Global Warming is DESTROYING the Wine Industry


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Global Warming is DESTROYING the Wine Industry

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Global Warming is DESTROYING the Wine Industry

  1. 1. `GLOBAL WARMING SPELLS DISASTERFOR MUCH OF THE MULTIBILLION-DOLLAR WINE INDUSTRYWhat next? Food Security at risk.Areas suitable for growing premium wine grapes could be reduced by 50 percent - and possibly asmuch as 81 percent - by the end of this century, according to a study Monday in Proceedings of theNational Academy of Sciences.The paper indicates increasing weather problems for grapes in such areas as Californias Napa andSonoma valleys.The main problem: An increase in the frequency of extremely hot days, according to NoahDiffenbaugh of the department of earth and atmospheric sciences at Purdue University.Grapes used in premium wines need a consistent climate. When temperatures top about 95 degreesthey have problems maintaining photosynthesis and the sugars in the grapes can break down,Diffenbaugh said in a telephone interview. "The lions share of the industry is in California, so its a huge concern from a wine qualitystandpoint."-James A. Kennedy, professor at Oregon State University"We have very long-term studies of how this biological system (of vineyards) responds to climate,"said Diffenbaugh, and that gives the researchers confidence in their projection. Diffenbaugh is a co-author of the paper.Scientists and environmental experts have become increasingly alarmed in recent years byaccumulating gasses such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as a result of the burning of fossilfuels.A panel of climate scientists convened by the National Academy of Sciences reported last month thatthe Earth is heating up and "human activities are responsible for much of the recent warming." Thescientists said average global surface temperatures rose by about 1 degree in the 20th century. Whilethat may not sound like much, many blame it for melting glaciers, weather changes - perhaps evenmore hurricanes - and threats of spreading diseases.James A. Kennedy, a professor of food science and technology at Oregon State University, said hewas shocked by the report on the potential effects on wine grapes."Were definitely, in the wine industry, starting to be concerned about global warming," saidKennedy, who was not part of the research team."The lions share of the industry is in California, so its a huge concern from a wine qualitystandpoint," he said. For people in the industry "this paper is going to be a bit of a shocker."
  2. 2. The research was supported by the National Science Foundation, National Center for AtmosphericResearch and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.~GLOBAL WARMING COULD CRUSH WINE INDUSTRYBy any measure, California wines rank among the best in the world. But a 2-degree rise intemperature could make Napa Valley chardonnay a thing of the past.A couple more degrees and Napa would no longer be prime territory for wine of any kind. Andwarmer grape growing regions such as the Livermore valley could be knocked out of the premiumwine game entirely."Its clear that theres the potential for really substantial problems, and almost certainly going to besome change," said John Williams, owner and winemaker at Frogs Leap Winery in Napa Valley.Among the issues Williams could face are warmer winters that hinder bud development, changes inrainfall patterns and increasing pressure from pests that thrive in hotter weather. But uncertaintyabout the timing and severity of those challenges makes it hard to plan."YOU CANT PREPARE FOR IT," HE SAID.Although grapes may feel the heat first, they wont be alone. Many of the states signature crops --avocados, oranges, almonds -- will face serious declines in yield by midcentury, according tocomputer models that project climate changes.Agriculture is the industry whose fate is most closely linked to climate, and California is by far thebiggest agricultural producer in the country. In a warming world, Californias agricultural riches areamong the most vulnerable in the country, so farmers and economists are starting to pay attention tothe prospect of climate change.The state grows more than half of the nations fruits, nuts and vegetables and is virtually the solesource of more than a dozen crops, including nectarines, raisins, artichokes and olives.No other state comes close. According to the most recent agricultural census, in 2002, the No. 2state, Texas, did not bring in even half of the $26 billion grossed by California farmers and ranchers.Other states may escape relatively unscathed, and some studies show that the uptick in temperatureand longer growing season predicted by climate models could actually be a boon to agriculture in thenorthernmost states..But Californias climate is already close to ideal for many of the fruits and vegetables for which it isfamous, and even the most optimistic predictions show California on the losing end of the warmingstick.
  3. 3. "At the current crop mix that we have, were pretty much at the optimum, so changing that wouldpush us over the peak of that curve," said economist Olivier Deschenes of UC Santa Barbara.In a study forthcoming in the American Economic Review, DeschÆnes and Michael Greenstone ofthe Massachusetts Institute of Technology estimated the economic impact of global warming on U.S.agriculture by analyzing how random year-to-year variations in temperature and precipitationaffected profits in the past. They then used a climate model to project those effects into the future..They calculated that global warming will result in a 4 percent, or $1.3 billion, increase in agriculturalprofits for the country during the next century. But those gains were not evenly spread, andCalifornia may see an annual loss of 15 percent, or $750 million, by the end of the century..One of the biggest reasons for this is the states precarious water situation..Unlike the eastern half of the United States, Californias agriculture is largely dependent onirrigation. About 90 percent of Californias crops are produced on irrigated land..Some climate models project the state will get more rain during the growing season, but this increasewill be far outweighed by a decrease in winter snow..California doesnt have sufficient reservoir capacity to sustain agricultural water needs through thedry season, so storing water as Sierra snowpack is critical. A good snowpack ensures water will beavailable in the summer and fall when irrigation demand is still high and reserves from rainwater arelow..Currently, 80 percent of water used in the state goes to agriculture. With reductions in snowpackestimated from 30 percent to 90 percent by 2100, agriculture could take a big hit depending on howdwindling water resources are allocated among cities, farmers and the environment.."I cannot emphasize enough how critical a factor that is for Californias agriculture," said ecologistChris Field of the Carnegie Institution at Stanford University. "It doesnt matter how fast or slow aplant can potentially grow. In California, if you dont give it sufficient irrigation water, its not viableas a crop."To make matters worse, the bulk of the states agricultural profits come from perennial plants thatlive for 30 years or more and are not easily or inexpensively swapped for more heat- or drought-resistant crops, or moved to cooler locations.Climate scientist David Lobell of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory led a study published in thejournal Agricultural and Forest Meteorology in November that used past yields of six of the statesmost lucrative perennial crops to calculate the potential impact of future warming predicted by morethan 20 different climate models. Five of the six crops suffered significant yield losses by midcenturyin nearly all of the models.
  4. 4. "Its not good news," Lobell said. "I was a little surprised at how unlikely it is for climate change tohave no effect or a positive effect. Even the most conservative models show some decline."Avocados, grown mostly in Ventura and San Diego counties, could see yields drop as much as 40percent. The Central Valleys almonds and walnuts and the San Joaquin and Coachella valleysoranges and table grapes could decline as much as 20 percent.One potential mitigating factor that Lobells study did not take into account is the positive effect thathigher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide can have on plant growth.Plants use carbon dioxide during photosynthesis to convert solar energy into plant material and fuel.Early research suggested that adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere would substantially increaseplant growth. But more recent research has shown a much smaller benefit, on the order of a 10percent to 20 percent increase in growth by the end of the century with twice as much carbon dioxideas was in the atmosphere before people began producing industrial greenhouse gases."If the negative impact of climate was 10 (percent) to 20 percent, its possible that it would come outin the wash, that they would more or less even each other out," Field said. "But if the impact ofclimate is really substantial, such that you cant grow crop A in place B, then it doesnt really matterthat in some places crop A was growing 10 percent better.".FARMERS GET SQUEEZEDSome California crops are already feeling the heat.Farmers in the middle of the country may be able to adapt fairly quickly to rising temperatures byswitching to more heat-tolerant crops. But California wont be nearly as agile..Much of the states agriculture involves long-lived plants such as grape vines and avocado, peach andnectarine trees. It can take as many as eight or 10 years for some of these plants to mature and beginbearing a full load of fruit. So switching to warmer-weather fruit such as oranges or lemons is nosmall endeavor."Thats a huge difference between California agriculture and everywhere else," Field said. "Wereoverwhelmingly dependent on perennial crops. It means across all our crops, we are automaticallymore vulnerable to climate change."This could prove to be a major problem for farmers such as Len Delchiaro who cant afford to uproothis 70 acres of cherry trees in Brentwood and wait six or seven years with no income before a newset of trees begins to bear fruit.The biggest threat to Delchiaros orchard is a decline in "chill hours," or hours below 45 degrees.Cherry trees need from 900 to 1,200 chill hours during which they go dormant, a process that enablesnormal bud and blossom development. Any temperature spikes above 65 or 70 degrees during thewinter can also adversely affect dormancy.
  5. 5. Warmer winters, particularly a rise in nighttime low temperatures, have caused Delchiaros trees toblossom several weeks late and weakened the buds so that they cant hold on to the fruit."When you dont have enough chill, you may have a good blossom, but the trees not strong enoughto sustain the fruit," he said. "So then you have a large drop-off where you lose immature fruit."Delchiaro, who has been farming cherries in Brentwood for more than three decades, has seen hiscrop yields drop from 60 percent to 70 percent the past two years..Years with too few chill hours are a normal part of a naturally fluctuating climate, and Delchiaro ishappy with a cold winter so far this year, but he believes warmer winters have been more common inrecent years"Its been more noticeable over the last five or 10 years were getting less and less chill," he said,noting that urban encroachment could also be a factor.With the cost of labor increasing, crop yields declining and the price of cherries static, farmers likeDelchiaro are getting squeezed."WERE KIND OF IN A VISE," HE SAID..Still, he plans to hang in there with his cherries. "Its just something that we know. Were geared toit," said the 56-year-old farmer. "Im at a point in my life where I dont want to have to wait seven,eight years to change."A rise in average temperatures isnt the only problem farmers may face in a warmer California. Briefbouts with extreme weather such as heat waves or sustained heavy rains can cause serious problemsfor some crops. And climate models suggest that extreme weather could become increasinglycommon as temperatures climb.Farmer Ruth Hartnett has been growing a variety of fruits and nuts and raising various livestock onnine acres of Grand Island in the Sacramento River near Rio Vista. This summers heat wave claimedthree of Hartnetts turkeys, and has her pondering a warmer future in which extremes become thenorm. She says many farmers in her area have been struggling with the unusual weather, causingsome of them to rethink their crop choices as they brace for more of the same.This year at least three pear orchards in Hartnetts neighborhood were plowed under to make way forhardier crops such as citrus fruits or, in one case, a housing development."The weather has gotten so strange, and crops are so unreliable, especially when it comes to fruit,that these farmers just bulldozed their orchards," she said.Some farmers, including Hartnett, are convinced that global warming is at least partly to blame forthe peculiar weather. Although some are biting the bullet and switching crops, others arecontemplating quitting the business altogether, and a few are thinking of relocating.
  6. 6. "If were going to get this kind of heat in this area, there are farmers who are seriously consideringmoving north. Maybe Canada, maybe Alaska," said Hartnett.For now, Hartnett is considering somewhat less-drastic steps such as replacing a few pear trees withcitrus trees, but she counts herself among those who could be persuaded to hit the road.."We seem to be at a tipping point. People are looking toward economic survival," she said "Theundercurrent is, How do I not lose my shirt and everything Ive ever worked for?"WINES ON THE MOVEMany crops will be affected, but the states prized wine industry may be the proverbial canary in thecoal mine when it comes to climate change. Grapes, particularly those used for premium wines,require a delicate balance of climatic conditions.."Wine grapes are especially vulnerable because they have a sensitive temperature range in whichthey can grow," said Stanford University ecologist Kim Nicholas Cahill, who studies the effects ofextreme heat on grapes.Although wine grapes might not suffer major declines in yield, quality rather than quantity is theissue with this crop.Too hot, and grapes may ripen too quickly and produce flabby wines with too little acid and toomuch alcohol. Too cold, and a wines character will tend toward less desirable green flavors such asgrass or bell pepper.The Napa Valley region is blessed with a 64 degree average temperature that falls smack in themiddle of the comfort zones of many popular varietals, including merlot, syrah and cabernetsauvignon..But Napa just barely tags the range for chardonnay grapes, which thrive in 57 to 63 degreetemperatures. A small bump up in the average growing season temperature, even just 1 degree, couldpush Napa into questionable territory for chardonnay.Of course, this same small bump in temperature would nudge the valley closer to the ideal climatefor zinfandel grapes. But a few more degrees could be a disaster for Napa. And some of the stateswarmer wine-growing regions, such as Santa Barbara and Paso Robles, might be lost altogether."You add another couple of degrees onto warming in Fresno, and it will become real challenging togrow anything other than table grapes or raisins because you cant produce premium high-qualitywine in that hot of a climate without technology we really dont have today," said climatologistGregory Jones of Southern Oregon University in Ashland.Jones is part of a team that used a computer climate model to look at the future of the U.S. wineindustry in a warming world -- and it is bleak.
  7. 7. According to the study, published in July in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,60 percent of the best terrain for premium grapes will be lost by the end of the century if greenhousegas emissions continue unabated. And the picture is particularly grim for California, currentlyresponsible for 90 percent of the countrys wine grape production.Most of the remaining top-quality acreage will shift northward to the Pacific Northwest. Californiawill retain and possibly gain a little bit of territory along the coast, but the inland vineyards,including those in Napa Valley and Sonoma County, will be lost."Theres a tremendous amount of culture and value thats associated with the wine industry where itis," Field said. "It would be a heavy price to pay if we had to move out of there."If all of a sudden, Mendocino County becomes a better place to grow wine, even if you areproducing the exact same wine there, its not a hundred percent clear that the value will transferimmediately. It may take the worlds wine community anywhere from months to decades to learn thatnow the wines associated with a certain quality are coming from some other place."Williams at Frogs Leap Winery knows some growers who are hedging their bets by buying propertyin cooler areas with an eye to growing wine grapes there in the future.A narrow band along the northern Central coast may maintain a good climate for wine, and farthernorth the coast could warm up enough to become suitable. But problems with high humidity andexcess precipitation will persist along the coast. And climate projections dont take into account the"terroir," or character of the earth; even if an area gains a climate appropriate for wine grapes, it maynever produce premium wines.If carbon emissions continue unabated, the statewide annual temperature could go up 10 degrees.Thats roughly equivalent to the difference in average annual temperature between Oakland and LosAngeles.But if emissions are curbed significantly, the rise could be kept to around 3 degrees. Thatssomething that wine growers might be able to handle by changing their vine-management practices,Cahill said.The temperatures that the grapes on the vine actually experience can be changed quite a bit bycontrolling how much leaf cover they have. Many growers in Napa trim the leaves back to give theirgrapes more direct sunlight, which in turn produces bolder wines, said Terry Hall, communicationsdirector for the Napa Valley Vintners.Currently, growers often thin out clusters of chardonnay grapes to keep them cooler, Hall said, andthis practice could be used on other varietals as well if temperatures rise."Ive seen a lot of interesting innovations in management. People do have some capacity to adapt,"said Cahill. "But at the higher end of the (possible) temperature increase, business as usual willdefinitely be much less possible."
  8. 8. ~AUSTRALIAS DROUGHT MAY CUT WINE VINTAGE BY HALFAustralias drought could cut the 2008 wine grape vintage by more than half, industry groups said onMonday, cutting into a A$3 billion ($2.6 billion) a year export business and possibly forcinghundreds of winemakers out of business.The 2008 vintage is likely to fall to between 800,000 tones and 1.3 million tones, compared with anormal seasonal crop of about 1.9 million tones, according to Wine Grape Growers and WinemakersFederation of Australia."Some growers will not be able to recover, and some vineyards will be lost as a result of thedrought," said Mark McKenzie, executive director of another industry group, Wine Grape GrowersAustralia."We think some 800 growers are in immediate financial peril, with up to 1,000 at risk over time.They are broke," McKenzie said. Australia has some 7,500 grape growers.In some regions that depend heavily on irrigation water from the Murray Darling river system, in thesoutheast of the country, water allocations are as low as 10-16 percent of normal allocations, the twoindustry groups said.The falling vintage comes after a glut that forced prices to rock-bottom levels and produced a spateof retail stores across Australia selling unlabelled cheap and bulk wine."It compounds what is already an extremely difficult financial situation, where prices may go up butgrowers will not be able to take advantage of that because of the reduced crop," McKenzie said.Australias wine exports totaled A$3 billion in the year to July, according to the Australian Wine andBrandy Corporation. The United Kingdom and the United States are the largest markets with aboutA$972-A$974 million of sales each.Australian scientists have predicted global warming will force wholesale changes to AustraliasA$4.8 billion wine industry, threatening the existence of some varieties with temperatures in mostwine regions projected to rise by up to 1.7 degrees Celsius (3 degrees Fahrenheit) by 2030.Earlier on Monday, broker JP Morgan slashed its earnings forecast for winemaker McGuiganSimeon Wines Ltd by 142 percent as a result of a smaller 2008 wine grape crop.The broker now sees the company reporting an operating net loss of A$1.1 million from a previousestimate of a profit of A$2.5 million.~AUSTRALIAN WINE INDUSTRY FEELS HEAT FROM CLIMATE CHANGE
  9. 9. Australian grape growers reckon they are the canary in the coalmine of global warming, as a longdrought forces winemakers to rethink the styles of wine they can produce and the regions they cangrow in.The three largest grape-growing regions in Australia, the driest inhabited continent on earth, alldepend on irrigation to survive. The high cost of water has made life tough for growers.Some say they probably wont survive this years harvest, because of the cost of keeping vines alive.Water prices surged above A$1,000 a megaliter last year from around A$300."On the back of three very ordinary years, this year is probably the worst that could have occurredwith the drought and the high costs of water," said Michael de Palma, a mid-sized grower inRedcliffe near Mildura in the Murray Valley, one of the countrys three big wine regions."In this depressed situation, growers have only two choices, stick it out as long as they can or to cuttheir losses and get out," said de Palma, who is part-way through a weather-influenced early harveston his 40-hectare vineyard.Recent rains have bypassed the countrys parched inland wine regions, and have fallen half-waythrough the harvest in eastern Australia, too late to help the berries and instead causing a mildew-likedisease.De Palma, the chairman of Murray Valley Winegrowers, said he would wait to see the results of hisharvest before deciding whether to sell up or hold on to his vineyard, which mainly supplies FostersGroup, Australias largest wine company.He estimated around 40 percent of grape growers in the Murray Valley who had access to watertrading couldnt afford to buy water last year, while most of the others had to borrow to do so, goingdeeper into debt.Industry groups estimate up to 1,000 winegrowers out of around 7,000 may be forced to leave theindustry this year because their vineyards are no longer financially viable."Theres a Darwinian economics going on at the moment, and the outcome remains to be seen," saidPaul Henry, general manager of market development at Australian Wine and Brandy Corp."One might say were guilty of the charge of being slow to change thus far, but the experience of thisharvest will change the outlook for Australian producers."In some regions, such as the Murray Valley, wine grape yields are down 30-40 percent.Australias harvest is forecast to be down on average years, which may cut into exports in the A$6billion industry.
  10. 10. Wine exports total some A$3 billion. Australia is the number one supplier of imported wine in theUnited Kingdom with a market share of 23 percent and it is second in the United States.The smaller 2008 vintage, made worse by a record-breaking heatwave which withered grapes on thevines, is expected to push up prices and spell the end of cheap bulk wine after a three-year glut thatproduced a rash of no-name brands called "cleanskins."WARMER AND DRIERScientists say Australias vast inland winegrowing districts face the greatest degrees of warming.These are the Riverland on the Murray River in South Australia, the Murray Valley, and the Riverinaon the Murrumbidgee River in New South Wales.And it is the grape-growers in these semi-arid areas that already face the greatest hardship, with callsto rural financial counseling services soaring in recent months."We believe there are 800 to 1,000 growers predominantly in Murray Valley and the Riverland inSouth Australia who are going to have to make a decision this year about whether they stay or go,"said Wine Grape Growers chief Mark McKenzie.A landmark study by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)found these areas would warm by 2.5 degrees Celsius by 2030.Last year was one of the warmest on record for southern Australia, where all of the nationswinegrowing regions lie, as well as one of the driest.And that is enough to change harvesting times as berries ripen earlier, which can also affect theirquality."Climate change is the biggest issue we face. Relatively small changes in temperature andprecipitation do have reasonably large impacts in terms of wine style," said Winemakers FederationChief Executive Stephen Strachan."Wine is a bit of a bellwether in terms of some of the very immediate impacts you see from climatechange."According to the CSIRO, grape quality could fall by 23 percent by 2030 because of the climatechanges, and suitable land for viticulture could be cut by 10 percent.By 2050, some 44 percent of current grape-growing areas would be affected, the study found.The solution may be for cooler climate areas, such as the bayside Mornington Peninsula south-east ofMelbourne and the Yarra Valley to the east, to expand the varieties they grow.
  11. 11. The southern island state of Tasmania is also attracting attention as a region that could dramaticallyboost its grape cultivation, with its mild weather closer to that of New Zealand than the parchedmainland.Indeed, wine-growers in neighboring New Zealand are upbeat about a future that includes climatechange, because higher temperatures are expected to make cold areas of New Zealand moretemperate and better suited to grape growing.CHANGING TASTESWarmer temperatures and less rainfall will also mean changes in the grape varieties the traditionalgrowing areas produce."Styles in existing regions will change," said Strachan of the Winemakers Federation."Most regions can produce most grape varieties, but whether they can produce them to quality levelsthat the market expects is the big question."While Australias signature shiraz fares quite well in a hot climate, cabernet, pinot noir and merlotamong the reds and chardonnay, sauvignon blanc and riesling among the whites may have a toughertime."Merlot is relatively intolerant of water stress, and it doesnt cope well with periods of very hightemperatures," said Snow Barlow, a winemaker and the chairman of the agriculture school atMelbourne University, who co-authored the CSIRO study.Experts say Australian growers need to experiment with tougher varieties from Spain and Sicily.Tempranillo from Spain is one of Australias fastest-growing varieties, while along the Murray river,the Corsican grape Vermentino is being planted."Wine companies build up brands. Whether we can convince the world to take to Australian Sicilianvarieties in same way they take to Australian shiraz, thats quite a big commercial question," saidBarlow.Barlow, who owns the boutique Baddaginnie Run vineyard nestled in the foothills of the StrathbogieRanges in Victoria state, said climate change shaped his decisions on what varieties to plant when hestarted his vineyard 10 years ago.Even so, merlot has proved problematic and he did not produce a merlot last year because of poorquality. His $20 merlot has won awards in better years.Over time, different root stocks that are able to provide good fruit with lower water requirements willbecome more common.But it can take months or years to import new varieties through Australias strict quarantine system,and three to four years to establish new rootstock for commercial production.
  12. 12. For grape growers already deep in debt, that is simply too long to wait.~GLOBAL WARMING HURTS SPAINS VINEYARDS,FORCES VINTNERS TO MOVEGlobal warming is killing vineyards in southern Spain, threatening a 2 billion-euro ($2.4 billion)wine industry and forcing grape growers to move to cooler climes of the Pyrenees.Winemakers from Europes largest grape-growing nation are shading vineyards, developing heat-resistance crops and moving to mountainside locations. Temperatures may rise 7 degrees Celsius bythe end of the century, said Jose Manuel Moreno, professor of climatology at the University ofCastilla La Mancha.Any increase in temperature in Spain may make it impossible to produce wine in lower areas,according to Xavier Sort, technical director of Miguel Torres SA, the maker of Sangre de Toro wine.The average maximum day temperature in Spain during the summer is 29 degrees Celsius (84Fahrenheit).``Agriculture will need to change, and there will be winners and losers, Moreno said in a telephoneinterview. ``Warming will harm plants that last more than one season, such as grape vines, the most.Miguel Torres SA, based near Barcelona, is buying fields in the peaks of northeastern Spain, wherethe weather is cooler, said Sort. Castell dEncus vintner Raul Bobet has picked a spot 1,000 meters(3,281 feet) high in the Pyrenees for his label.``There may be a move of wineries into the Pyrenees in the future, said Xavier Sort, technicaldirector of Miguel Torres. ``It could be a source for future growth.Wine makers must plan for longer to protect their grapes, because vines can keep producing wine foras many as 80 years and will be exposed to several generations of warming temperatures, saidRichard Smart, an Australian wine industry consultant who advises on climate change, in a telephoneinterview.AT FAULT``The wine sector itself is at fault, said Smart. ``I dont think they have thought about how seriousthe problem is.Heat and sunlight increase sugar levels in wine grapes, which can boost alcohol content beyond whatis palatable. Hotter weather may also curb grape acidity, changing the flavor, and unexpectedly rainyand cold seasons can devastate a years crop.
  13. 13. In Malaga and Cadiz, the most southern wine-growing regions, temperatures can top 40 degreesduring the summer months. Spain is the closest major European wine producer to the equator,making it particularly vulnerable to climate changes.``Climate change is the biggest environmental challenge modern society faces, said Jose RamonPicatoste, an official in Spains Environmental Ministry, at a conference in Barcelona in March.``Industries will need to adapt.One degree of climate changes makes wine-growing regions in the Northern Hemisphere similar toregions 200 kilometers further south, said Bernard Seguin, a scientist at Frances National Institutefor Agronomic Research.HIGHER GROUND``If you are able to change grape varieties, its not such a problem, Seguin said. ``If you cant, then itdoes become an issue. To me, its the most direct and striking example of the warming until now.Some producers may benefit from warmer weather, said Carlos Falco, director of Marques deGrinon, a winemaker in the Rioja and Montes de Toledo regions. Hot weather in 2003 led the Prioratand Ribera del Duero regions in northern Spain to get wine scores above 90, according to the WineSpectator.Regulators have stuck to practices from the 19th century, when vine diseases in France led vintnersto expand into the Rioja region. Watering grapes became legal in Spain in 1996.While winemakers such as Cordoniu, a producer in the Rioja and Ribera del Duero regions, areadopting automated irrigation techniques, regulators in Rioja still restrict the times when vineyardscan be watered.CRUCIAL PROBLEMRegulators should loosen rules so winemakers can decide for themselves when to irrigate, saidSanchez, head of the Madrid- based Spanish Federation of Winemaking Associations. Hisorganization is developing heat-resistant grapes in greenhouses.``The ability to irrigate vineyards is going to be a crucial problem, agrees Christian Butzke,associate professor of enology at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana.``Grapes are the highest value-added commodity that we know of in agriculture, Butzke said. ``Noother crop can be converted into such an expensive product.~GLOBAL WARMING MENACES CALIFORNIA WINE INDUSTRY
  14. 14. California will become hotter and drier by the end of the century, menacing the valuable wine anddairy industries, even if dramatic steps are taken to curb global warming, researchers said onMonday.The first study to specifically forecast the impact of global warming on a U.S. state also shows thesnowpack melting in the Sierra Nevada mountains, more frequent heat waves hitting Los Angles anddisruptions to crop irrigation.Researchers from the Carnegie Institutions Department of Global Ecology in Stanford, the Union ofConcerned Scientists, the National Center for Atmospheric Research and elsewhere ran scenariosthrough new computer models of global warming.All predicted Californias weather would be hotter and drier, but this would be worse if only weakaction is taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributing towarming the planet."We are already in a situation where we have seen some warming and we have seen some impacts,"said Carnegies Christopher Field, who led the study."If we stay on higher emissions trajectory, there will be consequences over the coming decades thatare truly, truly serious and something I think reasonable people would be doing whatever they couldto avoid," he said in a telephone interview.Writing in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Field and colleagues described theimpact based on scenarios devised by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.One forecast, the so-called high emissions trajectory, is what Field described as business as usual."High economic growth, high globalization and a strong emphasis on fossil fuels," he said.The low-emissions trajectory has slightly lower economic growth with industries shifted fromfactories toward service industries and information technology.QUADRUPLED EMISSIONSUnder the highest-emissions forecast, carbon emissions by the end of the century will be 28 billiontons of carbon per year -- about four times the current rate of 6 billion to 7 billion tons a year. Thelow-emission scenario forecasts the emissions would stay at the current level."By the end of the century under the (best) scenario, heat waves and extreme heat in Los Angelesquadruple in frequency while heat-related mortality increases two to three times; alpine/subalpineforests are reduced by 50 percent to 75 percent and Sierra snowpack is reduced 30 percent to 70percent," Field and his colleagues wrote.Under the worst scenario, heat waves in Los Angeles are six to eight times more frequent, with up toseven times as many heat-related deaths as now. The Sierra snowpack falls by 90 percent.
  15. 15. This could "fundamentally disrupt Californias water rights system," the researchers wrote.They estimated that the $3.8 billion a year dairy industry and the $3.2 billion dollar grape industrywould be especially vulnerable.California, which has taken stronger action than other states to reduce emissions, for example withstrict requirements for vehicles, cannot save itself, Field said."California has something like 2 percent of the worlds total global greenhouse emissions," he noted."Even if California were to aggressively adopt emissions controls, global climate wouldnt respond tothat directly. But if California is proactive, that could inspire the rest of the U.S. to be proactive,which could inspire the rest of the world, and you would see a domino effect."~PINOT IMPOSSIBLE IN BURGUNDY OVER NEXT 50 YEARSThe world is going to heat to such an extent that Burgundy may no longer be able to grow PinotNoir, a conference heard last week.Wine character as we know it today is on the verge of radical change, world experts on globalwarming and vines told the first World Conference on Global Warming and Wine held in Barcelonaon March 24-25.According to authoritative computer climate models, over the next 50 years Bordeaux is set to riseby 1.2C, Napa by 1.2C, Barolo 1.4C, Rioja, where water is already an issue, by 1.3C, Portugal –which is already up 2.9C over the last 50 years - by 2C. The list of 50 locations had been compiledfrom global research presented by climatologist Gregory Jones from Southern Oregon University.Led by Bernard Seguin, a global bioclimatologist based at Frances national agricultural institute(INRA) in Avignon, scientists defined other regions where temperatures are already near top of therange for the grape varieties that over the past centuries of viticulture have been found to work bestthere. Drought is also a growing problem.These include Penedes and La Mancha in Spain, Chianti and Southern Italy, Southern France, HunterValley in Australia, parts of Chile and the Central Valley of California.Southern Hemisphere temperatures in vineyards in New Zealand, southern Australia, parts of Chileand South Africa will rise more slowly due to more water, and less land mass.The changes in temperature will have a variety of effects on viticulture. Some reds may lose color,some wines will lose varietal flavor, some whites may disappear, said renowned Australianviticulturalist Richard Smart. The effect will be profound, he said.
  16. 16. Smart also drew attention to the dangers of vine infestation as temperatures rose, particularly in thecase of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, which spreads the fatal Pierces Disease, and the aphidhyalestes obsoletus, which spreads a phytoplasma disease called Bois Noir. Higher temperaturesmean both insects will be able to survive winters and move further. Hyalestes Obsoletus has recentlybeen found in German vines.The point was made that while it might seem almost trivial to draw attention to the dangers of globalwarming to the wine industry when so many staple crops were threatened, the vines extremesensitivity to climate made it the most direct and striking example of global warming as Seguin putit.The conference called on governments to take heed of the warning signals and to invest in grapevinebreeding programmes to find varieties that will work in hotter temperatures, as well as improvedirrigation systems, Greg Jones said.Above all, the there are no certainties except for the fact of global warming. While we are not sure ofthe effects of hotter temperatures we know it will have a profound effect on vines.Jones pointed out that although the changes are only a few degrees centigrade, that is all that existsat the moment between the regions.Taking the Mean July Temperature of various regions he showed how their viticultural characterwould change if you add 2degreesC.Santa Maria, with a MJT of 17.3C would become Napa, at 19.3, St Helena at 21.7C would becomeStockton at 23.5C, Healdsburg would become Modesto, and Fresno, Bakersfield.~WINE IN THE TIME of GLOBAL WARMINGGlobal warming is no laughing matterMoreover, despite former U.S. Vice President Al Gore’s reference to global warming as an“inconvenient truth,” according to scientists throughout the world, the truth can no longer be ignoredand it most definitely will hurt us.The earth is indeed getting warmer and the issue of global warming, or, more correctly, climatechange, has been brought to the forefront of the public’s attention. Numerous governmental agenciesand researchers have published reports on the crisis, making the message difficult to disregard. Thescientific projections are dire and threaten to negatively impact the planet as we know it. The wineindustry is not immune and several serious consequences are predicted for the wine regions of theworld, as climate change jeopardizes their ability to grow quality fruit.CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH and PROJECTIONS
  17. 17. As they say, there is nothing new under the sun. In this case, it might be interpreted quite literally.Historically, climate change isn’t novel; the Earth’s climate has changed dramatically before asevidenced by reports of thriving English vineyards back in the 1200s (Weise 2006). The difference isthat the change is no longer a natural phenomenon. Rather, today’s change in average temperature isprimarily linked to human activities, which have resulted in an increase in atmosphericconcentrations of greenhouse gases, notably CO2 (IPCC 2001). More specifically, since 1970,carbon emissions have risen 30% over pre-industrial revolution levels, due to the combustion offossil fuels, along with changes in land use and the release of aerosols into the environment (Pew2004). Generally, scientists have found that average temperature increased 1oF over the past 100years (IPCC 2001).Looking ahead, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s most recent projectionspredict a shift between 2oC and 4.5oC, with an average global daily temperature rise of 3oC by 2100(Warren 2006). These newer predictions are more precise than their previous forecast of 1.4 oC -5.8oC, but are still substantial (IPCC). Data from Jones show the Bordeaux and Napa Valleyregions each increasing by 1.2oC and Portugal increasing as much as 2oC over the next 50 years(2005a). Expectations include hotter summers for Europe and North Africa, along with alteredpatterns of rainfall (Gilby 2006).Scientists advise that if greenhouse gas levels are stabilized to 400 parts per million, some of thetemperature increase can be avoided (Warren 2006). In fact, the IPCC forecast notes that the risecould be held to 2oC, if greenhouse gases remained at current levels (ibid). However, studies havefound that proposed efforts to reduce in greenhouse gases would likely result in a fall in real wages(ibid). Yet, even remaining at current emissions will have an impact. Field, specificallymeasured the effect of climate change on California and looked at both best (current level emissions)and worst (quadrupled emissions) scenarios (Fox 2004). Even in the best case, Field expected afourfold increase in the frequency of heat waves and extreme heat in places such as Los Angeles,with mortality figures increased double to triple the number seen today (ibid).IMPACT ON THE WINE INDUSTRYWhile these temperature changes seem small, their affect on the viticultural industry will besignificant. Grapes are particularly sensitive to heat and need to stay within a narrow temperatureband to produce quality fruit. Thus, as explained by Bernard Seguin, “‘One degree increase intemperature is very important’” (Voss 2006). Moreover, Jones contends that, “…climate arguablyexerts the most profound effect on the ability of a region or site to produce quality grapes and,therefore, wine” (2005a). Consequently, discussions of impact have centered on quality as “…eventiny changes can be the difference between a $200 Cabernet Sauvignon and cooking sherry” (Weise2006).According to Jones’ study, all regions are experiencing growing season warming (2005b). For someregions, the initial changes have been helpful. Cooler climates, such as the Mosel and Rhine regions,have benefited from the increased temperature, with vintages improving with warmer weather (Just-drinks 2003). In concert, Ashfelter and Storchmann expect the value of Mosel Valley vineyards toincrease 20-50% over the next several decades as the temperature rises 1-3oC (Holzer 2006).
  18. 18. Excellent vintages in Bordeaux and Champagne have been other indicators of this positive outcome(Weise 2006).Conversely, warmer climates have suffered from the additional heat, which has been especially truefor areas currently at the high end of the spectrum for growing conditions such as La Mancha;Central Valley, CA; and southern France (Buckley 2006). Many wines from these warmer areas haveshown an imbalance in alcohol and acidity (Just-drinks 2003). There is also concern regardingchanges in flavor profile, along with imbalances in tannins, sugars and aromas, which will ultimatelyimpact style and wine quality (Gilby 2006).Richard Smart expects a loss of color in red wines and of varietal flavor (Buckley 2006). Similarly,Hans Schultz has predicted an impact on flavor development, due to the combination of increasedsolar radiation and temperature (2000). Already, in the Napa Valley, the average alcohol level hasincreased from 12.5% in the 1970s to 14.8% in 2001 (Rademakers 2006). Also, a reduction in theageing potential for wines made from these stressed vines is likely, further impacting quality (Gilby2006). Equally important, CO2 increases might alter the texture of oak wood, thus changing thecharacter of wines aged in barrel (Jones 2005b).Consequently, White warn that the grape growing industries in Napa, Sonoma and SantaBarbara may not exist in the future, predicting that as much as 81% of California acreage will berendered unsuitable for premium grape growing as climate change continues (2006). Overall, Whitesuggests that as the area of production contracts and shifts, a change to higher yields of low qualitywill ultimately produce lower-quality and lower-priced wines, with the highest-quality, highest-priced wines declining greater than 50% (ibid). Furthermore, declines in these premium regions mayalso negatively impact local culture and tourism (Teague 2006).Another growing problem is drought, which reduced the 2005 harvest for the Torres wine companyin Spain (Kakaviatos 2006). Predictably, there is anxiety regarding the availability of water (Voss2006). With temperatures increasing more in the coldest areas than in warmer ones, stress on thepolar ice caps is calculated to reduce the Sierra snow pack by 30-70%, which could “fundamentallydisrupt California’s water rights system” (Fox 2004). In Australia, there is concern that the mainlandwould receive lower rainfall (Warren 2006). Not surprisingly, it has been suggested that water maybe the next “investment frontier” (Voss 2006).The resultant warmer winters and early arrival of spring can also be problematic, especially if a hardfrost follows early spring budding (Voss 2006). Further, there is a real danger of vine infestation,particularly from Glassy Winged Sharpshooters, which spread Pierce’s Disease, and the pesthyalestes obsoletus, which is responsible for Bois Noir (Furer 2006). These vine diseases alreadypose a threat, but with milder winters, insects are living longer and migrating farther distances, thus,increasing both the perimeter of affected areas and the population of insects available to perpetuatedisease (Buckley 2006).RESPONSE OF THE WINE INDUSTRYGiven the evidence, climate change clearly must be addressed. Individual growers can and havemodified their viticultural practices to adapt to the changing conditions. In Spain, Miguel Torres has
  19. 19. begun using irrigation, which wasn’t done ten years ago (Kakaviatos 2006). Similarly, a Napa Valleygrower admitted that irrigation was now a common part of his daily practice (Goldfarb 2006).However, in addition to the expense of such systems, the ability to irrigate may be curtailed by therise of salinity in freshwater (Furer 2006).Other viticultural proposals have included a switch in trellis systems to those that shelter the grapesfrom the intense heat, as well as using date palms to provide additional shade (Goldfarb 2006).Likely, vinification practices may change as well, with a need for more frequent acidification andless use of malolactic fermentation. As Europe continues to get warmer, it will have to reconsider“tradition-bound rules against irrigation” and other appellation laws to permit changes in practice.(Rademakers 2006).The switch to different grape varieties, especially those better suited to warm weather, has also beenproposed (Goldfarb 2006). Ashenfelter and Storchmann further recognize the need to breed moreheat-resistant grapes, which has not yet been undertaken (Holzer 2006). Likewise, speakers at theWorld Conference on Global Warming proffered two solutions: to invest in grapevine breedingprograms and in improved irrigation systems (Buckley 2006).Unable to stand the heat in hotter regions, some producers are getting out, making the decision tobuy land elsewhere. Specifically, Miguel Torres has begun to head north in search of land in coolerregions (Kakaviatos 2006). It would seem he is not alone. As Richard Smart suggests, “For wineries,it will boil down to real estate issues…The smart ones will move quickly and buy cheap” (Voss2006). Among areas to explore, it is expected that places such as Maine and Northern Europe, whichwere previously too cold to successfully ripen grapes, will emerge (Walker 2006). In SouthernEngland, the total acreage of vineyards has increased considerably and areas for quality AustralianCabernet Sauvignon have been moving south (Rademakers 2006).Facing the future, vineyard owners will need to examine key decisions and their financialconsequences. Costs associated with replanting new varieties will be significant; but buying newland and replanting will be even greater. Moreover, individual growers may have less capitalavailable to make such purchases and take on risks and could be reluctant to uproot themselves andtheir families. But, those who wait may find changes in land value to their detriment. ReinterpretingAshfelter and Storchmann’s vineyard valuations, it is likely that the value of premium vineyards willdepreciate if they can no longer produce quality fruit. Thus, some may find that they can’t sell theirland at the high price they paid for it. Finally, research programs on irrigation methods and breedingheat-resistant grapes must be undertaken, but funding for these programs is more liable to come fromlarge corporations and institutions since individual growers can’t afford these efforts on their own.Overall, multinational drinks companies would seem to be in a better position than individuals tomake the major changes required such as divesting of existing properties and investing in new land,new technology and new plantings.CONCLUSION and PERSONAL COMMENTARYResearch clearly indicates trouble ahead for all of Earth’s inhabitants, with far-reachingrepercussions that will impact life on the planet. Agriculturally-based business, including the wineindustry, will be forced to respond. Unfortunately, solutions such as replanting, land purchase and
  20. 20. viticultural research, are quite costly and may drive smaller producers out of business. Reducing theindustry to multinational drinks companies may impact diversity and regional style, which arealready at risk due to climate change.There are also important implications for terroir. The expression of terroir has been linked toEurope’s stress and relief cycles as opposed to the irrigated New World (Gilby 2006). Accordingly,if there are no relief cycles, irrigation use expands or both, this expression may no longer exist.Furthermore, as growers seek to move to cooler areas, the temperatures may be more hospitable, butother climatic elements and soil types may ultimately affect the quality of the wine. Moreover, whileadaptation comes more easily for New World wine regions, it may be harder for Old World regionsto respond appropriately with changes to their viticultural laws.Finally, it is imperative that climate change be viewed through a wider lens. Manipulating vines orgrape varieties to adapt to the changes ignores the larger problem. Solutions that seek to reduceemissions, and thus mitigate those affects, should be considered, despite their immediate economicimpact.BIBLIOGRAPHYAppenzeller, Tim and Dimick, Dennis R. “Signs from the Earth.” National Geographic Magazine,September 2004.Furer, David. “Why the Wine Industry Should Care About Global Warming.” Wine BusinessMonthly, July 2006.“Global Warming a Threat to Wine Industry. Wines and Vines. September 15, 2004.Goldfarb, Alan. “Global Warming Turns Up the Heat in Napa Valley Vineyards.”AppellationAmerica. August 9, 2006.Holzer, Jessica. “Wine Warming.” Forbes. August 11, 2006.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. “Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report – Summaryfor Policymakers.” 2001.Jones, Gregory. “How Hot Is Too Hot?” Wine Business Monthly, February 2005.Kay, Jane. “Scientists fear that rising temperatures.” San Francisco Chronicle, July 11, 2006.Montaigne, Fen. “EcoSigns: No Room to Run.” National Geographic Magazine. September 2004.Pew Center on Global Climate Change. “Understanding the Causes of Global climate Change.” FactSheet 1: Attribution, 2004.
  21. 21. Schultz, Hans R. “Climate change and viticulture: A European perspective on climatology, carbondixdie and UV-B effects.” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research. Volume 6, number 1,2000.Warren, Matthew. “Science tempers fears on climate change.” The Australian. September 2, 2006.Weise, Elizabeth. “Wine regions feel the heat.” USA Today. June 1, 2006.White, Michael A., Diffenbaugh, N.S., Jones, G.V., Pal, J.S. and Giorgi, F. “Extreme heat reducesand shifts United States premium wine production in the 21st century.” Proceedings of the NationalAcademy of Sciences, 103(30), 11217-11222, 2006.~WINERIES PREPARE FOR GLOBAL WARMING"Global warming is on everyones radar," says viticulturist Franci Ashton of her colleagues inCalifornias winegrowing industry. Small wonder: The quality and taste of wine depend utterly onthe soil and climate conditions in which the grapes are grown—a concept known as terroir.Scientists predict that global warming will bring higher temperatures, more heat waves and lessprecipitation, changes that could transform the states $15 billion wine industry. (Wine Institute,2004)For example, Ashtons employer, Etude Wines, is known for its pinot noir—a notoriously difficult-to-grow varietal made famous by the movie Sideways. The pinots produced by Etude and otherwinemakers depend on the climate of Napa and Sonomas famed Carneros region. It lies just north ofSan Francisco Bay and benefits from its moderating ocean breezes.Eventually, says Ashton, places where pinot and chardonnay are currently grown may no longerwork because the cool climate they require may no longer exist.WATER SHORTAGES ON THE HORIZON?Water has an enormous impact on grape cultivation, and changes to the water supply are a likelyconsequence of global warming. Water is high on the mind of David Graves, co-founder ofSaintsbury Vineyards, which is developing a plan to use recycled water from sanitation districts forits irrigation."One of the big problems that might present itself would be volatility of water supply," says Graves."When I read about things like the drought in the Grain Belt this year, that’s scary. If periods ofdrought become longer and more severe, that’s where I start to think the recycled water issuebecomes a way to have a kind of insurance policy."Ashton says she and others are also starting to consider scarce water resources. "Were looking intoresearch that could help us become more efficient in our irrigation," says Ashton. "We’re asking
  22. 22. How much water do we need to maintain our wine quality? Were worried that our currentviticultural practices may become obsolete."Preparing for drought is a wise business choice. From 1998 to 2004, below-normal precipitation andhigh temperatures led to the most severe drought in the western U.S. in 80 years and one of the mostsevere in 500 years. Global warming is expected to bring on more frequent and severe droughts.INNOVATIVE FARMING TECHNIQUES CUT POLLUTIONIn addition to preparing for warmer climes, wineries, like all agricultural businesses, have a uniqueopportunity to help fight global warming by storing carbon. No-till agriculture eschews traditionalpractices that disrupt the soil and release its stored carbon into the air as carbon dioxide. Carbondioxide is one of the key heat-trapping gases that lead to global warming. More growers arepracticing no-till farming, which involves minimal soil cultivation and keeps more carbon in theground."It used to be a lot more common to see clean-tilled vineyards," says Graves. "Now we have a lot ofno-till."Graves estimates the amount of non-tilled acreage has increased by a factor of 10 in Napa. Thepractice has many benefits. Its really good on hillsides for preventing erosion. It helps waterinfiltration because the roots sit in healthier, microbial-rich soils. And it naturally keeps out pests.Fetzer Wineries, in Southern Mendicino County, uses cover crops to attain similar soilimprovements. Planted between rows of grapes are red clover, daikon radishes and grasses that setnitrogen into the soil. During the dry months from June to November, the stubble left after mowingprovides habitat for spiders and other predators that eat grapevine-eating critters—naturalalternatives to pesticides and herbicides.OTHER WAYS TO FIGHT CLIMATE CHANGE"The wine industry in itself is being pretty proactive about becoming environmentally sensitive andsustainable," says Patrick Healy, Fetzers environmental manager. A number of wineries, includingRodney Strong and St. Francis, are embracing solar power, an optimum choice for sunny California.Fetzer has a 40-kw solar display on its administration building that powers about three-quarters ofthe building.Fetzer is one of the Environmental Protection Agencys Climate Leaders. That means the company isworking in partnership with the government to develop long-term climate strategies. Additionally,starting in 1999, Fetzer participated in a greenhouse gas emissions study to set benchmarks for heat-trapping pollution ion the industry. To reduce its emissions, Fetzer buys green electricity and usesbiodiesel in all its tractors and half its big rigs."We have lots of efficiency and conservation goals here," says Patrick Healy, Fetzer’s environmentalmanager. As a result, the company says, its electricity emissions are net zero.
  23. 23. In addition to the biodiesel and green energy, the winery avoids using electricity during peak demandhours. From May through usually some time in August, when the crush starts, "we turn offrefrigeration between 12 and 6—thats our biggest single energy sink at the winery," says Healy, whoadds, "We wouldnt do it if it threatened the quality of the wine at all."~WINE INDUSTRY MOVES AGGRESSIVELY ON CARBON FOOTPRINTThe wine business is on a mission to gauge its emissions of greenhouse gasses as pressure buildsfrom regulators and markets in California and worldwide to emit less of the compounds blamed forglobal climate change.Agriculture as a whole is low on the list of economic sectors the California Air Resources Board istargeting initially for mandatory reporting of 2008 emissions starting next year, as part of the phase-in of Assembly Bill 32, called the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006.However, local wineries and trade groups in Australia, California, New Zealand and South Africaarent waiting. The groups, including the San Francisco-based Wine Institute, are backingdevelopment of global industry protocols for wineries, winegrape growers and other relatedcompanies to determine their total emissions contribution, commonly called a carbon footprint, basedon the World Resources Institutes International Greenhouse Gas Protocol.The Winemakers Federation of Australia earlier this month released draft protocols and a softwaretool for measuring direct and certain indirect emissions of these gasses, such as carbon dioxidelargely from combustion and fermentation, methane from decomposing waste and nitrous oxide fromfertilizer.Part of the urgency for having these tools in place is not only so the California wine industry canstart reducing emissions early to prepare for the emissions cap-and-trade system discussed in AB 32implementation meetings late last year.Under such a system, emissions for certain business sectors would be capped at a certain rate peryear, so organizations that emit less can sell their allowance for the difference to a company thatemits more. Who would be capped, and how the carbon credits would be traded are still unclear,according to Pat Sullivan, vice president of SCS Engineers and one of certifiers for the state-createdfootprint clearinghouse California Climate Action Registry. SCS has a certifier in its Santa Rosaoffice."Many have a vision about selling all these credits, but if they are in a growing industry they willneed the credits," Mr. Sullivan said. "The real value is not in selling credits but in having themthemselves."The Sustainable Winegrowing Alliance has been working with the registry in aligning that groupsprotocols to determine how large a wine operations footprint actually is, or how many emissions
  24. 24. sources are considered, according to Chris Savage, director of global environmental affairs for E&JGallo Winery and co-chairman of the Wine Institutes Environmental Working Group.Another reason for urgency in getting out a carbon footprint calculator for the wine business is tocontribute to the United Kingdoms product labeling version of AB 32, Publicly AvailableSpecification 2050, which is set to be finalized in the next couple of months.In what some think is a sign of whats to come in American food retailing, U.K.-based Tesco, theworlds largest retailer, has started a test of printing the emissions footprint of 30 of its private-labelproducts based on PAS 2050. Combine that with the recent move to include a list of ingredients onthe label of the Bonny Doon brand, and the next step is obvious, according to John Garn of Graton-based information cartography firm ViewCraft."Because Tesco is a direct competitor to Whole Foods, I can assure you that in a year Whole Foodswill do the same thing to be competitive," said Mr. Garn.He was involved with the creation of the Code of Sustainable Winegrowing and consults withwineries and other companies on environmental policies.North Coast wine companies already are being proactive in calculating their carbon footprints.The partners of Ukiahs Mendocino Wine Co., which includes biodynamic wine booster Paul Dolan,certified the carbon footprint of their operations early last year via the California Climate ActionRegistry.Part of achieving the status of having zero net carbon emissions included the installation of a $1million solar power system, replacement of electric motors and lights, and investment in Clean AirCool Planet-approved projects that trap carbon emissions, such as a dairy biogas facility and a forest.Still to come is a $2.5 million additional solar power project to produce the equivalent of all thewinerys needs for a year. Yet the carbon consumption value of vines is a big industry question."We have a mitigating factor with vineyards, and were trying to get our hands around whether it is amitigating factor for our carbon footprint," Mr. Dolan said.The San Francisco-based Sustainable Winegrowing Alliance has commissioned U.C. Davis plantphysiologist David Smart to spend the next few months looking at how much research has been doneon carbon sequestration in vineyards. He has been studying Napa Valley vineyards to compare theamount of carbon vines themselves hold versus how much they transfer to the soil via microbes.That information will be incorporated into the final version of the global wine industry emissionscalculator, scheduled for completion late this year.The Jackson family is preparing a major greening of their California wineries, tasting rooms, offices,other facilities and supply chain starting early this summer, according to Robert Boller, vice
  25. 25. president of production for the Artisans & Estate boutique brand division and head of the greeninitiatives.Some aspects already are under way, particularly the use of best-management practices from theCode of Sustainable Winegrowing developed a few years ago by the Wine Institute and theCalifornia Association of Winegrape Growers."Individually, all the operations are doing their own things now, and this is a chance to do a bigthing," he said. "The owners have put big dollars against it this year."One example is the goal of certifying all new and remodeled facilities according to the U.S. GreenBuilding Councils Leadership in Energy Efficient Design rating system. That starts with the 7,000-square-foot tasting room for the Murphy Goode brand set to open in Healdsburg in March.That move is part of three pilot water- and energy-efficiency programs offered by the CaliforniaPublic Utilities Commission and Pacific Gas & Electric Co., including a footprint calculation byPortland, Ore.-based Ecos.The company convinced a major supplier of its tens of millions of glass wine bottles annually toswitch to laser etching of bottle date stamps instead of toxic UV ink, according to Mr. Boller. Thecompany also is persuading wholesalers, distributors and trucking companies to reduce theirfootprints.At the Hess Collection, founded by early sustainable farming advocate Donald Hess, President TomSelfridge recently appointed Operations Director John Bulleri to calculate the emissions footprint ofits main Napa Valley winery in American Canyon as well as the winery and 300-acre vineyard onMt. Veeder.That, plus a major solar-electricity installation next year and use of goats in mowing weeds on Mt.Veeder, are part of a bid for certification under the Napa Valley Vintners trade groups Napa GreenWinery program and participation in the Fish Friendly Farming program.California Sustainable Winegrowinghttp://www.sustainablewinegrowing.orgCalifornia Climate Action Registry a Row for the PoorHave your Friends Help You Glean the Harvest
  26. 26. Please setup and supportOrganic COMMUNTIY GARDENShttp://sorezhagensen.insanejournal.comFood not Lawnsworldcatlibrarything~GleaningYour Local Foodbank and Soup Kitchens Need YOUPlease Help. Thank You!http://glean4food.insanejournal.comGleaning Resources Student Guide to Gleaning’s Glean - Toolkit a Gleaning Program at Your Food Bank Food - Organizing a Projecthttp://urbanag305.livejournal.comBest Practices for Gleaning in School Lunch Program a Row for the PoorHave your Friends Help you Glean the Harvest for your FoodBank or Soup Kitchenhttp://bernzfalkenhage.insanejournal.comutilizing ORGANIC COMMUNITY GARDENS to Feed the Poor
  27. 27. http://communitygard0.insanejournal.comAmerican Wasteland: How America Throws Away Food; by Jonathan Bloom Harvest Main Web Sitehttp://foodbank77.insanejournal.comtranslate traduzca traduisez verschiebt vertaal 翻译 μεταφράστε 번역하십시오 переведите 翻訳しなさい http://www.freetranslation.comYour Local FOOD BANK Needs YouPlease help. Thank YOU!http://food2bank.insanejournal.comhttp://nielzekock.insanejournal.com of Isaiah:Learn to do good, seek justice, rebuke the oppressor; defend the fatherless, plead for the widow…and you shall eat thegood of the land.Every day help someone who can never reciprocate. This is my obligation.~ John Woodens PHILOSOPHYThe great UCLA basketball coachThe best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.~ Mahatma GandhiThose who bring Sunshine into the lives of others cannot keep it from themselves.Be a Bringer of the LIGHT.Who is My NeighborLuke 10:29HISTORY of SANTA CLAUS
  28. 28. of Thanksgiving Day in USA eBook: The Miracle of Tithing; by Mark Victor Hansen Summary: The Miracle of Tithing Raising Your Child to Be a Mensch; by Neil Kurshan Faith Like Potatoes, by Angus Buchan understand All of the actors, Please select the option for English Subtitles. Thank You.Share and Swap Books with Other Peoplehttp://olegzunbaum.insanejournal.comdvd: Flywheel; director: Alex Kendrick to WORK on ORGANIC FARMS in EuropeCheap way to see Europehttp://wwoof.orgbook: Europe Through the Back Door: The Travel Skills Handbook; by Rick Steves a Row of Fresh Organic Food for the poor, for your food banks and soup kitchenshttp://row2grow.insanejournal.com INCREASE IN ORGANIC PLANT GROWTHhttp://remineralize.org
  29. 29. http://eprida.comhttp://growingsolutions.comhttp://vermico.comhttp://growingedge.comhttp://acresusa.combook: The Biochar Debate: Charcoals Potential to Reverse Climate Change; by James Bruges Seaweed in agriculture and horticulture; by William Anthony Stephenson Mycelium Running; by Paul Stamets Micro Eco-Farming: Prospering from Backyard In Partnership with the Earth; by Barbara Berst Adamshttp://microecofarming.com TO FOREVERhttp://journeytoforever.orgCHEAP Organic FoodOrganic Gardening for VICTORYHealthy Soil, Healthy Plants, Healthy Peoplehttp://carbon.orghttp://squarefootgardening.comhttp://urbantilth.orghttp://wormwoman.comhttp://wormdigest.orghttp://goodgrub.orghttp://kitchengardensf.orghttp://gardenfortheenvironment.orghttp://troygardens.orghttp://seattletilth.orghttp://leftfootorganics.orghttp://treesforlife.orghttp://echonet.org How to Grow World Record Tomatoes, by Charles Wilber An Earth Saving Revolution II, by Dr. Teruo Higa Square Foot Gardening; by Mel Bartholomew
  30. 30. Lasagna Gardening: A New Layering System for Bountiful Gardens: No Digging, No Tilling, No Weeding Soul of Soil; by Grace Gershuny Worms Eat My Garbage; by Mary Appelhof Mulch It: A Practical Guide to Using Mulch in the Garden; by Stu Campbell Complete Book of Edible Landscaping; by Rosalind Creasy Landscaping with fruit; by Lee Reich Edible Flower Garden; by Rosalind Creasy Fresh Food from Small Spaces; by R. J. Ruppenthal Allergy-Free Gardening; by Thomas Leo Ogrenhttp://allergyfree-gardening.com Microgreens: A Guide To Growing Nutrient Packed Greens; by Eric Franks Dont Throw It, Grow It; by Deborah Peterson Amaranth to Zai Holes: Ideas for Growing Food Under Difficult Conditions; by Laura S Meitzner Gardening in Clay Soil; by Sara Pitzer Cover Crop Gardening: Soil Enrichment With Green Manures; Storey Publishing
  31. 31. book: Organic No Dig, No Weed Gardening; by Raymond P Poincelot MetroFarm: Growing for Profits A SEED IN YOUR TIME OF NEED, by Joel OsteenCD or DVD, Message 329:http://bookstore.joelosteen.comFor more information, please contact local gardeners and farmers who specialize in Organic gardening, Permaculturegardening, Biodynamic gardening, Japanese Kyusei Nature gardening - Shizen Nouhou, Biointensive gardening,Heirloom gardening-Heritage Seeds, Lasagna gardening, Square Foot gardening, Vertical gardening, Wall and Fencegardening, Roof Top and Balcony gardening, Indoor gardening with LED Grow Lights and, MicroGreens gardening, Windowsill gardening, Container gardening, Keyhole gardening, Organic Aquaponics gardening,African Bag Gardens, No Dig gardening, Agroforestry gardening, Israeli Greenhouses Technology for Hot Climates,Organic Hydroponics gardening and Gardening Therapy.Gardening is micro-climate specific. These means that local gardeners might know of gardening techniques andresources which are helpful for the location you live in.Keep researching, reading, refining your gardening methods and experimenting with different growing techniques.Organic Gardening technology is changing and improving all the time. Also, as the climate changes, you may need tolearn other gardening techniques for various climates.http://localharvest.orgOrganic LAWN CARE Manual; by Paul Tukey GARDENING and Greenhouseshttp://www.growingedge.comhttp://carbon.orgbook: Hobby Hydroponics; by Howard M. Resh GARDENINGbook: Aquaponic Food Production: growing fish and vegetables for food and profit; by Rebecca L Nelsonhttp://www.backyardaquaponics.com
  32. 32. Backyard Aquaponics: A Guide to Building an Aquaponic System; by Joel Malcolm Aquaponics Magazinehttp://backyardaquaponics.comAquaponics Journalhttp://aquaponicsjournal.comHomegrown Evolutionhttp://homegrownevolution.comROOF TOP GARDENINGhttp://rooftopgarden.com Gardens: History, Design, and Construction; by Theodore Osmundson and Terrace Gardens: A step-by-step guide to creating a modern and stylish space ROOFSGreen Roofshttp://greenroofs.orghttp://efb-greenroof.euhttp://igra-world.comhttp://worldgreenroof.orgbook: Green Roofs: Ecological Design & Construction; by Earth Pledge Foundation BELT MOVEMENThttp://www.greenbeltmovement.orgThe Man Who Planted Trees India, One Man Creates a Forest Appleseed: Uncovering an Indiana Treasure The Green Belt Movement; by Wangari Maathai PEST CONTROL
  33. 33. http://peststop.livejournal.comORGANIC WEED CONTROLhttp://stopweeds.livejournal.comSAVE THE BEEShttp://www.friendsofthebees.orgEco Fly TrapEpps Biting Fly Trap Fly traps POLLUTION and RECYCLING with Effective Microorganismsbook: Our Future Reborn: EM Technology Changes The World; by Teruo Higa Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save The World; Paul Stamets Up Oil Spillshttp://fungi.comWORM Composting and RECYCLING Technologies http://wormdigest.orghttp://wormbooks.comORGANIC FARMING, SOLAR ENERGY, GREENHOUSES FARMING BOOKShttp://acresusa.comORGANIC FARMING MAGAZINE - Acres USAhttp://acresusa.comORGANIC SEEDShttp://seedsavers.orghttp://seedsavers.nethttp://seeds.cahttp://www.primalseeds.orghttp://jlhudsonseeds.nethttp://saltspringseeds.comhttp://bountifulgardens.orghttp://territorialseed.comhttp://paseedsavers.orghttp://wildgardenseed.comhttp://westcoastseeds.comhttp://sowtrue.com
  34. 34. http://seedsave.orghttp://seedsavers.wordpress.com - search: organic seedsList of Organic Seed Sellers and Exchange eBook: SEED GERMINATION THEORY AND PRACTICE; by Professor Norman C. Deno eBook: THE NEW SEED-STARTERS Handbook, BY NANCY BUBEL Seeds for Future Use Fact Sheet Key Hints for Starting Your Own Seeds to Seed Saving Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties; by Carol Deppe Seed to Seed; by Suzanne Ashworth Starting Seeds Indoors; by Ann Reilly Seed sower: The Seed Sower, in the Footsteps of Livingstone; by Angus Buchan
  35. 35. Cataloge of Books for Organic Gardners and Farmers GLOBAL HUNGERhttp://endhunger.livejournal.com GROUPSPlease setup a Gleaner Group in your Local area for Foodbanks and Soup Kitchens, etc. Wasteland: How America Throws Away Food; by Jonathan Bloom COMMUNITY GARDENING and SCHOOL GARDENINGhttp://community2gard.insanejournal.comhttp://clausdindler.livejournal.com
  36. 36. FREE subscription to a Solar Magazine for your school library Chicken Soup for the Soul: Living Your Dreams; by Mark Victor Hansen The Aladdin Factor: How to Ask for, and Get, Everything You Want; by Mark Victor Hansen The Success Principles for Teens: How to Get From Where You Are to Where You Want to Be; by JackCanfield 101 Ways to Develop Student Self-esteem and Responsibility: Power to Succeed in School and Beyond; byJack Canfield Coach Wooden, The 7 Principles that Shaped His Life and Will Change Yours; by Pat Williams Coach Woodens Pyramid of Success: Building Blocks For a Better Life; by John Wooden The Power of Positive Thinking; Norman Vincent Peale Chicken Soup for the Unsinkable Soul; by Jack Canfield Nurtured By Love: The Classic Approach to Talent Education; by Shinichi Suzukihttp://suzukiassociation.org in SCHOOLS and ACADEMIC SUCCESSbook: The Mozart Effect for Children; by Don Campbellhttp://mozarteffect.com ORGANIC GARDENING in SCHOOLS-UNIVERSITIESfor improving Academic Performance and social development
  37. 37. GARDENING MANUALShttp://sfgreenschools.orghttp://gardenfortheenvironment.orghttp://school2gard101.insanejournal.com Worms Eat Our Garbage: Classroom Activities for a Better Environment Gameshttp://www.familypastimes.comThe Algebra Projecthttp://algebra.orgbook: Quality Education as a Constitutional Right; by Theresa Perry in Schools and Academic Excellencehttp://schoolhousechess.orghttp://scholasticchess.blogspot.com Curriculum Guide for Scholastic Chess; by David MacEnulty Benefits of Chess in Education Kids Teach Chess
  38. 38. Chess: A Learning Tool as a Way to Teach Thinking Empowers Young Minds Improves Academic Performance in Education: A Wise Move is an exercise of infinite possibilities for the mind Makes Kids Smart Makes Kids Smarter Thinking Skills: Chess and Strategic Games, Changing the Face of Education Critical and Creative Thinking Through Chess of Chess in the Classroom York City Schools Chess Program helps Minority Students to Excel Academic Problems the Fourth R (Reasoning) Through Chess Effect of Chess on Reading Scores Use and Impact of Chess of GO in Schools and Academic ExcellenceGO is far Superior to Chess in Teaching Small Children Academic SuccessGO is played by many Asians and computer geekshttp://gobase.org Go for Kids; by Milton N Bradley MILLIONS ~ Robert Raikes Youthwalk, Walk Thru the Bible: Bruce H. Wilkinson Facing the Giants; director: Alex Kendrick
  39. 39. Iron Will; director: Charles Haid Chariots of Fire; director: Hugh Hudson What Believers Must Know to Grow; by Tom Carter Battlefield of the Mind; by Joyce Meyer Sin, Sex, Self Control; by Norman Vincent Peale Words That Hurt, Words That Heal; by Joseph Telushkin Inner City SCHOOLS and TEACHERS The Inner City POOR eat Fresh Organic Food SECURITY links the DISABLED and Horticulture as Therapyhttp://leftfootorganics.org Horticulture as therapy: principles and practice; by Sharon Simson forget how to dig the earth and tend the soil is to forget ourselves.~ Mahatma GandhiDEFIANT GARDENSMaking Gardens in Wartimeand How to Garden in Afghanistanhttp://defiantgardens.comCOMMUNITY SUPPORTED FARMS
  40. 40. http://localharvest.orghttp://csa2.livejournal.combook: Sharing the Harvest; Robyn Van En for LATINO FARMERShttp://centerforlatinofarmers.comAGRICULTURE TOURISMbook: The New Agritourism: Hosting Community and Tourists on Your Farm; by Barbara Berst Adams http://www.newagritourism.comhttp://wwoof.org Agritourism and nature tourism in California; by Holly George Agritourism; by Michal Sznajder FARMING AND GARDENING TECHNOLOGY Winter Harvest Manual; by Eliot Coleman eBook: The Composting Greenhouse; by Bruce Fulford Greenhouse Resources for Winter Gardening eBook: Solar Greenhouse Construction and Operation; by Rick Fisher eBook: Solar Greenhouse Construction Manuel; by Vincent Stauffer Four Season Harvest; by Eliot Coleman Cold-Climate Gardening; by Lewis Hill
  41. 41. Cold climate gardening: how to select and grow the best vegetables; by Rebecca W Atwater Briccetti The Earth Sheltered Solar Greenhouse Building Your Own Greenhouse; by Mark Freeman Building and Using Cold Frames; by Charles Siegchrist Cold Storage for Fruits & Vegetables; by John Storey Food Drying Techniques; by Carol W Costenbader Make Your Own Insulated Window Shutters; by E. Annie Proulx Window heat loss: how to stop it cold; by Mary Twitchell Sun spaces: New Vistas for Living and Growing; by Peter Clegg The Polytunnel Handbook; by Andy McKee Gardening Under Plastic; by Bernard Salt Food Production In High Tunnels Bale Greenhouse’s_straw_bale_greenhouse Small Strawbale: Natural Homes, Projects & Designs; by Bill Steen
  42. 42. Ceramic Houses and Earth Architecture: How to Build Your Own; by Nader Khalili Earthbag Building: The Tools, Tricks and Techniques; by Kaki Hunter Building With Earth: A Guide to Flexible-Form Earthbag Construction; by Paulina Wojciechowska Building with earth: design and technology of a sustainable architecture; by Gernot Minke The Rammed Earth House; by David Easton Building With Cob; by Adam Weismann Adobe Houses for Today; by Laura Sanchez Solar Gardening; by Leandre Poisson Gardening under cover: a Northwest guide to solar greenhouses, cold frames, and cloches; by William Head Home Solar Gardening; by John H Pierce Building and using a solar-heated geodesic greenhouse; by John Fontanetta The Solar greenhouse book; by James C McCullagh Water Wall Solar Design Manual