Jatropha Curcas Cultivation Experience in Karachi Pakistan

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Jatropha Curcas Cultivation Experience in Karachi Pakistan

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Jatropha Curcas Cultivation Experience in Karachi Pakistan

  1. 1. Jatropha curcas L. Cultivation Experience inKarachi Pakistan Joint Study Preliminary Report of Pakistan Agricultural Research Council And Pakistan State Oi by Syed Asim Rehan Kazmi* Mr. Abdul Hameed Solangi and Syed Nawaid Anjum Zaidi**_____________________________________________________________________________________*= Director, Coastal Agricultural Research Station, PARC, Jinnah Avenue, Malir Halt, Karachi**=Deputy General Manager, Alternate Energy, PSO House, Clifton Karachi
  2. 2. Annexure ARationale: Diminishing fossil fuel resources, unstable/increasing prices of oil, environmental issues, global warming / climaticshifts, and allied problems have lead the world to focus on alternate, environment friendly and renewable energy sources. Amongmany candidates expedited, production of bio-diesel from Jatropha curcas L. has gained significant importance. More, than 40countries of the world are evaluating the potential of using this pure plant oil for manufacturing diesel. Pakistan as a developingcountry also faces difficulty in meeting its energy requirement mainly from the imported oil, hence, has to allocate/commit amajor component of its valuable foreign exchange for its import every year. It has sufficient potential to cultivate Jatropha curcasL. on large scale in the country preferably without comprising for land and water under food, feed and cash crops. Pakistan is arid to semi-arid country, located between the longitude 61° east to 76° east and between latitude23° north to 37° north. Total area of Pakistan is 79.61 million hectares. Agriculture is the main stay of Pakistans economy,contributing 35 percent to the gross domestic product and providing 60 percent of the labour force. Moreover, nearly 60 percentof the total export of the country originates from agriculture. Total annual cropped is about 19.72 million hectares. Out of which,15.3 million hectares are irrigated areas, about 75 % (11.4 mha.) is irrigated through canals, l9 % (2.9 mha.) through tube wells 2% (0.3 mha.) through wells and remaining 4 %(0.4 mha.) through tanks and other sources. The climate of the country isfavourable for two crops season under irrigated during the year. The mean annual rainfall varies from less than 100 mm in Sindhto more than 1000 mm in the foot-hills and northern mountains with an average of about 400 mm. About 60% of this rain comesduring the monsoon season (July through September). Much of the summer rains are not available for crop production due torapid run-off because of torrential showers. At other occasions, rain may be so light that the precipitation evaporates before thewater can penetrate into the root zone. However, the contribution of rain to crops in the irrigated areas of Indus Basin is estimatedat about 1650 thousand hectares meter. With the above said considerations Coastal Agriculture Research Station (CARS) PARC, Saleh Muhammad GothKarachi initiated evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. (Bio-diesel plant) in February 2007 when a few seeds of this species were sentby Dr. Zahoor Ahmed for checking their performance at the station. In March 2008 interaction with Pakistan State Oil (PSO) wasdeveloped who realizing their national responsibilities in maintaining oil supplies in the country felt committed to play an activerole in expediting potential of green alternate energy sources by focusing their activities in introducing and popularizing Jatrophacurcas L. in the country. Before sharing the outcome of this joint venture so far it would be appropriate to reproduce the biography of Jatrophacurcas L. as available in the literature and world wide webs on internet.Jatropha Curcas L.: The plant has originated in Central America and spread to other tropical and subtropical countries. It is mainly grown inAsia and in Africa. Used mainly as a living fence to protect gardens and fields from animals. It is resistant to a high degree ofaridity and as such does not compete with food crops. The seeds contain 30-40% oil that can be easily expelled and processed toproduce a high-quality biodiesel fuel, usable in a standard diesel engine. Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) is a tall bush or small tree (upto 5 m hight) and belongs to the euphorbia family. The genus Jatropha contains approximately 170 known species. The genusname Jatropha derives from the Greek jatrós (doctor), trophé (food), which implies medicinal uses. The plant is planted as ahedge (living fence) by farmers all over the world around homesteads, gardens and fields, because it is not browsed by animals Taxanomic Classification Kingdom: Plantae  Division: Magnoliophyta  Class: Magnoliopsida  Order: Malpighiales  Family: Euphorbiaceae  Subfamily: Crotonoideae  Tribe: Jatropheae  Genus: Jatropha  Species: Curcas Jatropha is primarily a tropical genus of approximately 175 succulent plants, shrubs and trees (some are deciduous, likeJatropha curcas L.), from the family Euphorbiaceae. Jatropha is indigenous to Central America, but has been raised in othertropical and subtropical areas in rainfall regime 200-1500 mm, such as India, Africa, and North America. Jatropha was initiallyused as a valuable hedge plant and was exported to Africa and Asia by Portuguese traders. The flowers and stem of Jatropha 23
  3. 3. Annexure Acurcas have well-known medicinal properties, and the leaves are used for dressing wounds. The oil has been used as an organicinsecticide as well as an effective treatment for snake bites and other ailments. The mature Jatropha trees bear male and female inflorescence, and can grow to a height of three to four meters. Eachinflorescence bears up to 10 to 15 large fruits and Jatropha generally blooms twice a year under normal conditions. Jatropha isdesirable as a source for biofuels given that its seeds produce up to 40% oil, and the species in general is highly resistant todrought and pests. Processed oil from crushed mature seeds can be used in existing standard diesel engines, while the residue canalso be processed into biomass to power electricity plants. The seed cake, a by-product of oil production can be used as a naturalorganic fertilizer rich in organic matter. Research is underway to remove the toxic element prevalent in the seed cake to render ituseful as an animal feed.Botanical features:Jatropha curcas L., or physic nut, has thick glabrous branchlets. The branches contain translucent, whitish latex, which causesbrown stains very difficult to remove. The tree has a straight trunk and gray or reddish bark, masked by large white patches. Leaves: large 6-15 cm, green to pale-green leaves with 3-7shallow lobes are arranged alternately to sub-opposite, and a spiralphyllotaxis. Flowers: Inflorescences are formed terminally on branches. Theplant is monoecious and flowers are unisexual. More female flowers givemore number of seeds. Pollination is by insects. The petiole length rangesbetween 6-23 mm. The inflorescence is formed in the leaf axil. The flowersare formed terminally, individually, with female flowers, usually slightlylarger. Flowering occurs in the hot seasons. In conditions where continuousgrowth occurs, an unbalance of pistillate or staminate flower productionresults in a higher number of female flowers. More number of femaleflowers is grown by the plant if bee keeping is done along with. Morefemale flowers give more number of seeds. Fruits : After pollination, a tri-locular, ellipsoidal, fruit isformed. Normally, fruits are produced in winter, or it may produce severalcrops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures aresufficiently high. The exocarp remains fleshy until the seeds are mature.Fruits are produced in winter when the shrub is leafless, or it may produceseveral crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures aresufficiently high. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more ovoid fruits. A three, bi-valved cocci is formedafter the seeds mature and the fleshy exocarp dries. Seeds: The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow, after two to four months fromfertilization. The blackish, thin shelled seeds are oblong and resemble small castor seeds. The seeds are black and in the average18 mm long (11 - 30) and 10 mm wide (7 - 11). The 1000 seed weight is about 727 grams there are 1375 seeds per kg in theaverage. Analysis of the Jatropha curcas seed shows the following chemical composition: Moisture 6.20 % Protein 18.00 % Fat 38.00 % Carbohydrates 17.00 % Fiber 15.50 % Ash 5.30 % 24
  4. 4. Annexure A The oil content is 25 – 30% in the seeds and 50 – 60% in the kernel. The oil contains 21% saturated fatty acids and79% unsaturated fatty acids. There are some chemical elements in the seed, Cursin, which are poisonous and render the oil notappropriate for human consumption. Roots: Normally, five roots are formed from the seeds, one tap root and 4 lateral roots. Plants from cuttings developonly lateral roots. Life span: The Jatropha trees take 4 to 5 years to mature fully. At that time, if Jatropha Plantation is rain fed, theseplants can yield 0.35 to 0.375 gallon of oil per tree or 375 gallons per hectare or 150 gallons per acre. If it is irrigated (3 to 5 litersper plant every 15 days) it can be double this amount. The life-span of the Jatropha curcas L. plant is more than 50 years. Ecology: Jatropha curcas L. is not a weed. It is not self propagating. It has to be planted. It grows well on marginal landwith more than 200 mm of rainfall per year, and it withstands long drought periods. With less than 200-300 mm it cannot growexcept in special conditions like dormancy is induced by fluctuations in rainfall and temperature/light. But not all trees respondsimultaneously. Jatropha curcas like Castor grows almost anywhere – even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils. It can thrive onthe poorest stony soil. It can grow even in the crevices of rocks. The leaves shed during the winter months form mulch around thebase of the plant. The organic matter from shed leaves enhance earth-worm activity in the soil around the root-zone of the plants,which improves the fertility of the soil. Its water requirement is extremely low (1 liter per plant per day) and it can stand longperiods of drought by shedding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss. Jatropha curcas is also suitable for preventing soilerosion and shifting of sand dunes. Jatropha is a highly adaptable species and can be planted as a pure block, a boundary fence oran intercrop in existing plantation of coconut, mango, citrus, cashew, etc. The plant may start seeding from the first year itself.However, the yield peaks up from the third year onwards and stabilizes by the sixth year. It has an average yield of 2 kg per plantin well irrigated conditions. The seeds of Jatropha curcas yield oil after processing is transformed into transport fuel also knownas biodiesel.Our /Local Experience of growing Jatropha and Jatropha plantation for bio-fuels:The Seeds: As per literature the seed source of Jatropha has a substantial influence on the production of seed and oil. Therefore,seeds of Jatropha from received from various sources of USA, Thailand, Indian and China origin were evaluated for productionperformance, growth and flowering features, pests and diseases, salt and drought tolerance and yields under our conditions onlimited scale. The table-1 reflects the performance of respective seeds at CARS Farm, Saleh Muhammad Goth Karachi andindicates that the seed purity and age plays an important role in seed vigor and percent germination. Post germination saplinghealth, sustenance and growth also depends on the quality of reserve food available in the seed. Table-1: Seed germination as recorded at CARS Farm, PARC, Karachi. Source of seed/ No. of Date of sowing Germination GerminationS. No. receiving date seeds Pots field Date Days No. Pots field %1 IABGR/NARC 14/2/07 20 1/3/07 1/3/07 14/3/07 13 5 30 202 India (PSO) 259 17/5/08 - - 19 4 -3 PSO/Thailand 106 17/5/08 - - 5-9 33 31 - 1/4/084 PSO/Thailand 32 17/5/08 - - 5-7 21 66 - 2/4/085 K.U/USA /4/08 25 25/5/08 - - - 0 0 - 25
  5. 5. Annexure A Direct seeding of Indian (60), Thailand old seeds (20) and fresh seeds (20) was carried out in soil (silt loam) without any manure and irrigation with subsoil slightly saline (1300 ppm) water resulted in germination of 2 seeds of Indian origin, 9 of Thai (old seeds) and 15 of fresh. Likewise, seeds sown by PSO people at in polyethylene bags have shown poor germination performance in seeds from Indian and Chinese origin but the Thai seeds demonstrated high vigor and 86-99 % germination was recorded from seeds sown in June 2008.Land suitability: Current documentation regarding Jatropha cultivation indicates the most soil types, such as red and black, are suitablefor raising Jatropha plantations. The Jatropha plant, however, is best suited to sandy, well-drained soil and can survive in verypoor soil and in saline conditions. Therefore, isolated, small scale plantation was maintained at CARS farm and large scale,cultivation was carried out at PMY (Pipri Marshalling yard terminal of PSO). Some salient characteristics of soil at CARS Farm PARC and PMY Pakistan State Oil terminal at Pipri, Karachi areproduced in tables 2 and 3. Table-2: Physico-chemical analyses of soil of experimental area at CARS 2007. Soil Characteristics Depth (cm) 0-15 15-30 EC (dS/m) 4.73 1.92 PH 7.58 7.7 O.M (%) 0.619 0.222 N (%) 0.030 0.011 P (ppm) 4.0 1.9 K (ppm) 100 110 Texture Sandy clay loam Sandy clay loam 26
  6. 6. Annexure A Table-3: Soil Analysis Report of PMY (Site) carried out by soil testing laboratory Thatta Date of Sample rec.: 22 September 2008 Date of Analysis: 26 September 2008 Sample Received by: MDO Thatta Area: KarachiLab. Field No. Texture pH Electrical Available Available Soluble @ Soluble SodiumNo. Conductivity Phosphorus Potassium Exch. Ca+Mg Adsorption (dS/m) (P) (ppm) (K) (ppm) Sodium (Na) (meq/L) Ratio (meq/L) (SAR)2161 S-1 (0-6”) Loam 8.5 1.0 4.0 140 1.7 19 0.62162 S-1 (6-12”) Loam 8.4 1.0 1.6 160 1.7 15 0.62163 S-1 (12-18”) Loam 8.7 1.0 1.6 140 6.5 10 2.92164 S-2 (0-6”) Loam 8.4 1.2 1.6 300 7.8 10 3.52165 S-2 (6-12”) Loam 8.4 1.2 1.6 140 7.8 10 3.52166 S-2 (12-18”) Loam 7.3 1.0 1.6 100 8.3 10 3.72167 S-3 (0-6”) Loam 7.3 1.4 9.2 460 1.7 10 0.82168 S-3(6-12”) Loam 7.5 1.3 2.4 180 5.7 10 2.52169 S-3(12-18”) Loam 7.4 1.3 5.6 260 6.1 11 2.6 Key: pH: Neutral 6.5-7.5, Alkaline > 8.5 Electrical Conductivity (dS/m): Normal < 4.0 Saline > 4.0 Available Phosphorus (ppm): Poor <7.0 Medium 7.0-13 Satisfactory >13 Available Potassium (ppm): Poor <125 Medium 125-250 Satisfactory >250 Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR): Normal < 10.o Sodic > 10.0The soil samples from PSO site shown above (table-3) were obtained from the area shown in figure-1. 27
  7. 7. Annexure AAerial Mapping of Plantation Plan B Exist ing Plantat ion Area Proposed Plantation Area Water Storage ponds Proposed Office/Sheds Internal Tracks Boundary Wall N ursery Expell ing / Est r / W arehouse Terminal Area Paki stan State Oi lFigure-1: Plantation plan of PSO at PMY terminal, Pipri, Bin Qasim Town, KarachiLand Leveling and Digging of pits: The 70 acres area at Pipri Marshaling yard (PMY) was barren or semi barren and kept unattended for future expansionwas selected for cultivation of Jatropha. Actual aerial image of the site from Google Earth presented at figure-2 reflectsdiversification of land and hence leveling and removal of wild Prosipis juliflora (Devi) plants were carried out using a bulldozer and tractor to remove the debris. Jatropha curcas is a deciduous shrub/tree and hence has to be planted in pits. Digging of pits 45x45x45 cm as recommended in literature was carried out with 2x2 meters plant to plant and row to row distance. This strategy maintained a ratio of 1200 plants per acre. Figure-2: Aerial view of PMY site, PSO, Pipri Karachi. 28
  8. 8. Annexure ARefilling of pits: The pits were filled with sweet soil, farmyard manure and de-oiled press cake of Jatropha seeds @ 2:1:1 respectively.Although filling with soil mixed with farmyard manure (about 1 kilogram per pit), 120g (grams) SSP (single super phosphate),and 100g neem oil cake at the time of transplanting is normally recommended. Neem oil cake is said to be essential, as itimmediately provides protection from several pests in addition to fulfilling the nitrogen demand. Such refilling should be to the extent of half the depth of the pits (20–30 cm). The seedlings are transplanted in thecentre of the pit. Application of fertilizer: After the establishment of the plant, 20g urea and 16g MoP (muriate of potash) should be applied. The urea should be applied in two splits at 10g per plant. Application of Pesticides: The Jatropha plants can be protected from termite and fungi by using 50g methyl parathion dust per pit and 0.05% Bavistin, respectively. If the termite attack is severe, a spoonful of Chloropyrophos can be added to the mixture. In case pits have been dug in the past (less than 2–3 months), they need to be re-opened by excavating loose soil andrefilling them with the desired planting mixture.Nursery: A separate nursery area has been built by PSO at PMY Karachi measuring 60’x180’ to accommodate 20,000 seedlingsat a time. This nursery can be seen in photos below;Planting medium: There are different types of media in which a seed will grow. The media can be chosen depending on type of plant thatis to be grown. For general purpose, the best medium is a mixture of 70% red soil, 20% dry cow dung manure and 10% riversand. Peat moss or vermiculite can be mixed with the potting medium to increase the porosity of the soil. It is good to increasethe porosity of soil because the emerging seedlings are delicate and should face least resistance while coming to the surface. Additional Medium: Peat moss or vermiculite can be mixed with the potting medium to increase the porosity of the soil. It is good to increase the porosity of soil because the emerging seedlings are delicate and should face least resistance while coming to the surface. Containers: Any container with good drainage can be used to grow plants. All that is required is to see to it that there are holes in the bottom of the container so that extra water is drained out. We have used small polyethylene bags with perforation at the base to raise the seedlings in nursery. Filling the containers: Fill the pots or polyethylene bags with the potting mixture and water the pot. Allow the extra water to drain out before sowing the seeds. 29
  9. 9. Annexure A Sowing of seeds: Place the seeds on the surface and cover it lightly with the soil. Depth at which the seeds are sowed plays very important role in germination. Seeds contain only enough stored food for a limited period of growth. If the seedling is to survive it must reach the surface quickly and begin producing its own food for further growth. If the seeds are too deeply buried beneath the soil surface, the seedling will exhaust its food reserve before reaching the surface causing its death. And if the seeds are left exposed without covering it with soil even then it will die due to dehydration. Two to six seeds can be planted in a container depending on the size of the container and the seeds. Temperature: Place the container in shade after sowing the seeds. If possible tie a transparent plastic over the container’s mouth to reduce loss of water. If placed in direct sunlight then the temperature of the soil may rise above the temperature required by the seed to germinate. Watering: Do not water the container from the top. Place the container in which seeds are sown in a tray containing water. The water will move upwards slowly and after 2-3 hours remove the container from the tray. This way you can water the container without disturbing the seed. Post germination care: Once you see the seedling emerging from the soil remove the plastic cover but do not put it in direct sunlight. Keep the container with the seedlings in shade but make sure there is light as it needs light to produce food. Let the plant grow. Make sure that you water the plant in the morning or in the evening because if you water it during hot afternoon the plant might be adversely affected. Once your plant is a month old then you can keep it in direct sunlight. Every month loosen the soil around the plant without disturbing the roots as this will help oxygen reach the roots. Post germination care: Once you see the seedling emerging from the soil remove the plastic cover but do not put it in direct sunlight. Keep the container with the seedlings in shade but make sure there is light as it needs light to produce food. Let the plant grow. Make sure that you water the plant in the morning or in the evening because if you water it during hot afternoon the plant might be adversely affected. Once your plant is a month old then you can keep it in direct sunlight. Every month loosen the soil around the plant without disturbing the roots as this will help oxygen reach the roots. Lifting of plants from nursery: Before removal from the nursery, plants should be thoroughly watered to moisten the soil and to avoid desiccation during transportation until planting. There are no special problems in removing plants grown in polybags, if the roots have not grown out and penetrated into the soil. However, care should be taken to prevent them from desiccation, and to ensure that the ball of earth does not break. Bare-root seedlings should never be kept exposed to wind and sunlight for a long time. After lifting them from the nursery, and before planting them in the field, bare-root plants should be wrapped in a wet gunny bag and kept under shade. During transit, water should be liberally sprinkled over them. They should be transported to the destination and planted as quickly as possible, within 24 hours of uprooting.Santing of saplings: Planting should be ideally done at the start of the monsoon, immediately after the first rains, when the soil has adequate moisture. In case an assured source of irrigation is available, planting can be done at any time during the planting season. At the time of planting, the plants should be between 45 and 60 cm in height, sturdy, and free of diseases or pests, with healthy green leaves. The roots of polyethylene bag plants should not be coiled. The polythene bag should be torn carefully without breaking the ball of earth and disposed of. The plant should be kept straight at the top of the half-filled pit. Subsequently, the rest of the pitshould be filled with the farm-yard manure–local soil mixture,and compacted around the plant with the feet. In case naked-rootseedlings are used, the plant should be kept straight in the half-filled pit, and the filled soil should be pressed hard and made 30
  10. 10. Annexure Acompact to keep the plant straight. Special care should be taken to prevent damage to roots. Keeping in view the above mentioned direction 7-8 week old plants were generally transplanted in the field at PMYand this plantation now holds over 20,000 Jatropha plants spread on 16+ acres. Plantation on remaining approximately 54 acres isin progress.Irrigation: Jatropha does not require lot of water and is considered as drought tolerant. However, for commercial plantationirrigation is beneficial in the first two months after planting, especially if the monsoon is delayed. Once the plants are establishedand acclimatized, irrigation should be done on an as-and-when-required basis depending on the situation. Irrigation is requiredprimarily if it does not rain within a week of planting. Subsequently, it is required once during peak winter and then at the time offruiting. In fact irrigation at CARS and PMY Karachi were carried out keeping on the basis of 250 mm/annum water demandthat amounts to 2.5 liters of water per plant per day. Various irrigation techniques were also tested e.g. drip irrigation, usingempty plastic soft drink bottle of 1.5 liter volume etc. But all the irrigation exercises carried out were on the per plant basisavoiding flood irrigation. Source of water has been subsoil, low quality (800-1300 ppm) saline water.Diseases and pests Reportedly, collar rot disease is common in Jatropha. This can beovercome by using 1% Bordeaux solution. Beetles/hoppers/leaf minerlarvae are the common pests afflicting the plant. Endosulfan (3 ml/litre)can be used to control these pests. However, no pest was recorded on Jatropha at CARS comparedto PMY plantation where attack of white fly, leaf minor and roller andmealy bugs was observed. Simple water and water + detergent spray forcontrolling white fly, water + 3% diesel + detergent mix for remainingpests were tried with a success rate of 50--70 % . However, insecticidespray using Cypermethrin was also used on earlier nursery plantation atPSO’s Kemari terminal and once a PMY. Mealy bug was also observedon two plants at Malir Office but no treatment has been given till to-date.Weeding and hoeingWeeding and hoeing operations should be done at the end of the monsoon to facilitate moisture conservation and to preventcompetition from weeds. About 2–3 hoeing and weeding operations are recommended and adopted at PMY plantation.Fertilizer Better yields are obtained on poor-quality soils if fertilizers containing small amounts of calcium, magnesium, andsulphur are used. Mycorrhizal associations are known to aid plant growth. Neem waste and farm-yard manure are also known toenhance plant growth. But use of Jatropha cake along with farmyard manure proved sufficient to maintain the health of plants atPMY. At CARS since April 2007 we have applied FMY three times only and no fertilizer has been provided to plants growing atCARS Office, Malir Halt after direct seeding of Jatropha.Pruning To restrict the height of the plant and tofacilitate higher flowering, pruning is advised duringdormant months (December–January), after the fruitshave been harvested. During the first year of growth,plants should be pruned at a height of 45 cm with a verysharp knife or secateurs. In the subsequent years, all newbranches should be cut (December–January) to limit themto one-third length. Diseased, dead, excessive, weak, andlateral branches should also be removed. This facilitatesan umbrella-shape growth resulting in higher floweringand seed production. Further, it will also make seedharvesting simple and convenient. 31
  11. 11. Annexure A In accordance with above recommendation pruning has been done twice at PMY and non at CARS Farm or Malir Halt.As can be seen from the photo,Tackling plant mortality There could be some mortality in plantations due toout planting shock, drought, disease, fire, floods, and so on.Such stock should be replaced in the months of February–March (in case of assured irrigation) or July–August, byfollowing the procedures mentioned above. In case of large-scale mortality (>50%), it is essential to ascertain the cause ofmortality by seeking expert opinion. Gap filling at PMY was required only once sincethe initial plantation where few plants could not survive dueto hard rocky pan down below the pit. However, increasingthe depth of pit and refilling with potting mix describedearlier resolved the issue.General Growth: Salient vegetative and growth parameters recorded from 5 plants growing at CARS since April 2007 aresummarized in table-4.Table-4: Growth parameters recorded at CARS/PARC Farm, Saleh Muhammed Goth, Karachi Vegetative/ generative parameters Jatropha curcas L. plantS . No. recorded 1 2 3 4 5 Mean1 Plant height (cm) 275 264 335 275 257 281.52 Stem diameter (cm) 25 27 45 27 20 28.83 Number of branches 8 5 52 20 12 19.44 Length of branches (cm) 186 125 340 180 180 202.25 Capsule weight (grams) 5 4.3 5.1 4 4.4 4.566 Number of seeds/capsule 3 2-3 3 3 3 37 1000 fresh seed weight (g) 1000 850 925 900 875 910 32
  12. 12. Annexure AThe seed lost moisture with time and after 25 days average seed weight dropped to 0.650 grams compared to 0.910 g on the 2ndday. Some of snaps showing flowers, unripe fruit, ripe and decorticated fruit along with seeds and Jatropha seeds can be seen inthe plate placed below.Inference: The Jatropha cultivation experience since 2007 till now has increased the confidence level towards adoption of thisexotic species in the country. Parallel experiences of some local farmers growing Jatropha at their farms/sites have also beenencouraging so far. However, being exotic species regulations should be framed simultaneously to permit import of seeds of goodquality, known origin and proven tract record if commercialized Jatropha plantation is to be addressed for bio-diesel BD-5 orBD-10 blends in the country for reaping the benefits of Carbon sequestering /Carbon credit. Opportunities for new investments,jobs, environment improvement and reclamation of degraded soils do exist but could not be expedited till proper legal framework is drafted, approved and implemented. The current agriculture practices, resources, agribusiness and exports could not beendangered if not jeopardized by ignoring the quarantine and pest risk analysis and other relevant studies. But till such timecontained cultivation on government/selective lands is required for carrying out various experiments particularly from yield toharvest and processing levels. 33
  13. 13. Annexure B 2009Cultivation Performance of Bio-diesel Plant Jatropha curcas L. in Pakistan Syed Asim Rehan Kazmi and Syed Nawaid Anjum Zaidi Coastal Agricultural Research Station, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, and Pakistan State Oil, Karachi 34
  14. 14. Annexure B Cultivation Performance of Bio-diesel Plant Jatropha curcas L. in Pakistan Syed Asim Rehan Kazmi*and Nawaid Anjum Zaidi** Coastal Agricultural Research Station, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Karachi and Pakistan State Oil, KarachiAbstract:Intensifying global concerns on energy security, high energy prices, and climate changes revivedattention towards Biofuels. National commitment for utilization of B-5 Biodiesel by 2015 tofulfill local needs and simultaneously address the environment degradation issues lead toexamine performance of exotic non edible oil yielding plant species Jatropha curcas L. Thecomparative oil studies enhance the interest in this underutilized plant species. It has the abilityto tolerate drought and saline conditions, adoptability on marginal lands, and requirescomparatively low water and other inputs. Experimental field with over 22 acres plantationmaintained at confined Pipri Marshalling Yard, PSO terminal Karachi showed promisingcommercialization potential. The oil yield of 28-35.36% obtained from the first year crop hasFFA value of 0.54 (% as OA). However, the plant proved susceptible to mealy bug (apparentlypapaya mealy bug) attack that has been controlled using a decoction of Neem and Gliricidaleaves.Introduction: Mats Karlsson (2007) in the preface of UN-Energy paper on “SustainableBioenergy: A framework of Decision Makers” says ‘Nothing human or ecological isstraightforward’. Situation regarding acceptance and adoption of existing or new biofuel feedstocks in Pakistan is no different. Many plant species possess oil. BGIR/BSI Database, 2004enlist 287 oil yielding plants of which 36 species yield non-edible oils that can be converted toobtain diesel comparable to petro-diesel and a blend of two offers a fuel that has the potential toprovide energy, reduce environment degradation, and minimize burden on economy. U.S.National Renewable Energy Lab’s brochure, published in 2006, enlist a number of biomasssources that can yield biofuels. From these feed stocks edible oil sources can not be diverted toany other use as Pakistan has to import it to meet the nutrient requirements of the population.Among the non-edible oil plant species Castor, Neem, Pongamia and Jatropha gossypifolia arelocally found but the suitability of Jatropha curcas L. has recently been explored as a feedstockfor biodiesel production, world over. Jatropha is a genus of more than 170 species includingshrubs and trees, originating in the Caribbean (Central America) and now found through out thetropics. The seeds of Jatropha curcas produce oil that is increasingly used for biodieselproduction, particularly in the Philippines and India. The plant is hardy, grows well on marginallands and can also be used to restore degraded lands. These characteristics suggest that Jatrophacurcas production, if carefully managed, may be expanded without directly competing withnatural forests or high value agricultural lands used for food production. Pakistan geographically is among the countries where J. curcas L. plantation can sustainand flourish on coastal area lest cultivation in agricultural area is to be avoided. Out of 79.61million hectares only 22 million hectares or less are cropped twice a year, due to shortage ofirrigation and sweet sub-soil water. The mean annual rainfall varies from less than 100 mm in 35
  15. 15. Annexure BSindh to over 1000 mm in the foot-hills and northern mountains with an average of about 400mm. About 60% of this rain comes during the monsoon season (July through September).Jatropha curcas L. being less water demanding and drought tolerant may serve to mitigate sandydesert and other marginal areas. In addition it would facilitate to reduce deforestation anddesertification which are considered as most important and cost-efficient methods of mitigatingclimate change. Tokar et. al (2007) also suggests the need for policies andincentives to reduce deforestation during the Conference of the Parties of the FrameworkConvention on Climate Change. Thrust of utilizing the marginal/barren lands, minimizing fuel import bills and creatingopportunity of new economic activities in the desert or coastal region lead us to investigate theperformance of exotic J. curcas L. in confined vicinity at Karachi. This experience is sharedhere.Materials and Methods: Jatropha curcas L. seeds from China, India, Thailand and USA originwere initially germinated in clay pots or directly sown in the field. Later, for mass cultivationseeds of Thai origin were germinated in nursery area using polyethylene bags containingplanting medium (70% red soil+20%cowdung+10% river soil). The nursery plants weretransplanted in the pits of 45x45x45 cm size each to accommodate 1200 plants per acre. The pitswere filled with sweet soil, farmyard manure and de-oiled press cake of Jatropha seeds @ 2:1:1,respectively. Plants were immediately irrigated at the rate of 2.5 liters of water per plant per dayand the trend was generally maintained except when it rained. The growth and developmentparameters were recorded and plantation received usual agronomic treatments. Pest and diseaseappearance and attacks were also monitored and appropriately treated when required usingsimple water and water + detergent spray for controlling white fly, water + 3% diesel + detergentmix for other pests. A decoction of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Gliricidasepium (250g each) in one liter water was boiled till the water quantity was reduced to half wasalso used after filtering through muslin cloth and cooled to room temperature before spray on themealy bug affected plants. This treatment was applied thrice on weekly basis. Seeds from theharvested fruits were examined and analyzed for oil content using AOCS method by P.C.S.I.R.Laboratories, Karachi and PSO labs carried out trans-esterification process to make biodiesel 100and its blends. The bio-diesel and its blends were tested by using ASTM standard procedures asmentioned in Engine Makers Association document on ‘Test specifications for biodiesel fuel’2006 www.enginemanufacturers.org.Results and discussion: Best germination of 66% at CARS farm was recorded in the seedsamples from Thailand provided by PSO (table-1). However, seed germination in nursery ofPSO from another lot of Thai origin was 86-99%. This indicates that the seed purity, health andage play an important role in seed vigor and percent germination. GINWAL et al (2005) studiedseed source variation in Jatropha curcas collected from ten locations in Central India andreported that considerable genetic variability exists in J. curcas with respect to seed morphology,seed germination and seedling growth characteristics and concluded that in India, theChhindwara, source is superior among all seed sources tested. Daghar et al (2004) has showndirect dependence of seed germination with seed weight. Post germination sapling health, sustenance and growth also depends on the quality ofreserve food available in the seed as is evident from variation in various parameters shown intable-2. 36
  16. 16. Annexure B Large scale plantation was sown at Pipri Marshalling Yard (PMY) of PSO that has soil physico-chemical as shown in table-3. However, the pits used for planting were filled with sweet soil, farmyard manure and Jatropha seed cake @2:1:1 to permit proper establishment of 6-8 weeks old nursery grown saplings. The over all performance of the seedling is evident from picture-1.Picture-1: Jatropha curcas L. plantation at PMY. J. curcas is a shrub or tree with smooth grey bark, spreading branches and stubby twigs, which exude a translucent or yellowish sap (latex) when broken. Its height vary from 5 to 8 m, leaves are deciduous, 3- to 5-lobed in outline, 6 – 40 cm long and 6 – 35 cm broad (Picture-2). Flowers are yellow and bell-shaped. The plant is monoecious, so flowers are unisexual (picture-3). Hermaphrodite flowers may also occur as reported by Dehgan and Webster (1979). Pollination is by insects, usually bees.Picture-2: Leaves of Jatropha curcas plant growing at PMY, Karachi.A study by Raju and Ezradanam(2002) indicates that pollen is deposited in sufficient amount, which is visible by its yellow colour even to the naked eye. However, the plant with predominant xenogamy requires mostly xenogamous pollen for more fruit set, after selective elimination of growing fruit. Therefore, pollen transfer between con specifics has a great bearing on the net percentage of natural fruit set. Fruits are 2.5 – 4 cm long (picture-4), finally drying and splitting into 3 valves, all or two of which commonly have an oblong black seed (picture-5) as also reported by Morton, 1977 and Little et al., 1974.Picture-3: First flowering of J.curcas plant at CARS, Farm Karachi. 37
  17. 17. Annexure BPicture-4: Bunch of J. curcas fruits (1st bearing).Picture-5: Dried & de-hulled fruit and seeds of J. curcas.During storage seeds loose moisture that after 25 days dropped to 0.650 grams compared to0.910 g on the 2nd day of harvest and de-hulling.Pest and Diseases: J. curcas plantation at PMY was attacked by white fly, leaf minor and rollerand mealy bugs. Whitefly was controlled by simple water and water + detergent spray. No eggmass or nymph was observed on or under the leaf surface. Leaf minor and roller were treatedwith emulsified diesel with a success rate of 50--70 %. J. curcas was observed to be quiteattractive to mealy bug and a heavy attack was noticed with repeated instances both in field andnursery plantation. Initially Cypermethrin was applied in the nursery area but the results were notsatisfactory as resurgence was also observed. Therefore, a new test combination of Neem andGliricida sepium leaves decoction was sprayed on to infested plants. Spray of test material forthree weeks (once every week) reduced and dried the mealy bugs. However, this was only acrude test and a proper study is required to work out the efficacy of the test material againstmealy bugs. The mealy bug species found on J. curcas was of special interest and concern.Though, on microscopic examination it appears more like Papaya mealy bug and not the one thathas been a menace in the cotton fields (Picture-6). Identification of exact species is underinvestigation. 38
  18. 18. Annexure B The percent oil content of three different coded seed samples sent to P.C.S.I.R.Laboratories reported 28.71%, 35.% and 30.53% oil from seeds of PMY, CARS and M/S IsonsofPakistan(imported seed), respectively (table-4). It is encouraging that both the local samples havelow free fatty acid (FFA) content 0.54% compared to 6.57% recorded in imported seed, apositive sign that would reduce the trans-esterification cost in the preparation of biodiesel. Biodiesel consists of alkyl esters of fatty acids produced by the trans-esterification ofvegetable oils. M.A. Fangrui and M.A. Hanna (1999), A.K.Agarwal and L.M.Das (2000) and D.Agarwal et al, (2007) have narrated the conversion procedure of plant oil into biodiesel. WhileRao et al (2008) carried out experimental investigations of Pongamia, Jatropha and Neem Methylesters as Biodiesel on C. I. Engine indicating that B20 have closer performance to diesel andB100 had lower brake thermal efficiency mainly due to its high viscosity compared to diesel.However, its diesel blends showed reasonable efficiencies, lower smoke, CO and HC. Pongamiamethyl ester gives better performance compared to Jatropha and Neem methyl esters (Rao et al,2008). Preparation of Biodiesel in PSO labs and results of related ASTM protocols are given intable . The experience of complete life cycle of biodiesel production, blending and usagepromise economic viability of J. curcas oil based biodiesel in the country. The effects ofBiodiesel (B5) observed on engine performance of field vehicle (picture-7) and exhaust emissionwere found quite satisfactory. A comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel impacts on ExhaustEmission is available on www.epa.gov/otaq/models/analysis/biodsl/p02001.pdf.Conclusion: The Jatropha cultivation experience since 2007 till now has increased the confidencelevel towards adoption of this exotic species in the country. Parallel experiences of some localfarmers growing Jatropha at their farms/sites have also been encouraging so far. However, beingexotic species regulations should be framed simultaneously to permit import of seeds of goodquality, known origin and proven tract record if commercialized Jatropha plantation is to beaddressed for bio-diesel BD-5 or BD-10 blends in the country for reaping the benefits of Carbonsequestering /Carbon credit. Opportunities for new investments, jobs, environment improvementand reclamation of degraded soils do exist but could not be expedited till proper legal frame work is drafted, approved and implemented. The current agriculture practices, resources, agribusiness and exports could not be endangered if not jeopardized by ignoring the quarantine and pest risk analysis and other relevant studies. But till such time contained cultivation on government/selective lands is required for carrying out various experiments particularly from yield to harvest and processing levels.Picture-7: Dedicated field vehicle of PSO running on B-5 for over one year now. 39
  19. 19. Annexure BReferences: 1. FAO (2008); Forestry and Energy Key issues; FAO Forestry Paper 154, pp 73, Rome. 2. Dr Rachel Smolker Brian Tokar, Anne Petermann, Eva Hernandez (2007); The real cost of agrofuels: Current and Future Technologies for Agrofuels: Path to Deforestation, Climate Change and Loss of Livelihoods", pp 74, pdf . 3. H. S. GINWAL1,*, S. S. PHARTYAL1, P. S. RAWAT2 and R. L. SRIVASTAVA3 (2005) Seed Source Variation in morphology, Germination and Seedling Growth of Jatropha curcas Linn. in Central India, pp. 76-80, Silvae Genetica Vol. 54, No. 2. 4. Raju, A. J. S. and V. Ezradanam (2002); Pollination ecology and fruiting behaviour in a monoecious species, Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae); Research Communication, pp. 1395- 1398 CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 83, NO. 11. 5. MA Holl, MB Gush, J Hallowes+ and DB Versfeld (2007); Jatropha curcas in South Africa: An Assessment of its Water Use and Bio-Physical Potential; pp. 154, WRC Report No. 1497/1/07, ISBN 978-1-770050593-3 6. BGIR/BSI Database (2004); Database of Oil Yielding Plants, Botanic Garden of Indian Republic (BGIR), Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Last updated on April 5th, 2004. 7. Becker, K. and Makkar, H.P.S. 2000. Jatropha and Moringa. Available from < http://www.uni- hohenheim.de/~www480/docs/se990720/jatropha.htm >[Last Update Used: May 11, 2000]. 8. Begg, J. and Gaskin, T. 1994. Jatropha curcas L. Available from <http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/plant/jcurc.htm > [Last Update Used: June, 1994]. 9. Biodiesel S.A. 2004. Specialising in producing environmentally friendly fuel and methyl esters. Available from < http://www.biodieselsa.co.za >[Last Accessed: July 1, 2004]. 10. BUYSOMALI, 2003. Jilbadig Tree (Jatropha curcas) – natural fencing with real income potential. Available from <http://www.buysomali.com/natural _products_jatropha_business_opport unities.htm > [Last Update Used: December 5, 2003]. 11. Dehgan, B. and Webster, G.L. 1979. Morphology and infrageneric relationships of the genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae). University of California Publications in Botany, Vol. 74. 12. Duke, J.A. 1983. Handbook of energy crops. Available from: <http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Jatropha_curcas.html > [Last Update Used: January 7, 1998]. 13. Duke, J.A. and Ayensu, E.S. 1985. Medicinal plants of China. Reference Publications, Inc. Algonac, MI. 14. Duke, J.A. and Wain, K.K. 1981. Medicinal plants of the world. Computer index with more than 85,000 entries. 3 vols. 40
  20. 20. Annexure B15. Francis, G., Edinger, R and Becker, K. 2005. A concept for simultaneous wasteland reclamation, fuel production, and socio-economic development in degraded areas in India: Need, potential and perspectives of Jatropha plantations. Natural Resources Forum, 29: 12–24.16. From biomass NREL leads the way to Biofuels(2006); A brochure NREL/BR-510-39436, pp.6, pdf. http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/17. Daghar, JC, Bhagwan, H and Kumar, Y (2004). ‘Seed germination studies of Salvadora persica and Jatropha curcas’, Indian Journal of Forestry 27 (3): 283–289.18. D. Agarwal, L. Kumar, A.K. Agarwal (2007) "Performance Evaluation of a Vegetable oil fuelled CI Engine". Renewable Energy. Vol. 3319. M.A. Fangrui,,M.A. Hanna , "Biodiesel production: A review", Bio Source Technology, Vol.70, 1999, 1-15.20. A.K.Agarwal, L.M.Das, "Biodiesel development and characterization for use as a fuel in C.I.Engine", Journal Of Engineering, Gas Turbine And Power (ASME), Vol.123, 2000, 440-447.21. T. Venkateswara Rao, G. Prabhakar Rao and K. Hema Chandra Reddy (2008), Experimental Investigation of Pongamia, Jatropha and Neem Methyl Esters as Biodiesel on C.I. Engine, Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. Volume 2, Number 2 (ISSN 1995- 6665) 41
  21. 21. Annexure BTable-1: Seed germination as recorded at CARS Farm, PARC, Karachi. Source of seed/ No. Date of sowing Germination GerminationS. receiving date of Pots field Date Days No. Pots fieldNo. seeds %1 IABGR/NARC 20 1/3/07 1/3/07 14/3/07 13 5 30 20 14/2/072 India (PSO) 259 17/5/08 - - 19 4 -3 PSO/Thailand 106 17/5/08 - - 5-9 33 31 - 1/4/084 PSO/Thailand 32 17/5/08 - - 5-7 21 66 - 2/4/085 K.U/USA 25 25/5/08 - - - 0 0 - /4/08Table-2: Growth parameters recorded at CARS/PARC Farm, Saleh Muhammed Goth, Karachi Vegetative/ generative Jatropha curcas L. plantS . S. parameters recorded 1 2 3 4 MeanS. No. 5 1 Plant height (cm) 275 264 335 275 257 281.5 2 Stem diameter (cm) 25 27 45 27 20 28.8 3 Number of branches 8 5 52 20 12 19.4 4 Length of branches (cm) 186 125 340 180 180 202.2 5 Capsule weight (grams) 5 4.3 5.1 4 4.4 4.56 6 Number of seeds/capsule 3 2-3 3 3 3 3 7 1000 fresh seed weight (g) 1000 850 925 900 875 910 42
  22. 22. Annexure BTable-3: Soil Analysis Report of PMY (Site) carried out by soil testing laboratory Thatta Date of Sample rec.: 22 September 2008 Date of Analysis: 26 September 2008 Sample Received by: MDO Thatta Area: KarachiLab. Field No. Texture pH Electrical Available Available Soluble @ Soluble SodiumNo. Conductivity Phosphorus Potassium Exch. Sodium Ca+Mg Adsorption (dS/m) (P) (ppm) (K) (ppm) (Na) (meq/L) (meq/L) Ratio (SAR)2161 S-1 (0-6”) Loam 8.5 1.0 4.0 140 1.7 19 0.62162 S-1 (6- Loam 8.4 1.0 1.6 160 1.7 15 0.6 12”)2163 S-1 (12- Loam 8.7 1.0 1.6 140 6.5 10 2.9 18”)2164 S-2 (0-6”) Loam 8.4 1.2 1.6 300 7.8 10 3.52165 S-2 (6- Loam 8.4 1.2 1.6 140 7.8 10 3.5 12”)2166 S-2 (12- Loam 7.3 1.0 1.6 100 8.3 10 3.7 18”)2167 S-3 (0-6”) Loam 7.3 1.4 9.2 460 1.7 10 0.82168 S-3(6-12”) Loam 7.5 1.3 2.4 180 5.7 10 2.52169 S-3(12- Loam 7.4 1.3 5.6 260 6.1 11 2.6 18”)Key:pH: Neutral 6.5-7.5, Alkaline > 8.5Electrical Conductivity (dS/m): Normal < 4.0 Saline > 4.0Available Phosphorus (ppm): Poor <7.0 Medium 7.0-13 Satisfactory >13Available Potassium (ppm): Poor <125 Medium 125-250 Satisfactory >250Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR): Normal < 10.o Sodic > 10.0Table- 4: Comparative Analysis of Seed Oil content from three different sources Parameters tested using AOCS Method 2004S. No. Sample Source Moisture % Oil content % FFA (% as OA) 1 PMY, PSO, Karachi 6.56 28.71 0.54 2 CARS Farm, PARC, 6.45 35.36 0.54 Karachi 3 M/S Isons 6.83 30.53 6.57 43
  23. 23. Annexure B Mealy bug on Mealy bug onPicture-6: Comparison of Mealy bug found on cotton and Jatropha in Karachi with Papaya Mealy Bug from USDA-CSREES Integrated Pest Management Centers in cooperation with the National Plant Diagnostic Network, APHIS, the National Plant Board, and the Land Grant Universities. 44

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