Centre for Sustainable Development                          Bangalore
   Introduction   Objective   Methodology   Findings of the Study   Comparison between    ERC 2005 and ERC    2012  ...
Water                                                      Quality                                     Industrial         ...
   Stratified multistage    random sample    survey of households    and establishments   Sample size – 1675    househol...
Sample selection Three wards from each of the 8 zones were  selected based on population density. Estimates for added ar...
Sl Name of the zone        Ward numbers                                    Number ofNo                                    ...
   50% of water supply is by BWSSB. In addition,    there is almost 60 % dependency on borewells    and private tankers ...
   Only 47 % of households as compared to 98 %    commercial establishments have expressed    satisfaction.   Satisfacti...
Air Quality By and large people in all areas except south  zone are dissatisfied with air quality. Out of the 15 hot spo...
Vehicular Traffic 58.5% say they will continue to use private  vehicles irrespective of improvement in public  transport...
Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Satisfaction levels for door to door collection is  very low(15%). Dissatisfaction highest...
 Overall satisfaction on maintenance of parks  is high (>80%) as also with respect to  playgrounds (65% general and 97% s...
Households Overall, water quantity and quality seems to be of  prime concern in most areas. This is followed by air poll...
   During 2005 the prime concern of citizens    were with respect to vehicular pollution, lack    of tree cover and traff...
   BWSSB increased its network from 83% to 92%   BBMP has facilitated waste processing units    and dry waste collection...
Water Step up RWH implementation Stringent action should be taken against  untreated effluent discharges and lake  encro...
Waste Segregation of waste should be mandatory Decentralized waste treatment facilities Facilities for disposal of e-wa...
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Environment Report Card for Bangalore, 2012

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A presentation made by Srinivas Ravindra, Centre for Sustainable Development, Bangalore on an Environment Report Card of Bangalore 2012. The presentation was made on August 23, 2012 at a colloquium on Citizen Voices in Environmental Governance organised by the Public Affairs Centre in Bangalore, India.

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  • Second ERC for Bangalore - at a time when environmental issues are of utmost concern to the citizensdistinction of being the Silicon Valley of India as it’s a hub for major IT companies.attracted people and investors from across the world leading to unprecedented growth causing environmental threats.Main objective was to capture citizens’ perceptions on environmental issues – as they closely impact them and stimulate debate on the policies intended to benefit environmental protection. Links the gap between the Government and public - thus making it equally useful to both government agencies and citizens alike because it reflects the ground realities and can help its in restructuring of policies and programmes.
  • Study has attempted to provide estimates to the environment indicators through household survey for each administrative zone of BMP area (3 zones) and separate estimates for the added area which includes the 5 new zones. Separate estimates for general and slum householdsEstimates for environment indicators for each zone of BMP at 90 per cent confidence level with error less than 5 per cent. Estimates for the newly added areas (5 zones together) are at 95% confidence with error less than 5%. Environment issues covered in the study pertain to water, sanitation, air quality, open spaces & tree cover and health impact.
  • Environmental IndicatorsIndicators are flexible instrument that can read multi-faceted problems and issues, diagnose the shortfalls and point out the desirable choice among policy optionsAlso provide a speedy and adequately reliable approach that can help and facilitate policy makers and others to take decisions on the interventions required
  • Level of dissatisfaction at household level is 25%. East zone which faces the maximum water shortage tries to meet the demand through borewells (25%) though its dependency on private tankers and packaged drinking water is comparatively less. Shortage in West zone is filled in through private tankers and package drinking water which is the highest among all the zones (about 36% of the supply is met from these sources).51% of the citizens in the west zone to express their satisfaction levels as ‘neutral’ which means that while there is water shortage in the area
  • Water sample reports for 2011 show that coliform content is high in summer months of April-June. Board officials say that most of water quality complaints come from east and west zones.98.1% of the respondents have expressed a greater satisfaction level regarding the quality of water however hotels are completely satisfied followed by hospitals.31% of the groundwater samples were not up to drinking water standards. People from east zone have said that they find the water to be muddy. Levels of satisfaction in slum and non-slum areas regarding water quality is almost the same.
  • The survey indicates that 98.2% and 86.8% respectively of the general and slum population have reported the use of LPG for cooking and only 3.3% of the slum population indicated the use of wood for heating purpose. The satisfaction levels show that majority of people in the east are not satisfied with the quality of air in their surroundings while those in south are most satisfied. The highest recorded SPM level in any residential area was 247 micrograms (Marenahalli) as against the standard of 200. Data indicates that 32% and 40% of the general and slum respondents have reported that air quality as satisfactory around their premises. The survey reveals that only 26.7% are satisfied with the quality of air however a majority of 43.6% express dissatisfaction on the air quality around their establishments. Vehicular TrafficAs per the CSD survey, only about 12-14% commute by cars while about 43% travel by bus and 32% by two wheelers. 40.1% and 47.7% of the general and slum population have reported the smoke emissions are tolerable, 36.4% and 48.9% have reported to be bad and 23.5% and 3.4% reported to be very bad. Noise Pollution67.6% and 48.9% of the general and slum population have reported that the current noise pollution in Bangalore is more than before.
  • MSWIn all other zones except east zone the door to door collection is more than 75%, in east it is just 60%. Disposal of waste to road drains which is hardly 2% in west and south zones is alarmingly high at 15% in east and 7% in added areas. The extent of door to door collection is nearly the same for slum and non-slum areas (71% and 76% respectively) and so is the case with disposal to road side drains (7.6% and 7.8%). This could mean that services within a particular area or zone are more or less uniformly provided without distinction between slum and non-slum areasDrainage85.3% of the slum population is neutral on this issue. It is obvious that the maintenance of drains is far from satisfactory. Waste Water/Sewage DisposalSouth has a deficit of 20% sewer connections compared to hardly 3% in east and west. But satisfaction levels are highest in south with the functioning of sewerage system.In the BBMP area 3.4% in the east, 2.2% in the west, 20.2% in the south and 40.2% in the newly added areas still do not have sewerage connection.
  • Parks, Play grounds and Tree Cover20% of the people visit parks regularly which has reduced from 30% as per 2005 ERC. In the case of play grounds it is worse, with only 6.3% reporting to visit playground regularly as compared to 9% in 2005.People in the west zone tend to perceive that trees could be the source of their allergic conditions, although the percentage of people suffering from allergic diseases in the west is lower than east and added areas.Satisfaction levels for tree cover have significantly increased from 45% in 2005 to 69% in 2011.The actual tree cover in the city has increased by about 12%Amongst the commercial establishments, 54.5% of the respondents have reported satisfaction with the tree cover. However, among the various types of establishments, hospitals have shown great satisfaction level of 85.7%Health32.9% and 20.7% of the general and slum respondents reported that they have been suffering from allergic disorders. However a majority of 51.2% and 77.2% reported that they do not suffer from any of these air related disorders. Community participationMost RWAs are actively working in the area of solid waste management and e-waste. 66% reporting no inspection at all by the corporation staff and 32% referring to occasional visits, supervision is obviously poor. Percentage of respondents who have said that there have been improvements is only 22% Improvements indicated by the respondents mostly concerns street lighting, display boards, renovated parks, common public taps and construction of roads.
  • In the south zone where traffic congestion and vehicular pollution tops the list followed by water quality and quantity In the West zone air pollution is of prime concern while water quality and quantity come a close secondIn the East zone waste collection is a huge problem making it the third most important concern.
  • Environment Report Card for Bangalore, 2012

    1. 1. Centre for Sustainable Development Bangalore
    2. 2.  Introduction Objective Methodology Findings of the Study Comparison between ERC 2005 and ERC 2012 Recommendations
    3. 3. Water Quality Industrial Green Second ERC for Emissions Cover Bangalore Main objective Air Pollution Traffic Congestion was to capture Environmental issues citizens’ Waste Wastewater Recycling perceptions on Disposal environmental Health Hygiene issues Sewerage Identify gaps & Sanitation between Government action and Response peoples’ Commercial perception Government Agencies Households
    4. 4.  Stratified multistage random sample survey of households and establishments Sample size – 1675 households and 108 commercial establishments
    5. 5. Sample selection Three wards from each of the 8 zones were selected based on population density. Estimates for added areas and BMP separate Further in each selected ward, sample was allocated between general and slum (15%)Environmental Indicators Water, Air, Traffic, Sanitation, Health, Waste Management, Awareness, RWH, Open spaces, & Community participation Ranking of environmental indicators by citizens through questionnaires
    6. 6. Sl Name of the zone Ward numbers Number ofNo households surveyed1 East zone Sampangiramnagr, Hoysalanagar, Shivajinagar 2792 West zone Aramanenagar, Sudhamnagar , Monorayanaplaiya 2653 South Marenahallii, Hombegowdanagar, Padarayanapura 3004 Rajarajeshwarinagar Hemmigepura, Uttarahalli, Nagarabavi 1095 Bommanahalli zone Belanduru, Arakere, Jakkasandra 1876 Byatrayanapura zone Jakkur, Attur, HBR Layout 907 Dasarahalli zone Doddabidarakallu, Bagalkunte, T.Dasarahalli 888 Mahadevapura zone Doddanakundi, Basavanpura, Vijanapura 90
    7. 7.  50% of water supply is by BWSSB. In addition, there is almost 60 % dependency on borewells and private tankers Overall satisfaction at household level is 43% Frequency of water supply by BWSSB is low Water shortage highest in east zone while it is lowest in south zone. Commercial establishments do not consider water supply to be a major issue. Residents in added areas are facing more water problems than the old BMP areas.
    8. 8.  Only 47 % of households as compared to 98 % commercial establishments have expressed satisfaction. Satisfaction level is least in east the and West zones and highest in the south. Slum population has expressed that quality of water supply by BWSSB has improved over the years Common complaints at household level were foul or chlorine smell. TDS was found high in GW samples analyzed by CSD and high coliform count in tap water.
    9. 9. Air Quality By and large people in all areas except south zone are dissatisfied with air quality. Out of the 15 hot spot locations, 8 had high RSPM and SPM. Values were within limits in residential areas(23) SO2 and NO2 levels are within the norms inspite of increase in vehicles. Indoor pollution is an issue in slums due to smoke & vehicles Commercial establishments complained of street sweeping
    10. 10. Vehicular Traffic 58.5% say they will continue to use private vehicles irrespective of improvement in public transport Satisfaction level with public transport if <50%Noise Pollution Unanimous opinion across zones that noise pollution has increased over the past 2 years.
    11. 11. Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Satisfaction levels for door to door collection is very low(15%). Dissatisfaction highest in east and added areas. Disposal to drains and roadside high in east and added areasDrainage Only 25% of general population and a mere 2.9% slum population have expressed satisfaction on maintenance of SW drains.Waste Water/Sewage Disposal Slums worst affected by blockages. Overall satisfaction levels are low(<50%)
    12. 12.  Overall satisfaction on maintenance of parks is high (>80%) as also with respect to playgrounds (65% general and 97% slum respondents) High satisfaction level on tree cover at 69%Health More than 33% suffer from allergies. Communicable diseases have not changed.Community Participation Awareness on Resident Welfare Associations is low at 5.1%
    13. 13. Households Overall, water quantity and quality seems to be of prime concern in most areas. This is followed by air pollution, traffic and vehicular pollution.Commercial Air quality, pollution and traffic are of prime concern based on responses from commercial establishments. This is followed by water quantity and quality which is a matter of concern.
    14. 14.  During 2005 the prime concern of citizens were with respect to vehicular pollution, lack of tree cover and traffic congestion. In 2011 water, waste and the quality of air in the city. Door to door collection of waste S levels has suffered at steep decline from 88% to 28.5%. Blockage of sewers risen from 8% to 22% S level of water quality declined from 98% to 54% and adequacy by 50%
    15. 15.  BWSSB increased its network from 83% to 92% BBMP has facilitated waste processing units and dry waste collection centres BMTC runs eco-friendly buses on bio-diesel B-TRAC introduced by Traffic police to address congestion and safety issues BWSSB does monthly testing of water samples KSPCB monitors regularly ambient air quality BBMP adopted GPRS for tracking vehicles carrying MSW
    16. 16. Water Step up RWH implementation Stringent action should be taken against untreated effluent discharges and lake encroachments Promote recycled waterAir Phase out vehicles > 15 years old Grow native trees like Pongamia which are good absorbers of air pollutants. All public transport vehicles must use only gas
    17. 17. Waste Segregation of waste should be mandatory Decentralized waste treatment facilities Facilities for disposal of e-wasteCommunity Participation Role of RWAs to be active and recognized by governmentPolicy/Regulatory Promote sustainable consumption pattern Common but differentiated responsibility
    18. 18. Thank you

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