar Sarovar Dam being executed by the group is the third largest in the world for volume of chilled concrete to be placed -nearly 7 million cum. Nathpa Jhakri a 1500 MW Power House is the largest underground power house in India. Tehri Dam is the third tallest rockfill dam in the world, and the largest in Asia invloving placement of over 25 million cum of all types of fill material. Baglihar Hydroelectric project involved construction of 30km of project road along with three bridges. Brahmaputra Guide Bund completed in a record time of 7 months. Baspa-II and Chamera-II projects involved continuous concrete shuttering for tunnel lining which is used for the first time in the country. Teesta V project has been provided with Jet Grouting curtain is being provided below the coffer dams for the first time in India. Alimineti Madhva Reddy Irrigation project is the longest underground face to face tunnel in the world.
  15. 15. Fire safety:- Figure 1 Fires topping at the "perimeter slab edge", which is a gap between the floor and the back pan of the curtain wall is essential to slow the passage of fire and combustion gases between floors. Spandrel areas must have non-combustible insulation at the interior face of the curtain wall. Some building codes require the mullion to be wrapped in heat-retarding insulation near the ceiling. It is important to note that the fire stop at the perimeter slab edge is considered a continuation of the fire-resistance rating of the floor slab. The curtain wall itself, however, is not ordinarily required to have a rating. This causes a quandary as Compartmentalization (fire protection) is typically based upon closed compartments to avoid fire and smoke migrations beyond each engaged compartment. The use of fire sprinklers has been shown to mitigate this matter. As such, unless the building is sprinkle red, fire may still travel up the curtain wall, if the glass on the exposed floor is shattered due to fire influence, causing flames to lick up the outside of the building. Falling glass can endanger pedestrians, firefighters and firehouses below. An example of this is the First Interstate Tower fire inLos Angeles, California. The fire here leapfrogged up the tower by shattering the glass and then consuming the aluminum skeleton holding the glass. Aluminums’ melting temperature is 660°C, whereas building fires can reach 1,100°C. The melting point of aluminum is typically reached within minutes of the start of a fire.
  16. 16. Maintainence and Repair Curtain walls and perimeter sealants require maintenance to maximize service life. Perimeter sealants, properly designed and installed, have a typical service life of 10 to 15 years. Removal and replacement of perimeter sealants require meticulous surface preparation and proper detailing. Aluminum frames are generally painted or anodized. Factory applied fluoropolymer thermoset coatings have good resistance to environmental degradation and require only periodic cleaning. Recoating with an air-dry fluoropolymer coating is possible but requires special surface preparation and is not as durable as the baked-on original coating. Anodized aluminum frames cannot be "re-anodized" in place, but can be cleaned and protected by proprietary clear coatings to improve appearance and durability. Exposed glazing seals and gaskets require inspection and maintenance to minimize water penetration, and to limit exposure of frame seals and insulating glass seals to wetting .
  17. 17. FIRE FIGHTING WORKS 1. Fire Alarm Control Panels 2.Fire Alarm Monitoring 3.Sprinkler Solutions 4.Smoke, Heat & Carbon Monoxide Detectors 5.Voice Evacuation & Mass Notification Systems 6.Emergency Lighting Systems Figure 2 Having your plane catch on fire while heading down the runway is something that hopefully will never happen to you, but if it did you can rest assured that specialist fire fighters at the airport have to have 90 per cent of it extinguished within three minutes!Of course, given the rarity of planes on fire in Australia, aviation rescue and firefighting units do much more than just wait for disasters. They are highly trained in dealing with many situations, whether it's being on site if a plane's brakes have overheated, or delivering first aid to a passenger. Scott Sparkman is an aviation fire-fighter at Canberra airport and often these situations are just as high pressure as fires. "One case that we had was a heart attack on the steps of a plane just as it was about to take off, Scott told 666 Sunday's.
  18. 18. "He basically dropped at aisle number one and we had to perform CPR on that gentleman with a capacity crowd watching on, and that was a very high pressure situation but fortunately for the gentleman he was resuscitated and he lived to tell the tale." Scott says its days like these that you know you have made a difference "You can sit back and say I accomplished something today." Scott says the time pressure is the same whether they are dealing with a fire or a health emergency. “We have to be on site anywhere on the airport environment within two minutes...and hence the urgency when we get a call, it not walk slowly its walk very quickly and get to the job as soon as you can earlierin the day, Tidwell surveyed the burn scar being left by a massive blaze in southwestern New Mexicothat has developed into the largest wildfire in the country. He took an aerial tour of the fire, which has scorched more than 404 square miles since being sparked by lightning about three weeks ago. Firefighters were building fire lines and conducting more burnout operations to keep the giant Whitewater-Baldy fire from making any aggressive runs along its boundaries."In case we run out of water while fighting fires. We have no choice but to rush all the way back to the fire station for filling our tanks again, which poses a big challenge. Tarlochan Singh maintained that to add to their woes were other problems like negotiating the unruly traffic, particularly in the cramped lanes of the walled city, where most of the fires were reported. Municipal commissioner Dharampal Gupta, however, denied that the situation was not so grim. "They do have the requisite infrastructure to fight fires, but their job is challenging," he said, adding that that every effort was being made to revamp the department and more technological advances were in the offing. Figure 3
  19. 19. SANITARY&PLUMBING WORKS What is sanitary plumbing? Sanitary plumbing is any work involved in fixing or unfixing any pipe, plumbing fixture or appliance including; any trap, waste or soil pipe, ventilation pipe, or overflow pipe and any pipe that supplies or is intended to supply water. All sanitary plumbing must comply with the Building Code and, where a building consent is required; the work must be checked by the building inspector from the building control authority in your area (your local council). A code compliance certificate cannot be issued until the work has been signed off by the building inspector. A certifying plumber is responsible for the testing, verification and the supervision of licensed plumbers, limited certificate (trainee plumbers) and exempted persons. Sanitary plumbing does not include the installation of appliances such as dishwashers and washing machines; the replacement or repair of taps, ball valves and plugs. Sanitary plumbing:When we turn on the tap to pour ourselves a drink, most of us would not give the water's quality a second thought for that matter would we consider where water ends up when we've finished using it.Society itself depends on the safe delivery and removal of water. History has proven time and again that without regulatory control poor sanitary plumbing can result in sickness and even death. For this reason, registered plumbers are considered at the forefront of New Zealand’s primary health protection. A certifying plumber undertakes formal training for no less than six years to become qualified in safe water management. They are then required to keep abreast of changes in technology and regulations to ensure that they deliver effective and safe practices to the consumer when undertaking sanitary plumbing.
  20. 20. Figure 4 Who can undertake sanitary plumbing? Authorisation type Licence category Certifying plumber This is the highest qualification available. These people are responsible for ensuring both their own work, and the work of anyone they supervise is done competently. Licensed plumber These people are qualified and licensed but must be supervised by a certifying person who is ultimately responsible for ensuring the work is done competently. Limited certificate trainee plumber These are people who are working towards becoming qualified. They can do the work but a certifying person must ensure it is done competently. Exemption plumbing supervision for Exemptions under These people are not registered and don't have a full qualification, but they can do plumbing work provided they are supervised by a certifying person, who must ensure that the work is done competently.
  21. 21. GYPSUM BORD/ VENEER CEILING Now a days gypsum board widely used in building works. it is generally used for dry partition work .It became most due to its light weight and cheap. It is also heat resistant. It can also resist fire upto two hours during fire . Figure 5 PVC Laminated Gypsum Ceiling Tile (TR576) PVC gypsum ceiling tile is made of high quality paper-faced gypsum board with a layer of PVC on surface and aluminum foil on its back. Waterproof and corrosion-resistant Materials: Gypsum Board Gypsum Board (6809) We have three kinds of gypsum board, regular gypsum board, fire-proofgypsum board and moisture resistant gypsum board. 1> Regular plasterboard: Gypsum board edge: ...A: Ceiling system Waterproof Gypsum Board With ivory color gypsum board paper faced, high-grade natural gypsum powder as main material. Trusus Gypsum Plasterboard is available to be produced the following dimensions range according to Paper Faced Gypsum Board Paper Faced Gypsum Board Paper Faced Gypsum Board Specifications 3. Paperfaced gypsum board Weight: Paper Faced Gypsum Board Data Packaging: 2 Boards per Bundle, End Taped PVC laminated gypsum board/ gypsum ceiling 1 Gypsum Ceiling Tiles, PVC gypsum board, Material: Good quality paper faced gypsum board, surface is imported or domestic PVC film, backi s aluminum Foil It gypsum board ...back. ... Gypsum Board : PVC Laminated Gypsum Board Applications: Widely applied in the suspended ceiling system of high-level buildings, such as guesthouse, restaurant, theater,... office building and so on. ...
  22. 22. Figure 6 PVC Gypsum: PVC gypsum Our PVC ...It is an economical, elegant, fashionable, ceiling decorative material. 1) PVC Facing Gypsum Ceiling PVC coated gypsum board with aluminum foil backing, some of our customers call it as PVC laminated gypsum ceiling tile, vinyl faced gypsum panel or gypsum ceilingboard. we use a paper carton to ... Figure 7 Both Sides Paper Faced Gypsum Board including standard board, fire-resistantboard, special size board and the board edge contains tapered edge and square edge. 2. Gypsum board edge 2) PVC Laminated Gypsum Board : PVC Laminated Gypsum Board is used to decorate the inside roof ceiling, It is popular with the nice looking and sound sound absorption, various kinds of designs, wide using in schools, house.
  23. 23. PILES FOUNDATION Figure 8 Pile foundation systems Foundations relying on driven piles often have groups of piles connected by a pile cap (a large concrete block into which the heads of the piles are embedded) to distribute loads which are larger than one pile can bear. Pile caps and isolated piles are typically connected with grade beams to tie the foundation elements together; lighter structural elements bear on the grade beams while heavier elements bear directly on the pile cap. Types of Piles � Steel Piles � Pipe piles � Rolled steel H-section piles � Concrete Piles � Pre-cast Piles � Cast-in-situ Piles � Bored-in-situ piles � Timber Piles � Composite Piles Steel Piles: Facts � Usual length: 15 m – 60 m � Usual Load: 300 kN – 1200 kN � Advantage: � Relatively less hassle during installation and easy to achieve cutoff level. � High driving force may be used for fast installation � Good to penetrate hard strata � Load carrying capacity is high � Disadvantage: � Relatively expensive � Noise pollution during installation
  24. 24. Concrete Piles: Facts � Pre-cast Piles: � Usual length: 10 m – 45 m � Usual Load: 7500 kN – 8500 kN � Cast-in-situ Piles: � Usual length: 5 m – 15 m � Usual Load: 200 kN – 500 kN � Advantage: � Relatively cheap � can be easily combined with concrete superstructure It � Corrosion resistant � can bear hard driving It � Disadvantage: � Difficult to transport � Difficult to achieve desired cutoff When is it needed Top layers of soil are highly compressible for it to supportstructural loads through shallow foundations.Rock level is shallow enough for end bearing pilefoundations provide a more economical design.Lateral forces are relatively prominent.In presence of expansive and collapsible soils at the site.Offshore structuresStrong uplift forces on shallow foundations due to shallow water table can be partly transmitted to Piles.For structures near flowing water (Bridge abutments, etc.)to avoid the problems due to erosion. Figure 9
  25. 25. SHEAR WALL In structural engineering, a shear wall is a wall composed of braced panels (also known as shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind and earthquake loads are the most common loads braced wall lines are designed to counteract. Under several building codes, including the International Building Code (where it is called a braced wall line) andUniform Building Code, all exterior wall lines in wood or steel frame construction must be braced. Depending on the size of the building some interior walls must be braced as well. Figure 10 A typical timber shearwall is to create braced panels in the wall line using structural plywood sheathing with specific nailing at the edges and supporting framing of the panel. A more traditional method is to use let-in diagonal wood bracing throughout the wall line, and a newer alternative is let-in metal T-bracing but these methods may not be viable for buildings with many door and window openings and may not meet seismic or high wind zone codes. Such walls can be either "load bearing" or "non-load bearing". Shear walls are a type of structural system that provides lateral resistance to a building or structure. They resist "in-plane" loads that are applied along its height. The applied load is generally transferred to the wall by a diaphragm or collector or drag member. They are built in wood, concrete, and CMU (masonry). Plywood is the conventional material used in the construction of shear walls, but with advances in technology and modern building methods, there are other prefabricated options which have made it possible to inject shear assemblies into narrow walls that fall at either side of an opening in a shear wall. Sheet steel and steel-backed shear panels in the place of structural plywood in shear walls has proved to be far stronger in seismic resistance. Nonplanar Shear Walls: Due to functional requirements, the designer may choose non planar sections like C,L as opposed to the planar sections like rectangular/bar bell sections. Nonplanar sections require 3D analysis and are a research area.
  26. 26. Methods of Analysis: 1.Finite Element Method 2.Stringer Panel Model Figure 11
  27. 27. Retaining wall A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to resist the lateral pressure of soil when there is a desired change in ground elevation that exceeds the angle of repose of the soil. A basement wall is thus one kind of retaining wall. But the term usually refers to a cantilever retaining wall, which is a freestanding structure without lateral support at its top. [2] These are cantilevered from a footing and rise above the grade on one side to retain a higher level grade on the opposite side. The walls must resist the lateral pressures generated by loose soils or, in some cases, water pressures. Every retaining wall supports a “wedge” of soil. The wedge is defined as the soil which extends beyond the failure plane of the soil type present at the wall site, and can be calculated once the soil friction angle is known. As the setback of the wall increases, the size of the sliding wedge is reduced. This reduction lowers the pressure on the retaining wall. The most important consideration in proper design and installation of retaining walls is to recognize and counteract the tendency of the retained material to move downslope due to gravity. This creates lateral earth pressure behind the wall which depends on the angle of internal friction (phi) and the cohesive strength (c) of the retained material, as well as the direction and magnitude of movement the retaining structure undergoes. Lateral earth pressures are zero at the top of the wall and - in homogenous ground increase proportionally to a maximum value at the lowest depth. Earth pressures will push the wall forward or overturn it if not properly addressed. Also, any groundwater behind the wall that is not dissipated by adrainage system causes hydrostatic pressure on the wall. The total pressure or thrust may be assumed to act at one-third from the lowest depth for lengthwise stretches of uniform height. Unless the wall is designed to retain water, It is important to have proper drainage behind the wall in order to limit the pressure to the wall's design value. Drainage materials will reduce or eliminate the hydrostatic pressure and improve the stability of the material behind the wall. Drystone retaining walls are normally self-draining. As an example, the International Building Code requires retaining walls to be designed to ensure stability against overturning, sliding, excessive foundation pressure and water uplift; and that they be designed for a safety factor of 1.5 against lateral sliding and overturning
  28. 28. Figure 12
  29. 29. RAFT FOUNDATION A raft foundation is essential a mat foundation. The purpose of a mat foundation is when you a building built on a site with low soil bearing conditions or when a foundation. A raft foundation is use to distribute the buidling pressure over a large area so the soil can bear the stress. Think of it this way. If you had a building that has a site soil capacity of two thousand pounds per square foot and the building weight is 8 thousand pounds. What foundation would put less stress on the soil? a 500 square foot foundation or a 1000 square foot foundation. A 500 square foot will give you a stress of 16 pounds per square foot while the 1000 will give you 8 pounds per square foot. Less stress is imposed on the building with the large foundation. Also, the raft foundation sometimes have haunches that go below the slab portion to resist punching shear from column or large concentration loads or wide beams along edges and through the intermediate in the slab to resist bending forces due to expansive soils (clay soils) and bending forces imposed the structure above Figure 13
  30. 30. Non destructive testing Non-destructive testing can be applied to both old and new structures. For new structures, the principal applications are likely to be for quality control or the resolution of doubts about the quality of materials or construction. The testing of existing structures is usually related to an assessment of structural integrity or adequacy. In either case, if destructive testing alone is used, for instance, by removing cores for compression testing, the cost of coring and testing may only allow a relatively small number of tests to be carried out on a large structure which may be misleading. Non-destructive testing can be used in those situations as a preliminary to subsequent coring. Typical situations where non-destructive testing may be useful are, as follows: quality control of pre-cast units or construction in situ removing uncertainties about the acceptability of the material supplied owing to apparent non-compliance with specification confirming or negating doubt concerning the workmanship involved in batching, mixing, placing, compacting or curing of concrete monitoring of strength development in relation to formwork removal, cessation of curing, prestressing, load application or similar purpose location and determination of the extent of cracks, voids, honeycombing and similar defects within a concrete structure determining the concrete uniformity, possibly preliminary to core cutting, load testing or other more expensive or disruptive tests determining the position, quantity or condition of reinforcement increasing the confidence level of a smaller number of destructive tests
  31. 31. Sieve analysisProcedure A gradation test is performed on a sample of aggregate in a laboratory. A typical sieve analysis involves a nested column of sieves with wire mesh cloth (screen). See the separate Mesh (scale) page for details of sieve sizing. A representative weighed sample is poured into the top sieve which has the largest screen openings. Each lower sieve in the column has smaller openings than the one above. At the base is a round pan, called the receiver. The column is typically placed in a mechanical shaker. The shaker shakes the column, usually for some fixed amount of time. After the shaking is complete the material on each sieve is weighed. The weight of the sample of each sieve is then divided by the total weight to give a percentage retained on each sieve. The size of the average particle on each sieve is then analysed to get a cut-off point or specific size range, which is then captured on a screen. The results of this test are used to describe the properties of the aggregate and to see if it is appropriate for various civil engineering purposes such as selecting the appropriate aggregate for concrete mixes and asphalt mixes as well as sizing of water production well screens. The results of this test are provided in graphical form to identify the type of gradation of the aggregate. The complete procedure for this test is outlined in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C 136 and the American Association and State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) T 27 A suitable sieve size for the aggregate should be selected and placed in order of decreasing size, from top to bottom, in a mechanical sieve shaker. A pan should be placed underneath the nest of sieves to collect the aggregate that passes through the smallest. The entire nest is then agitated, and the material whose diameter is smaller than the mesh opening pass through the sieves. After the aggregate reaches the pan, the amount of material retained in each sieve is then weighed
  32. 32. Figure 14 Result The results are presented in a graph of percent passing versus the sieve size. On the graph the sieve size scale is logarithmic. To find the percent of aggregate passing through each sieve, first find the percent retained in each sieve. To do so, the following equation is used, %Retained = ×100% where WSieve is the weight of aggregate in the sieve and WTotal is the total weight of the aggregate. The next step is to find the cumulative percent of aggregate retained in each sieve. To do so, add up the total amount of aggregate that is retained in each sieve and the amount in the previous sieves. The cumulative percent passing of the aggregate is found by subtracting the percent retained from 100%. %Cumulative Passing = 100% - %Cumulative Retained. The values are then plotted on a graph with cumulative percent passing on the y axis and logarithmic sieve size on the x axis There are two versions of the %Passing equations. the .45 power formula is presented on .45 power gradation chart, whereas the more simple %Passing is presented on a semi-log gradation chart. version of the percent passing graph is shown on .45 power chart and by using the .45 passing formula. .45 power Percent Passing Formula: % Passing = Pi = Where: x100%
  33. 33. SieveLargest - Largest diameter sieve used in (mm). Aggregatemax_size - Largest piece of aggregate in the sample in (mm). Percent Passing Formula: %Passing = x100% Where: WBelow - The total mass of the aggregate within the sieves below the current sieve, not including the current sieve's aggregate. WTotal - The total mass of all of the aggregate in the sample Aggregate impact value This test is done to determine the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963. The apparatus used for determining aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates is Impact testing machine conforming to IS: 2386 (Part IV)- 1963,IS Sieves of sizes – 12.5mm, 10mm and 2.36mm, A cylindrical metal measure of 75mm dia. and 50mm depth, A tamping rod of 10mm circular cross section and 230mm length, rounded at one end and Oven. Preparation of Sample i) The test sample should conform to the following grading: -Passing through 12.5mm IS Sieve –100% - Retention on 10mm IS Sieve – 100% ii) The sample should be oven-dried for 4hrs. at a temperature of 100 to 110oC and cooled. iii) The measure should be about one-third full with the prepared aggregates and tamped with 25 strokes of the tamping rod. A further similar quantity of aggregates should be added and a further tamping of 25 strokes given. The measure should finally be filled to overflow, tamped 25 times and the surplus aggregates struck off, using a tamping rod as a straight edge. The net weight of the aggregates in the measure should be determined to the nearest gram (Weight)
  34. 34. Figure 15 Procedure to determine Aggregate Impact Value: i) The cup of the impact testing machine should be fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole of the test sample placed in it and compacted by 25 strokes of the tamping rod. ii) The hammer should be raised to 380mm above the upper surface of the aggregates in the cup and allowed to fall freely onto the aggregates. The test sample should be subjected to a total of 15 such blows, each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second. Aggregate impact value = (B/A) x 100% iii) Two such tests should be carried out and the mean of the results should be reported
  35. 35. CONCRETE ADMIXTURES Admixtures are ingredients other than water, aggregates, hydraulic cement, and fibers that are added to the concrete batch immediately before or during mixing, in nominal quantities. A proper use of admixtures offers certain beneficial effects to concrete, including improved quality, acceleration or retardation of setting time, enhanced frost and sulphate resistance, control of strength development, improved workability, and enhanced finishability. Admixtures vary widely in chemical composition, and many perform more than one function. Two basic types of admixtures are available: chemical and mineral. All admixtures to be used in concrete construction should meet specifications; tests should be made to evaluate how the admixture will affect the properties of the concrete to be made with the specified job materials, under the anticipated ambient conditions, and by the anticipated construction procedures. Materials used as admixtures included milk and lard by the Romans; eggs during the middle ages in Europe; polished glutinous rice paste, lacquer, tung oil, blackstrap molasses, and extracts from elm soaked in water and boiled bananas by the Chinese; and in Mesoamerica and Peru, cactus juice and latex from rubber plants. The Mayans also used bark extracts and other substances as set retarders to keep stucco workable for a long period of time.
  36. 36. MINERAL ADMIXTURES Mineral admixtures (fly ash, silica fume [SF], and slags) are usually added to concrete in larger amounts to enhance the workability of fresh concrete; to improve resistance of concrete to thermal cracking, alkali-aggregate expansion, and sulphate attack; and to enable a reduction in cement content. Fly Ash Silica Fume Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag(GGBFS) FLY ASH Figure 16 Fly ash is comprised of the non-combustible mineral portion of coal consumed in a coalfueled power plant. Chemically, fly ash is a pozzolan. When mixed with lime (calcium hydroxide), pozzolans combine to form cementitious compounds. Concrete containing fly ash becomes stronger, more durable, and more resistant to chemical attack. Fly ash particles are glassy, spherical shaped “ball bearings” — typically finer than cement particles — that are collected from the combustion air-stream exiting the power plant. There are two basic types of fly ash: Class F and Class C. Both Class F and Class C fly ashes undergo a “pozzolanic reaction” with the lime to create the same binder (calcium silicate hydrate, C-S-H gel) as cement. The main benefit of fly ash in concrete is that it not only reduces the amount of non-durable calcium hydroxide (lime), but in the process converts it into calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), which is the strongest and most durable portion of the paste in concrete. Fly ash also makes substantial contributions to workability, chemical resistance and the environment. Fly Ash Contributes to Concrete Durability and Strength There is a huge difference between durability and strength. Durability is the ability to maintain integrity and strength over time. Strength is only a measure of the ability to sustain loads at a given point in time. Cement normally gains the great majority of its strength within 28 days. Concrete made with fly ash will be slightly lower in strength than straight cement concrete up to 28 days, equal strength at 28 days, and substantially higher strength within a year’s time. Conversely, in straight cement
  37. 37. concrete, this lime would remain intact and over time it would be susceptible to the effects of weathering and loss of strength and durability. Fly Ash Contributes to Concrete Workability First, fly ash produces more cementitious paste. It has a lower unit weight, which means that on a pound for pound basis, fly ash contributes roughly 30% more volume of cementitious material per pound versus cement. The greater the percentage of fly ash “ball bearings” in the paste, the better lubricated the aggregates are and the better concrete flows. Second, fly ash reduces the amount of water needed to produce a given slump. Water demand of a concrete mix with fly ash is reduced by 2% to 10%, depending on a number of factors including the amount used and class of fly ash. Third, fly ash reduces the amount of sand needed in the mix to produce workability. Because fly ash creates more paste, and by its shape and dispersive action makes the paste more “slippery”, the amount of sand proportioned into the mix can be reduced. Since sand has a much greater surface area than larger aggregates and therefore requires more paste, reducing the sand means the paste available can more efficiently coat the surface area of the aggregates that remain. Fly Ash Protects Concrete Fly ash concrete is less permeable because fly ash reduces the amount of water needed to produce a given slump, and through pozzolanic activity, creates more durable CSH as it fills capillaries and bleed water channels occupied by water-soluble lime (calcium hydroxide). Fly ash improves corrosion protection. By decreasing concrete permeability, fly ash can reduce the rate of ingress of water, corrosive chemicals and oxygen — thus protecting steel reinforcement from corrosion and its subsequent expansive result. Fly ash also increases sulphate resistance and reduces alkali-silica reactivity. In reducing alkali-silica reactivity, fly ash has the ability to react with the alkali hydroxides in Portland Cement paste, making them unavailable for reaction with reactive silica in certain aggregates. Fly Ash Reduces Heat of Hydration in Concrete The hydration of cement is an exothermic reaction. Heat is generated very quickly, causing the concrete temperature to rise and accelerating the setting time and strength gain of the concrete. Warm weather will naturally raise the temperature of concrete aggregates, which make up the majority of the mass in concrete. This natural heating of the aggregates, coupled with solar heating at the construction site, can cause thin concrete slabs to suffer the damaging effects of thermal cracking, leading to reduced concrete strength and durability. In such cases, replacing large percentages of cement with fly ash can reduce the damaging effects of thermal cracking and provide the time needed for desirable finish.
  38. 38. Conclusions of using Fly Ash in Cement Ease of Pumping Reduced Bleeding Reduced Segregation Improved Finishing AAC BLOCKS Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC), also known as autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC) or autoclaved lightweight rthe material can be routed, sanded, and cut to size on site using standard carbon steel bandsaws, hand saws, and drills. Even though regular cement mortar can be used, 98% of the buildings erected with AAC materials use thin bed mortar, which comes to deployment in a thickness of ⅛ inch. This varies according to national building codes and creates solid and compact building members. AAC material can be coated with a stucco compound or plaster against the elements. Siding materials such as brick or vinyl siding can also be used to cover the outside of AAC materials. AAC has been produced for more than 70 years, and it offers advantages over other cementitious construction materials, one of the most important being its lower environmental impact.      AAC’s improved thermal efficiency reduces the heating and cooling load in buildings. AAC’s workability allows accurate cutting, which minimizes the generation of solid waste during use. AAC’s resource efficiency gives it lower environmental impact in all phases of its life cycle, from processing of raw materials to the disposal of AAC waste. AAC’s light weight also saves cost & energy in transportation. AAC's light weight saves labour Raw materials Unlike most other concrete applications, AAC is produced using no aggregate larger than sand. Quartz sand, lime, and/or cement and water are used as a binding agent. Aluminum powder is used at a rate of 0.05%–0.08% by volume (depending on the pre-specified density). When AAC is mixed and cast in forms, several chemical reactions take place that give AAC its light weight (20% of the weight of concrete) and thermal properties. Aluminum powder reacts with calcium hydroxide and water to form hydrogen. The hydrogen gas foams and doubles the volume of the raw mix (creating gas bubbles up to 3mm (⅛ inch) in diameter). At the end of the foaming process, the hydrogen escapes into the atmosphere and is replaced by air. When the forms are removed from the material, it is solid but still soft. It is then cut into either blocks or panels, and placed in an autoclave chamber for 12 hours. During this steam pressure hardening process, when the temperature reaches 190° Celsius (374° Fahrenheit) and the pressure reaches 8 to 12 bars, quartz sand reacts with calcium hydroxide to
  39. 39. form calcium silica hydrate, which accounts for AAC's high strength and other unique properties. After the autoclaving process, the material is ready for immediate use on the construction site. Depending on its density, up to 80% of the volume of an AAC block is air. AAC's low density also accounts for its low structural compression strength. It can carry loads of up to 8 MPa (1,160 PSI), approximately 50% of the compressive strength of regular concrete. Since 1980, there has been a worldwide increase in the use of AAC materials. New production plants are being built in the USA, Easter Europe, Israel, China, Bahrain, India, and Australia. AAC is increasingly used by developers, architects, and home builders. Figure 17
  40. 40. Kosmos Tower Figure 18 Technical specification Total number of towers -10 Towers (1,2,9,10 )- G+15 Raft -1.4m A,B,C,D units Towers (3,4,5,6,7,8)-G+25 Raft -1.7m Top level -192.81m Bottom level-191.11m Piles foundation 3,4,7,8- A,B,D units 5,6 – A,B,C units Dia -1m 1 tower -197 piles Grade of cement - M35,M40 Lower basement -4990 mm Upper basement -3850mm
  41. 41. Ground floor – 3350 mm 1st to 29th floor-3150 mm 30th floor - 3400 mm Cantilevers -1,2,9,10 -3rd ,4th ,6th ,5th (1st level) 11th,12th,13th,14th (2nd level) 19th ,20th ,21st ,22nd (3rd level) Height of tower -90.75m 1st to 3rd floor –green floor (rest –kota stone) Total number of BHK-74 Type of room 2BHK 3BHK 3BHK 4BHK 3BHK 4BHK Type Number Area(sq ft) Type A Type B Type A Type B PENTHOUSE PENTHOUSE 24 27 05 10 05 01 02 1630 2372 2909 3298 3147 3400 6500 Mivan shuttering Mivan Formwork System MIVAN FORMWORK SYSTEM The Mivan Formwork System is a uniquely designed method of using aluminum formwork panels to construct reinforced concrete buildings. The system has a very simple basic concept. A number of aluminum panels are fixed together forming a mould for a part of the building. The mould is then filled with concrete. This set of panels are then removed, reconnected and filled with concrete each day. This routine completes the whole building structure in very short time and to a high quality standard. The benefits of the system are maximized when all elements of the building structure, including the walls, are cast in-situ concrete. When the concrete walls are designed to support the structure itself this is known as load bearing wall design. This building design is the most suitable to the Mivan Formwork
  42. 42. system, but it can be used very successfully for many building designs including column, beam, slab and can be successfully integrated with suitable prefabricated forms. ADVANTAGES OF MIVAN FORMWORK SYSTEM Building strength and durability All walls are reinforced concrete providing much greater stability than columns with brick walls. The walls and floor slabs are cast at the same time so there are no weak joints. Wall surfaces are concrete which do not crack like plaster and maintain a smooth surface for a much longer time. QUALITY OF FINISHED BUILDING Precisely manufactured formwork allows concrete to be cast to exact dimensions as designed. Daily repetition of the same work means that work teams become very efficient to complete their work accurately (as in factory production) and to a high standard. All door and window openings are formed to precise dimensions which allows perfect fitting of the frames. Many services, like water supply & some waste pipes and electrical conduits, can be cast into the concrete where it is protected and not visible. SPEED OF CONSTRUCTION A large amount of work can be completed in each daily work routine which means the structure is complete much faster than traditional formwork. The daily work routine guarantees the target completion dates are achieved. All of the walls can be formed at the same time so there is no time needed for brick laying and plastering. After the concrete is cast finishing works like window fixing, wall tiling and plumbing work can be installed immediately. Many of the finishing items can be prefabricated away from the site because of the accurate dimensions of the concrete work, so installation on site is much faster and at less cost. EFFICIENCY AND COST SAVING The fast production method completes the project in shorter time which saves on site running, operating and financing costs. Smooth concrete surface means a thin skim coat can achieve a very smooth wall finish with a small labour force. Much of the structure is cast in concrete by a small group of workers, so no labour is needed for building brick walls or plastering. Accurately manufactured formwork means it fits into position exactly and does not have to be adjusted each time so it doesn't waste formwork or concrete material. Prefabricated finishing items means less skilled workers are required on the site. Formwork panels are light and do not need capital cost for heavy cranes for lifting. FINANCING COSTS Fast project
  43. 43. completion saves financing charges as the buildings can be transferred to the owners much earlier than traditional methods ENVIRONMENTAL No timber is used and all aluminum panels are used many times before being recycled to make other products. Figure 19 Figure 20
  44. 44. Sample room Description Dimension Marter rm toilet 9’*10’-10” Mastre rm dress 6’-7”*5’-4” Master bed room 16’-4”*11’-11” Living & dining 25’-6”*19’-8” Kids bed room 14’-10”*10’-11” Kids dress 5’-7”*5’-2” Kids toilet 9’*5’2” Door size 1000mm*2150mm Guest bedroom 14’10”-10’11” Guest toilet 9’3”*5’2” Entry vertibule 6’8”*9’9”

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