Foundations of reading


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lecture presented by Dr. Mila J. Arias at PAARL Academy’s 2-day Modular Training Program on Bibliotherapy Services through Book Prescription Shops in Libraries & Information Centers, held on 19-20 May 2011, at the Librarians’Center of the National Bookstore Superbranch, Cubao, Quezon City, Philippines

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Foundations of reading

  2. 2. THE KINGDOM OF KAY OSS Once in the land of Serenity there ruled a king called Kay Oss. The King wanted to be liked by all his people. So onx day thx bxnxvolxnt dxspot dxcidxe that no onx in thx country would bx rxsponsiblx for anything. Zll of thx workxrs rxstxd from thxir dzily lxbors. “Blxss Kzy Oss.” Thxy xxclzimxd. Now, thx lzw mzkxrs wxry wvsx. But zs wvsx zs thxy wxrx, thxy dxcvdxd thzt thx bxst form of govxrnmxnt wzs nonx zt zll. Zs tvmx wxnt qn, thx kvngdqm og Kzy qss bxgzn tq splvt zt thx Sxzms znd vt lqqkxd lvkx thvs: Bcx dqufghj klzm nqxp qqt rqst Vqxwxxz bqxc dqf ghj kqlxmnxp.Vacca, R.T. and Vacca, J.A. (1989)
  3. 3. THE READING PROCESSPeter led Bridget into the waiting room.He realized that she was extremely nervous, so he gently suggested that she sit down.Bridget ignored him and began to pace frantically.The other patients watched her warmly, and several also began pacing.As a cream rang out from the inner office, Peter angrily forced Bridget to sit down.Bridget moved closer to Peter who leaned down and tenderly scratched her ears.
  4. 4. GOOD READER BEHAVIORS Before, during, and after reading, good readers… Pronounce unfamiliar words accurately. Pronounce words automatically. Read fluently—that is, accurately, quickly, and expressively. Learn new words and refine the meanings of known ones. Connect what they know with the information in the text. Determine what is important in the text. Recognize the structure of the text.
  5. 5.  Summarize and reorganize ideas in the text. Make inferences and predictions. Construct visual predictions. Construct visual images. Ask questions of themselves and the author, and read to find answers. Synthesize information from different sources. Form and support opinions on ideas in the text. Recognize the author’s purpose/point of view/style. Monitor comprehension and repair comprehension breakdowns. Choose to read for enjoyment and enrichment
  6. 6. 1. Reading is thinking. It is an active process that is stimulated and directed by written language. When individuals read, they think about what they know and are in control of their thinking.Goodman, 1967; Piaget, 1969; Smith,1971; Rumelhart, 1977; Stanovich, 1980
  7. 7. 2. Reading is the construction and reconstruction of meaning through the active involvement of the reader who makes use of knowledge that he/she brings to the reading and of the information supplied by the text being read. In this process, the reader is an active hypothesis tester and builder of meaning. Goodman, 1967; Piaget, 1969; Smith, 1971; Rumelhart, 1977; Stanovich, 1980
  8. 8. 3. Reading is interactive. Readers rely on both visual and non-visual information to construct meaning, i.e., they combine what they can visualize from print with the non-visual already in their minds to make or create sense of what they read.Goodman, 1967; Piaget, 1969; Smith, 1971;Rumelhart, 1977; Stanovich, 1980
  9. 9. 4. Every act of reading involves one’s prior knowledge of the world. This doctrine formalized as Schema Theory says that comprehending a text is matching readers’ background knowledge with text input. Compatibility of information from the readers and from the text results in facilitated comprehending; a mismatch leads to comprehension bog down. Goodman, 1967; Piaget, 1969; Smith, 1971; Rumelhart, 1977; Stanovich, 1980
  10. 10. OLD AND NEW DEFINITIONS OF READING Traditional Views New Definition of ReadingResearch Base Behaviorism Cognitive sciencesGoals of Reading Mastery of isolated facts Constructing meaning and and skills self-regulated learningReading as Process Mechanically decoding An interaction among the words; memorizing by rote reader, the text, and the contextLearner role/Metaphor Passive; vessel receiving Active; strategic reader, knowledge from external good strategy user, sources cognitive apprenticeKnuth, R.A. & Jones, B.F. 1991
  11. 11. CLASSES OF SCHEMA Content Schema refers to the systems of factual knowledge, values, beliefs and cultural conventions Formal schema, also called as textual schema, refers to knowledge of rhetorical structures of texts and genres like novels, short stories, play, recipes, advertisements, letters, journal, articles, etc. Language schema, also known as linguistic schema refers to knowledge of language structure, vocabulary, grammatical inflections and cohesive structuresCarrell 1983
  12. 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF POOR/SUCCESSFUL READERSCharacteristics of poor Readers Characteristics of Successful ReadersThink understanding occurs from “getting the Understand that they must take responsibilitywords right," rereading for construction meaning using their prior knowledgeUse strategies such as rote memorization, Develop a repertoire of reading strategies,rehearsal, simple categorization organizational patterns, and genreAre poor strategy users: Are good strategy users:•They do not think strategically about how to •They think strategically, plan, monitor theirread something or solve a problem comprehension, and revise their strategies•They do not have an accurate sense of when •They have strategies for what to do when theythey have good comprehension readiness for do not know what to doassessmentHave relatively low self-esteem Have self-confidence that they are effective learners; see themselves as agents able to actualize their potentialSee success and failure as the result of luck or See success as the result of hard work andteacher bias efficient thinkingKnuth, R.A. & Jones, B.F. 1991
  13. 13. Grapho- Semantic Content Formal phonic cues INTERACT cues Language Syntactic cues (L1 & L2) MEANING Sound Using prior analysis knowledge Text- Syntactic Inferring Monitoring Reader- initiated Analysis Predicting Translating initiatedstrategies Attending to Questioning Code switching strategies Vocabulary Confirming Repeating Etc. etc. Etc. Interactive strategies Arias 2004 Figure 1. Reading: A meaning-construction process
  14. 14. Thank You andGodbless!