Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The future of Newspaper Digitization and Preservation


Published on

lecture presented at PAARL's National Summer on the theme "Planning, Developing and Managing Digitization & Research Projects for Libraries and Information Centers" (Function Hall of Tourism Center, Coron, Palawan,18-20 April 2012) by Lourdes T. David

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The future of Newspaper Digitization and Preservation

  1. 1. Future of NewspaperDigitization and PreservationPhilippine Association of Academic and ResearchClick to edit Master subtitle styleLibrarians, Inc (PAARL) National Summer Conference on“Planning, Developing and Managing Digitization &Research Projects for Libraries and Information Centers,April 18-20, 2012, Coron, Palawan4/14/12
  2. 2. Why are Newspapers Important?  The desire to be informed is a basic human need. There is no other medium that does this best in written form except newspapers which come periodically and in most cases on a daily basis.  Newspapers are primary sources of local history—events, customs, traditions, attitudes, practices, births and deaths,4/14/12 etc.
  3. 3. Sustainability of Newspapers in Print  Newspaper advertising has been declining steadily over the past decade. The drop from 2008 to 2009 was 28 % (Ingram, 2010)  Newspapers in print have been closing down since 2007.  Those that adopted hybrid approaches have made sustainability more difficult.4/14/12
  4. 4. The future of Newspapers is  Digital (Murdock, 2009) accessible by PCs and mobile devices with updates (in full or alerts) every hour or two 24/7. This format will last many years  Pay for online access either by subscription or per view for sustainability.4/14/12
  5. 5. Print Newspapers in Libraries  Newspapers because of their size, frequency of publication and cheap paper present huge problems in preservation and access  Reformatting into microfilm and digital formats are some solutions but users have criticized libraries for discarding the paper format.4/14/12
  6. 6. Why Microfilm? Digitize?  Microfilm—is used for preservation. The format under ideal environmental conditions will last 500 years. It reduces the handling of and replaces print.  Digital—is used for access and preservation. It is searchable and available to anyone with a computer/Internet connection. It4/14/12 reduces the handling of and replaces
  7. 7. Problems with Microfilm  It requires a three generation process to produce a service copy. (Master, Slave, Service Copy)  It requires special storage facilities to keep well.4/14/12
  8. 8. Challenges of Digitizing Newspapers  Large size of page  Variety and sizes of fonts  Requires indexing for more efficient access  Mixture of text, graphics and pictures on a single page  Layout  Expense4/14/12  Technology changes
  9. 9. International Digital Initiatives Offically established in 1999, ICON: International Coalition on Newspapers develops strategies to preserve and improve access to newspapers from around the globe. It addresses issues about bibliographic access, copyright and information dissemination. It addresses challenges related to the storage and preservation of international newspaper collections. It provides access to bibliographic data to more than25,000 newspaper titles.4/14/12
  10. 10. 4/14/12
  11. 11. International Initiatives Illinois Newspaper Project  Since receiving funding in 2009, the INP has digitized four titles that are now available on the Library of Congress Chronicling America web site:  Chicago Eagle (1892-1920)  The Broad Ax (1895-1922)  The Day Book (1911-1917)  The Cairo Bulletin (1868-1876)4/14/12
  12. 12. The Rizal Library Digitization Project  Newspapers on DVD from 2000 to the present  Can be browsed by date  Searched by keywords  Articles can be cropped and printed, saved or emailed4/14/12
  13. 13. Why We Did It  To respond to requests of subscribers who  Could not afford the equipment to read and print from microfilm  Could not afford to maintain the necessary environmental conditions for storage of films to prevent deterioration marked by the vinegar syndrome.4/14/12
  14. 14. How we did it  Prior to digitization, the Philippine Library Materials Project (PLMP) conducted a feasibility and market study.  Findings indicated user preference for digital over microfilm for five newspaper titles  Scanned the market for microfilm scanners  Conducted acceptability studies on the product  Made recommended changes4/14/12
  15. 15. How we do it  Select and evaluate microfilm  Obtain permission from the publisher and execute MOA  Scan microfilm using Eclipse Rollfilm Scanner  Convert raw images to a database using DGX software  Index manually  Produce DVD copies of the database with index.4/14/12
  16. 16. Microfilm Scanning Equipment Eclipse Rollfilm Scanner Pre-scan film cleaning (both sides), adaptive speed control (20ppm-300 ppm) OS Windows XP Professional, Film polarities (positive and negative), film size (16 and 35 mm), film types (vesicular, blue and black diazo and silver), file formats (TIFF monochrome, TIFF uncompressed, Multipage TIFF, JPEG, CALS, PDF and JPEG 2000) nextScan Fusion™ software Output grayscale and bitonal at the same time4/14/12
  17. 17. Newspapers on DVD  Titles: 4 titles (2000- present )  1 roll microfilm = 1 DVD, 1 year of microfilm is 12- 24 rolls depending on the title  Title and name indexes and selected subjects  Can crop and print selected articles4/14/12
  18. 18. Technology Concerns  Will the media last?  Will the medias hardware (reading device) and its controlling software remain available?  How are the new policy issues to be handled (copyright, fair use, etc.)?  Is the process affordable?4/14/12
  19. 19. Preservation Issues  Archiving of digital data. Anybody involved in digitization processes is facing the problem of long-term archiving of digital data (Rosenthaler, 2007).4/14/12
  20. 20. Preservation pointers (Rosenthaler, 2007)  Longevity of digital data can be best achieved by implementing a migration model based on the following rules: 1) Redundancy. Data must be kept with a high level of redundancy. At least three copies on a minimum of two different types of storage media (such as two copies on hard disk and one copy on magnetic tape) should be kept at geographically different locations.4/14/12
  21. 21. Preservation pointers (Rosenthaler, 2007) 2) Checksums. For all data files, checksums should be calculated and archived with the data files. This allows for checking data files at any time for aging-related changes or errors 3) Proofreading. Every 12 to 24 months, the data should be proofread and the checksums compared. If errors are detected, a migration should be launched immediately.4/14/12
  22. 22. Preservation pointers (Rosenthaler, 2007) 4) Migration: Migrations have to be planned in advance, including financing. A bit stream migration is necessary about every 5 years. A format migration is advised if a new file format becomes standard and the conversion can be done without loss of data.4/14/12
  23. 23. Preservation pointers Lukas Rosenthaler (2006), Proposed using peer-to- peer file networks on the Internet--the same technology used to circulate pirated music files--as a way of letting photographers of all stripes store their work Copies of encrypted digital files would be distributed across a shared network of servers around the world, which Rosenthaler calls Distarnet. "The idea is not to give everyone access to the data, but to prevent data loss," he says.4/14/12
  24. 24. Preservation Research Rosenthaler is currently looking at ways of using microfilm, the old standby of archivists and librarians everywhere, to preserve digital files. Rather than preserving the image itself, Rosenthalers proposal is to preserve the individual bits from the image file as a series of light and dark dots indicating the ones and zeros of the file. The method could also be used to preserve music or even video information for centuries in such a way that basic technology like a microscope could be used to assemble the dots into usable data.4/14/12
  25. 25. Plans  Regularly conduct user surveys to obtain feedback  Keep abreast of technology developments specially for long term storage standards, and Information Retrieval software  Digitize and make available newspapers published below 20004/14/12
  26. 26. Plans  Upload into a digital repository for wider access  Look for and test automated indexing systems such as OCR to lower indexing expense and make indexing faster  Look at feasibility of cloud computing4/14/12
  27. 27. Conclusion  Click to edit the outline Users prefer the text format digital format over  Second Outline the microfilm Level because of ease of − Third Outline access, downloading, Level and printing Fourth Outline Level There are technology − Fifth and preservation Outline issues to monitor Level − Sixth
  28. 28. References  Hesseldahl, Arik (2006) How To Preserve Photos For 500 Years  ICON.  Illinois Newspaper Project.  Ingram, Matthew (2010). What does the future hold for newspapers?
  29. 29. Thankyou! Lourdes T. David, Director, Rizal Library Ateneo de Manila University ltdavid@ateneo.edu4/14/12