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PAC-Grenoble: Radiation hardness testing, Industry Case Study: Airbus


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The Platform for Advanced Characterisation - Grenoble (PAC-G) supports Industrial companies such as Airbus in the qualification of electronic components. For instance, PAC-G helps investigate the threat of the thermal neutrons induced SEU rate at ground level and at aircraft altitudes.

The PAC-G offer an easy access to two high quality neutron facilities dedicated to neutron-induced Single Event Effects (SEE) tests. Fast and Thermal neutron tests are required to assess the reliability of highly integrated devices for critical applications; high energy neutrons can in addition help to prepare proton and heavy ion tests. The PAC-G allows you to have access, on the same site, to a broad spectrum of neutron energies from fast to thermal neutrons (14 MeV, 2.5 MeV and 25 meV).

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PAC-Grenoble: Radiation hardness testing, Industry Case Study: Airbus

  1. 1. I N S T I T U T D E R E C H E R C H E T E C H N O L O G I Q U E Platform for Advanced Characterisation – Grenoble (PAC-G) Cécile Weulersse (Airbus) Sabrine Houssany, Nicolas Guibbaud, Jaime Segura-Ruiz, Jérôme Beaucour, Florent Miller and Maria-Magdalena Mazurek Contribution of Thermal Neutrons to Soft Error Rate Technique: Neutron radiation hardness testing Industrial case study
  2. 2. Page 2 1. Context 2. Environments 3. Radiation testing 4. Soft error rates & contributions 5. Conclusion  At ground  Aircraft  Devices  Facilities  Cross-sections What we offer Why Neutron Radiation hardness Testing? Neutron-induced single event effects (SEE) and radiation hardness testing facilities of the PAC-G offer you a homogeneous and adjustable neutron flux, with a precise dosimetry and radioprotection to ensure your safety during the tests. Industrial Case Study Complementary service: 2D & 3D imaging available to complement your device characterisation. Imaging with neutrons or synchrotron X-rays offer non-destructive measurements of packaged devices. + Click here for more info: download
  3. 3. 1. Context Page 3 S.-J. Wen et al, “B10 finding and correlation to thermal neutron soft error rate sensitivity for SRAMs in the sub-mciron technology”, IEEE 2010. Y.-P. Fang and A. S. Oates, “Thermal neutron-induced soft errors in advanced memory and logic devices, IEE T-DMR 2014.  Reintroduction of 10B in sub-65nm devices, due to the use of B2H6 or BCl3 carrier gas in processing tungsten plug  Recent increase in thermal neutron SER  Thermal neutron energies <0.4 eV (peak at ~25meV)  During 1990s, thermal neutrons were a significant source of soft errors (8X)  IC manufacturers removed BPSG (or 10B in BPSG)  Isotope Boron-10 has the largest cross-section (> several order than others) and can fission into highly ionizing secondaries (7Li recoil nucleus and alpha)
  4. 4. FinFET TSMC** *N. Seifert et al, “Soft Error Rate improvements in 14nm technology featuring 2nd generation 3D tri-gate transistors,” IEEE TNS, 2015. **Y.-P. Fang and A. S. Oates, “Characterization of single bit and multiple cell soft error events in planar and FinFET SRAMs,” 2016. ***H. Zhang, Thermal neutron-induced soft-error rates for flip-flop designs in 16-nm bulk FinFET technology, IRPS 2017. 14nm FinFET SER , Intel* FF designs in 16nm FinFET*** Page 4  Based on published data, from 10 to 30% contribution of thermal-neutron-induced SER for FinFET devices at sea level (depending on 10B containment, critical charge values, FF design…)  Objectives: to investigate the threat of the thermal neutrons induced SEU rate at ground level and at aircraft altitudes 10% 2-3% 8-20% 30% 1. Context
  5. 5.  Thermal neutron (nther) flux scales with latitude and longitude in a manner similar to the high energy neutron (nHEN) flux  Dependent on surrounding environment  2X variation outdoors Page 5 *M. S. Gordon et al, “Measurement of the flux and energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons on the ground,” IEEE TNS, 2004. Measured neutron spectra* Range of thermal neutrons  Average flux at sea level: 6.5 nther/cm2/h (JESD89A)  Moreover, the thermal flux is more quickly attenuated by building materials than is for the high energy neutron flux, except in the case of a small amount of material. 2. Environment - At ground  ratio nther / nHEN = 0.5
  6. 6. Neutron fluxes at various locations in a Boeing-747 ( Dyer’s simulations)** Page 6 *IEC 62396-5, “Process management for avionics – Atmospheric radiation effects – Part 5: Assessment of thermal neutron fluxes and single event effects in avionics systems”. **Dyer et al, “Monte Carlo calculations of the influence on aircraft radiation environments of structures and Solar Particle Events,” IEEE TNS, 2001. 2. Environment - Aircraft  IEC* proposes an average value between simulations and measurements:  Conservative approach recommended by IEC* (in case of devices which may contain 10B and have not been tested under nther):  ratio nther / nHEN = 1.1 (inside aircraft)  SER (nther+nHEN) = 7.6 x SER nHEN  At aircraft altitude (12 km)  But, high flux variations inside an aircraft due to the presence of hydrogenous materials that thermalize the nHEN flux. The thermal fraction may increase by 12X (based on simulations).  ratio nther / nHEN = 0.1 – 0. 25 (outside)
  7. 7. Page 7  Confirm the drastic increase of thermal neutron flux  Worst case ratio nther / nHEN = 2.8 (similar to Dyer’s simulations)  Bounding of the thermal neutron enhancement Ratio Dyer (2001) MULASSIS Cockpit Worst case Composite layers Worst case Middle of a 40cm kerosene layer < 𝟏𝒆𝑽 > 𝟏𝟎𝑴𝒆𝑽 𝒆𝒙𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒏𝒂𝒍 2.5 3.1 0.4 𝑬𝒒𝒖𝒊𝒗. 𝟐𝟓𝒎𝒆𝑽 > 𝟏𝟎𝑴𝒆𝑽 𝒆𝒙𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒏𝒂𝒍 / 2.8 0.4 𝑬𝒒𝒖𝒊𝒗. 𝟐𝟓𝒎𝒆𝑽 > 𝟏𝟎𝑴𝒆𝑽 𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒏𝒂𝒍 1.75 (< 1 eV) 2.8 0.6  Simple 1D simulations using MULASSIS (based on Geant4) 2. Environment - Aircraft
  8. 8. Page 8  90 nm bulk CMOS - 4 Mbit SRAM – Cypress  45 nm bulk CMOS - SRAM-based FPGA (CLB & BRAM) – Xilinx  28 nm bulk CMOS - 4 core-µprocessor  L1 data & instruction cache, L2 cache  Stand-by configuration  Protection mechanisms deactivated 3. Radiation testing - Devices
  9. 9.  63 MeV protons – UCL - Belgium  Spallation neutron source – ANITA - TSL - Sweden  Thermal neutrons – ILL-D50 - Grenoble - France  Platform for Advanced Characterisation (PAC-G) instrument D50  In our experiments - Flux 1-3x107 neutrons/cm2/s - Fluence up to 1x1011 neutrons/cm2 - Spot size of 100 mm2 Page 9 Maximum flux around 13 meV 3. Radiation testing - Facilities
  10. 10.  The thermal sensitivity is high on the most advanced device. SEU cross section (cm2/bit) Thermal neutrons 25.8 meV (ILL-D50) 60 MeV protons (UCL) Atmospheric neutrons (TSL*) Ratio 𝑻𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒎𝒂𝒍 𝒏𝒆𝒖𝒕𝒓𝒐𝒏𝒔 𝑯𝒊𝒈𝒉−𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒚 𝒏𝒆𝒖𝒕𝒓𝒐𝒏𝒔 90 nm SRAM 3.9x10-16 1.5 x10-14 / 0.03 45 nm CLB 2.7 x10-15 9.6 x10-15 9.8 x10-15** 0.3 45 nm BRAM 1.2 x10-14 2.2 x10-14 2.4 x10-14** 0.5 28nm µprocessor (cache cells) 9.4 x10-15 6.8 x10-15 / 1.4 *Specified to be a low thermal neutron flux (<1% of the integrated flux) **Based on neutrons > 10 MeV Page 10 3. Radiation testing - Cross-sections
  11. 11. SER (FIT/Mbit) at sea level Thermal neutron contribution to neutron SER Thermal neutrons High-energy neutrons At sea level At 40,000 feet (12 km) inside aircraft 90 nm SRAM 3 195* 1% 3%* 45 nm CLB 17 125 12% 24% 45 nm BRAM 75 290 21% 37% 28 nm µprocessor (cache cells) 61 88* 136** 41%* 31%** 60%* 50%** *Based on high-energy neutron flux >10 MeV for * and >1 MeV for ** Page 11 ratio of 1.1ratio of 0.5  For 28 nm µprocessor, thermal neutron SER contributes to  30-40% at sea level,  50-60% in aircraft. 4. Soft error rates & contributions
  12. 12. • We verify the significant thermalisation of the neutron flux inside of airliners • We confirm the sub-65nm thermal neutron sensitivity that should not be neglect. • Based on 1.1 ratio, 50-60% contribution from thermal neutrons, could be higher if used the ratio of 2,8 obtained in simulations • IEC is still very conservative due to 2 sources of uncertainty regarding thermal neutron SER: • Different sensitivity among devices, • Very distinct radiation environments inside aircrafts:  requires measurements at specific locations. Page 12 5. Conclusion
  13. 13.  Kalvin Buckley and Jaime Segura of ILL - Institut Laue–Langevin  Part of this study was funded by the DEMETER project (ENIAC/ECSEL JU funding).  Part of the beamtime on D50 was allocated by the IRT Nanoelec, supported by the French State in the frame of the program “Investissements d’Avenir”, under the reference ANR-10-AIRT-05.  The industrial company Link to the article: Weulersse C., Houssany S., Guibbaud N., Segura-Ruiz J., Beaucour J., Miller F., Mazurek M. - Contribution of thermal neutrons to soft error rate - IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (2018). Page 13 Many thanks to:
  14. 14.  Easy:  Flexibility and customisation  Single entry point to access complementary large scale research infrastructures  Reactivity  Mail-in services  Confidential:  NDA/CDA and MTA as needed  Dedicated staff:  World reputed expertise  Devotion  Experience  Dedicated equipment:  World class unique characterisation services  Tailored on your needs:  One shot services  Long term collaboration agreements  Collaborative projects  Advise and training Our aim: A complete service customer focused
  15. 15. Platform for Advanced Characterisation-Grenoble (PAC-G) Rafael Varela Della Giustina Business Developer +33 (0)4 57 42 80 77 @PACGrenoble The Single Entry Point for commercial services of characterisation