The Energy and Resources InstituteMinistry of Environment and Forests,Government of India             A quarterly electron...
Solar power plant cost in India and GermanyC R Bhattacharjee*658, Lake Gardens, Kolkata - 700045, Indiacrbhatt@vsnl.comAbs...
systems) are also common in many rural                                     In October 1998, regular electrification ofunel...
Table 2 Cost of battery, inverter, and charge controller                             Cost per watt (rupees) Name          ...
reduced by 50% over two decades and should              improve the quality of life. Therefore, it is littledescend furthe...
(up to 10%), which ensures complete combus-          micro-grid electricity at the village level as well as  tion of hydro...
(520.83 dollars) per hectare in a year; and if grown   the press and the project underwrites part of theover 200 hectares ...
Government of India had prepared a report         P Mahindra & Mahindra has successfully con-    on the gradual introducti...
In addition to providing employment to the               joint forest management societies, NGOs, thetribal and other weak...
Shanavas A and Mohan Kumar B*. 2003. Fuelwood characteristics of tree species in homegardens of Kerala, India.Agroforestry...
Babu G V, Sharat A and Nagaraju J*. 2002. Solar decolorization of Rhodamine B dye using concentrating collectors.SESI Jour...
Rana V*, Santosh, Kohli S**, and Yadvika. 2002. Pilot study on use of fixed film technique for performance enhance-ment of...
Dung T Q*, Anisuzzaman M, Kumar S**, and Bhattacharya S C. 2003. Demonstration of multi-purpose battery chargingstation fo...
Technological developmentsA new mercury detection method                        forms precipitates when it comes in contac...
SD Gateway                                               food, income and environmental quality’, in                      ...
Conferences/Workshops/SeminarsEnvironment30 June–2 July 2004          Air Pollution 2004Rhodes, Greece               Wesse...
About TERI A      dynamic and flexible organization with a        global vision and a local focus, TERI was established in...
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Using The Indigenous Of Jatropha: The Use Of Jatropha Curcas Oil As Raw Material And Biofuel


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Using The Indigenous Of Jatropha: The Use Of Jatropha Curcas Oil As Raw Material And Biofuel

  1. 1. The Energy and Resources InstituteMinistry of Environment and Forests,Government of India A quarterly electronic newsletter on renewable energy and environmentVol. 1 Issue 1 March 2004 Solar power plant cost in India and Germany C R Bhattacharjee Solar power plants are a necessity at places in India like remote hilly areas and islands for providing electricity to improve the standard of living of the people. This paper focuses on how improvements in technology and competitiveness among players in the fields of manufacture, supply, and installation are leading to reduction in costs... Using the indigenous knowledge of jatropha: the use of Jatropha curcas oil as raw material and biofuel Jatropha curcas, hitherto considered a wild oilseed plant of the tropics, is now being regarded as a promising biofuel crop ideally suitable for growing in the wastelands of India. This crop is now in great demand even in the international scenario. This article covers the use of biofuel with special emphasis to the jatropha plant and its advantages and recent developments. This potential biofuel crop can bring about major economic activity such as providing rural electrification, income, and employment opportunities to the rural communities... Current research A compilation of annotated bibliographies from different leading periodicals on current research on renewable energy and environment... Web updates This section is picks up some of the web resources available in the fields of renewable energy and environment... Conferences/Workshops/Seminars Covering some of the major forthcoming events in the fields of environment, renewable energy, and sustainable developments...
  2. 2. Solar power plant cost in India and GermanyC R Bhattacharjee*658, Lake Gardens, Kolkata - 700045, Indiacrbhatt@vsnl.comAbstract country, which are located far away from the grid.S Extending a line to these villages will be very olar power plants are a necessity at places in expensive, and villagers will find it difficult to India like remote hilly areas and islands for bear the tariff burden. Moreover, 20 000 villagesproviding electricity in order to improve the standard have been identified as unapproachable from theof living of the people. Financial constraints in the grid line and will have to depend on alternativepublic sector and non-remunerative characteristics of sources of power. These alternative sources couldeconomics act as disincentives to private be solar or wind energy, biomass, biogas, orentrepreneurs, which are impediments to the national micro-hydel energy, which may be locallyprogramme of solar electrification of villages. Despite available to be harnessed in a useful manner.these constraints, the Ministry of Non-conventional Incidentally, only these sources have been foundEnergy Sources, Government of India is attempting to to be technologically and commercially viableelectrify as many villages as possible with the solar until now, especially in villages that are situatedphotovoltaic system. This paper attempts to show how beyond a certain distance from the grid line.improvements in technology and competitivenessamong players in the fields of manufacture, supply,and installation are leading to reduction in costs, but Application of solar powernot at the sharp rate that is competitive with A solar power plant is a good option forconventional power. However, it appears that direct electrification in areas that are located away fromconversion of solar power to electricity is cheaper in the grid line or where other sources are neitherIndia than in Germany. available nor can be harnessed in a techno- economically viable manner. A solar power plantElectrification of remote villages of the size 10–100 kW (kilowatt), depending onBesides food, shelter, clothing, and employment, the load demand, is preferable particularly with athe next priority in villages is affordable energy liberal subsidy and low-interest soft loan fromfor cooking and lighting. The first important task, financial institutions. The idea is to raise thea gigantic task, will be to build a network for quality of life of the people subjected to povertycooking with LPG (liquified petroleum gas) to do in these areas. This coupled with a low-gestationaway with the drudgery and unhealthy practice of period, simple operation and maintenance arecooking with firewood/agricultural residue by resulting in installation of solar power plants inmillions of families in remote areas of manyIndia. The second states that needimportant one will be to electrification. Inprovide electricity to contrast, extremely highimprove the living cost of solar power plantconditions to act as an installation is an obstacleessential catalyst in to grid-connectedalleviating poverty. applications in urbanHowever, there is a areas. Instead of aserious problem of centralized powerextending the power line generation andto the unelectrified distribution, individual80 000 villages in the DLS (domestic lighting* The author has been working in the power supply utility industry for 50 years in private and public sectors, and is presently aconsulting engineer with an interest in renewable energy. eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004 2
  3. 3. systems) are also common in many rural In October 1998, regular electrification ofunelectrified houses. The initial thrust for villages through off-grid solar plant started. Socentralized plants with a distribution network to far, 11 such plants have been set up, coveringsupply off-grid and quality power, i.e. power at electrification of more than 25 villages in Sagarthe right voltage and frequency, came from a Island (Table 1).demonstration unit in Sagar Island in West Each 25 kWp plant can cater to 150 serviceBengal. The plants in Sagar Island started with connections with an average load of 80 watts eachthe unique feature of training people to operate to fulfil the domestic requirement andand maintain the plants, besides generating an 80–100 watts for shops for illumination, photo-awareness through interaction with prospective copying, battery charging, etc. A consumer paysconsumers who at a later stage could take up the 500 rupees (11 dollars) or 1000 rupeesmanagement on a cooperative basis. Following the (22 dollars) as security deposit with a monthlysame pattern, biomass-based power plants have charge of 100–125 rupees (4–5.5 dollars) basedalso been set up in that area. Thus participatory on the demand for load.involvement of the local Decentralized powerpeople has ensured plants have been set upsustainability of the with liberal grants andprogramme. loan, and are now The SPV (solar operating on commercialphotovoltaic) mode of lines. In the latest modelselectrification started in of power plants, drinking1998 after a system on a water supply from thetrial basis was tube wells through solarcommissioned in Kamalpur village in 1996. The power has also been incorporated. At some offour important components in a solar power these stations, hybrid wind generators have beensystem are solar modules, battery, inverter, and installed on an experimental basis for augmentingcharge controller, besides other BOS (balance of energy supply and for studying behaviouralsystem)/components. These four components functioning of wind and photovoltaic powerincur more than two-thirds of the total cost. In generation in tandem. Tables 2 and 3 indicate thatfact, 50% of the project cost is invested on the the prices of module, battery, inverter, and chargesolar modules. It would be interesting to observe controller have reduced by approximately 21%how the cost behaved over the past 5 or 6 years. over the past 6 years. However, it is yet to be Table 1 Cost of module and percentage of total cost Cost Installation Capacity Module Per watt Total Percentage Name Month and year kWp (Rupees in 1000) Rupees (Rupees in 1000) total Kamalpur February 1996 25 4617 174.25 7345 63 Mrityunjay October 1998 25 5141 185.24 9218 56 Khasmahal May 1999 25 4317 173 7968 54 Gayenbazar May 1999 25 4317 173 7968 54 Mahendra August 1999 25 4317 173 7968 54 Natendrapur August 2000 25 3375 135.5 7098 48 Haradhanpur November 2000 25 3375 135.5 7098 48 Mandirtala December 2000 25 3375 135.5 7098 48 Mousuni-I March 2001 55 8175 153.8 15379 53 Mausuni-II April 2003 110 17111 156 29842 57 ParthPratim March 2004 110* 16112 146.46 31373 55*expectedSource: Figures have been derived from basic cost data of WBREDA (West Bengal Renewable Energy and Development Agency)3 eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004
  4. 4. Table 2 Cost of battery, inverter, and charge controller Cost per watt (rupees) Name Total project Battery Inverter Charge controller Kamalpur 294 34 35 10 Mrityunjay 369 39 42 13 Khasmahal 319 41 63 3 Gayenbazar 319 41 63 3 Mahendra 319 41 63 3 Natendrapur 284 27 58 12 HaraDhanpur 284 27 58 12 Mandirtala 284 27 58 12 Mousuni-1 280 37 34 not quoted Mausuni-11 284 41 71 71 ParthPratim 285 40 55 16Source: Figures have been derived from basic cost data of WBREDA (West Bengal Renewable Energy and Development Agency) has increased considerably by almost 33% from Table 3 Cost of solar power in Germany and annual generation 42 rupees to 55 rupees contrary to the price of Total Annual electronic items, which are generally decreasing. Region of No. of capacity generation Charge controllers are however on a declining Germany installations (kWp) (kWh/kWp) trend. From Tables 2 and 3, it appears that the cost North-west 453 1215 732 of the SPV stand-alone power plants with an South 895 2250 860 Capacity range Module cost Inverter cost Cost in Euro per kWp additional battery to store energy for supply in 50–120 kWp 74.3% 11.8% 5307 the evening hours to meet the villagers’ need is 285 000 rupees (6264 dollars) / kWp. InSource: Doblemenn JT. 2003. Germany’s solar success. Germany, the cost of a roof-top or other typeRenewable Energy World 6(6): 74 grid-connected units, exclusive of a battery in theascertained whether the life expectancy and range of 50–120 kWp of capacity, of a solar plantefficiency of solar cells has improved during this is 289 760 rupees (6368 dollars). This impliesperiod. In the case of BOS, the cost is around that the Indian solar plant works out to be45% of the total project expenditure and indicates cheaper. The cost of a module in Germany isno change in the price structure. In a way, the above 70% of the total cost as against 50%–55%expenses have reduced considering the expansion in India. The cost of an inverter is around 12% ofof scope of work under the BOS category like the total cost in Germany, whereas it is nearlylonger period of the initial annual maintenance (5 19% in India. From the performance point ofyears now instead of 2 years earlier) as part of the view, energy delivered in Germany is 786 kWh/kWpcapital expenditure, sophisticated control building per annum against more than 850 kWh/kWp(with better floors and walls), water supply, etc. available in the country. The variation might be attributable to the difference in solar radiation inCost and output in India and Germany each country.Table 2 shows the cost characteristics of a few Conventional thermal and non-conventionalimportant items of BOS while Table 3 refers to powerrange of installed plant capacity and annualgeneration for Germany. In India, the price of Overall cost per watt has reduced by nearly 23% asbattery varies between 27 rupees per watt and seen in the competitive bidding in West Bengal in41 rupees per watt, but better quality products India. Capital cost of thermal generation is as low ashave come up in the market to service solar power 40 000 rupees per kW. Compared to this,stations with replacement guarantees extending decentralized solar power generation is 285 000from 5 years to 7 years. The cost of an inverter rupees per kW or 3.5 times higher. Cost has eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004 4
  5. 5. reduced by 50% over two decades and should improve the quality of life. Therefore, it is littledescend further by 50% so that conversion of solar wonder that Japan, Germany, and the US, havepower to electricity is commercially viable for several SPV installations with hundreds ofgeneral application. There is an additional element megawatts in capacity as against only a fewof fuel charge in the tariff connected with thermal installations with tens of megawatt capacity in Indiapower due to dangerous repercussion from pollution and Africa, though they both have enough sunshine.and health hazards. Instead, solar power happens tosatisfactorily addresses this serious issue free from Acknowledgementsrecurring cost on fuel to provide clean energy. It is a privilege to convey my gratitude toIronically, though the SPV system is utilized to help Mr S P Gon Coudhury, Director andpoor people in remote areas in third world Mr Angsuman Majumder, Associate for basiccountries. The same technology works for well-to-do data.people in urban areas in the developed countries. Inboth the cases, states finance the schemes through End noteincentives or some form of a grant. In one case, the 1 dollar = 45.5 rupees; 1 rupee = 2 cents (US)environment is the deciding factor whereas, in the 1 Euro = 1.2 dollarsother, provision of power is an essential tool to Using the indigenous knowledge of jatropha The use of Jatropha curcas oil as raw material and biofuelW ith the increasing price of crude oil, the import bill of India on petroleum productsis expected to cross 16 billion dollars during in unison with the accepted global norms. The new green fuel extracted from the seeds of the jatropha plant is now being tested by Indian Oil in the2003. Therefore, the time has come to explore laboratory for biodiesel. The plant can easily bealternatives and tap traditional wisdom. Consider- grown on either side of railway tracks as it growsing the seriousness of the cost of petroleum well in both arid and semi-arid conditions, requiringproducts and the pollution caused by the use of low fertility and moisture. The other advantages arethese products, many developed and developing the fuel’s contribution to the national energy poolcountries have ventured into the use of vegetable and the potential for creation of jobs in rural sector.oils as a better alternative to diesel. Suitableinitiatives have also been made in India by gov- Advantages of biodieselernment agencies, research institutions, and Some of the advantages of using biodiesel areautomobile industries. One of the major achieve- given below.ments of biodiesel research in India was the first P The higher cetane number of biodiesel com-successful trial run of a passenger train conducted pared to petro-diesel indicates the potential foron 31 December 2002, when the Delhi-Amritsar higher engine performance.Shatabdi Express used 5% of P The superior lubricatingbiodiesel as fuel. Biodiesel will properties of biodieselenable the Indian Railways to increases the enginesave on its rising fuel bill while efficiency.controlling pollution levels. P Their higher flash pointAccording to the Railways, makes them safer to store.sulphur and lead emissions P The biodiesel molecules arewere reduced significantly simple hydrocarbon chains,when biodiesel was used. containing no sulphur.Ultimately, the percentage of P They contain higherbiodiesel would go up to 15% amount of oxygen5 eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004
  6. 6. (up to 10%), which ensures complete combus- micro-grid electricity at the village level as well as tion of hydrocarbons. replace diesel fuel in small-scale applications likeP Biodiesel almost completely eliminates life irrigation pump sets. cycle carbon-dioxide emissions. When com- Rural electrification has long been recognized as pared with petro-diesel, biodiesel reduces the need to improve conditions in rural areas. In the emission of particulate matter by 40%, past 25 years, developing countries have extended unburned hydrocarbons by 68%, carbon mon- electricity supply to more than 500 million people oxide by 44%, sulphates by 100%, PAHs in rural areas. Out of the four billion people in the (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) by 80%, developing world, about two billion, mostly in rural and carcinogenic nitrated PAHs by 90%, on areas, are still without access to electricity. average. The use of biodiesel complements the Crude oil / non-transesterified oil can be working of the catalysator and can help a directly utilized into the grid for rural electrifica- current Euro-I motor attain the Euro-III tion. Oil is extracted from the Jatropha curcas seed standards. by the press-oil extraction method using a veryP Use of biodiesel will lead to increased energy low-cost input machine. Through a simple chemi- independence as well as increased economic cal process, oil from Jatropha curcas seed can be activity from fuel production and utilization. converted to a fuel commonly referred to as ‘biodiesel’. Technology for It is also heartening to such a process is easilynote that work has already accessible to rural communi-been initiated in India to ties. No modifications tostandardize the technique engines are necessary to useof esterification to convert biodiesel instead of petro-oil into biodiesel. Keeping leum-based diesel. It can bein mind the physical and mixed with petroleum-basedchemical variations of oils diesel in any proportion andfrom different species and used for decentralized micro-the impact of biodiesel on grid electricity generation atthe engine efficiency and the village level, as well as aenvironment, reputed replacement for diesel fuel inresearch institutions and small-scale applications likeautomobile industries have reported that biodiesel irrigation pump sets. More reliable electricity can becan reduce the wear and tear of engines and produced from mini-grid systems rather than exten-significantly reduce the oil pollution. This is now sions from the central grid.encouraging scientists and farmers to grow oilseed- For this purpose, interested villagers or farmersyielding species as an economically viable activity, can be motivated to install the expeller, whichparticularly to develop marginal and wastelands that extracts the oil from the seeds and expels the resi-are under-utilized in the country. due, as a future business prospect. Presently most of the non-edible oils areobtained from seeds of the Indian tree species Biofuelsuch as neem (Azadirachta indica), karanj Jatropha curcas, hitherto considered a wild oilseed(Pongamia pinnata), mahua (Madhuca species), plant of the tropics, is now being considered aundi (Calophyllum inophyllum), and jatropha promising biofuel crop ideally suitable for grow-(Jatropha curcas). Whereas the first four species ing in the wastelands of the country. ‘This poten-grow into big trees, jatropha is a shrub that starts tial biodiesel crop can bring about majorbearing fruits right from the first year onwards. economic activity providing income and employ- ment opportunities to the rural communities,’Rural electrification says E Vadivel, Dean, Horticultural College andBiodiesel is a biofuel that can directly substitute Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agriculturalpetroleum-based diesel and can be used in rural University, Coimbatore. ‘Jatropha cultivation canregions. It can be used to generate decentralized generate an income of 25 000 rupees eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004 6
  7. 7. (520.83 dollars) per hectare in a year; and if grown the press and the project underwrites part of theover 200 hectares in a village, it can provide ad- costs of training people to make soap. The manu-equate employment to all landless workers all round facturer has the incentive to encourage oil-the year,’ explains Vadivel. Belonging to processing activities, as it will encourage moreEuphorbiaceae species (castor family), this tropical sales of presses. The soap has a ready market andand sub-topical crop can thrive well in low rainfall it is believed that it can cure ‘white spot’, which isregions and soils with problems. It is a fungal growth on the skin anda hardy, drought-tolerant crop, common in Papua Newand fast-growing, which Guinea.can be easily cultivatedwithout much care. Jatropha in BrazilAnimals do not Frost-resistant orgraze on jatropha frost-tolerantplants, and the crop varieties of jatrophais widely propagated are extensivelythrough seeds and grown in Parana,vegetative means. Mass Brazil.propagation through stemcuttings will ensure uniformity Large-scale jatropha plantationand early establishment. Mycorrhizal in Egyptassociations have been observed and are known to Irrigated by treated sewage water, 500 000 hectaresaid the plant’s growth even in low availability of is being developed with D1’s agro-forestry technol-phosphorus. The standardized extraction process for ogy as a plantation that will supply the feedstockedible oils can also be adopted for extracting for D1 refineries to be constructed in Ain SuchnaJatropha curcas seed oil. The filtering mechanisms and Alexandria.have been modified, and other parameters forpreparing the matured seed for extracting the oil Jatropha as a renewable source of diesel in Ghanahave been standardized. Several organizations and individuals in GhanaAdditional benefits of jatropha plantations have shown an interest in the jatropha plant, which has several uses and could be used as a fuelP Fixation of up to 10 tonnes/hectare/year of for domestic use. CO2 will benefit international carbon trade.P Production of 1 tonne/ hectare/year of high- Jatropha cultivation in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa protein seed cake (60% crude protein) can be potentially used for animal and fish feeds, and Jathropa is taking off like wildfire in Kwazulu- organic matter could be used as organic ferti- Natal. There are as many as (approximately) 1000 lizer particularly in remote areas. growers in Kwazulu-Natal already involved inP Utilization of various other products from the jatropha cultivation. plant (leaf, bark and seed extracts) for other industrial and pharmaceutical uses. Indian initiativesP Localized production and availability of quality P In an effort to reduce air pollution and reduce fuel. fuel costs in the long-term, the Government ofP Restoration of degraded land over a period of India has decided to go ahead with the produc- time. tion of biodiesel. During a recent inter-P Generation of rural employment. ministerial meeting attended by several senior scientists from various institutes, the first stepsInternational initiatives of jatropha towards production of biodiesel were taken. All the participants expressed a keen interest inJatropha project in Papua New Guinea the early introduction of biodiesel byA project on jatropha in Papua New Guinea ‘transesterification’ of jatropha oil or othersupports a manufacturer in the development of non-edible oils. The Planning Commission,7 eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004
  8. 8. Government of India had prepared a report P Mahindra & Mahindra has successfully con- on the gradual introduction of biodiesel, which ducted large-scale trials of operating its trac- has been accepted as a basic reference tors on biodiesel, while Mercedes-Benz is document. Using the Commission’s report sponsoring jatropha production with a commit- as a framework, the institutes will go ahead ment to use biodiesel to run its cars. with further developmental work on biodiesel. P DaimlerCrysler joins CSIR (Council for Scien-P The Government of Tamil Nadu is to implement tific and Industrial Research) to use jatropha oil a developmental scheme on Jatropha curcas with for biodiesel production. The objective of the plans to cultivate in 400 000 hectares. project is to demonstrate the feasibility of theP The RCAC (Rural Community Action Centre) ‘jatropha biodiesel’ as a fuel for modern vehicles. in Tamil Nadu is promoting the plantation and use of jatropha. The Governments view on Jatropha curcasP A firm in Tamil Nadu is working on a project plantations to grow 600 000 hectares of jatropha on lands Initially, the Government of India proposes to owned by farmers in various parts of Tamil promote Jatropha curcas plantations on Indian Nadu. They will provide farmers with the wastelands. Its oil, which is a potential substitute seedlings and 3000 rupees per hectare for land to diesel, possesses several other properties such preparation and plantation, as well as buy the as wide environmental tolerance, adaptability to entire production of jatropha seeds from the grow on any type of soil or wastelands, easily farmers on a contractual basis. propagated through seeds/cuttings, minimal after-P The Indian Railway will grow jatropha along plantation care, lesser gestation periods, is not the railway tracks and plans to plant it along grazed by animals even during drought, which a 25 000-kilometre route on either side of the strengthens its case for promotion in wastelands. track. The plan is to replace 10% of the total The plantation over an area of 5 million hec- petro-diesel consumption by jatropha. The tares of wasteland – comprising degraded forest project has already started on a pilot scale. land, non-forest land, agricultural field bounda-P The Maharashtra Agro-forestry Department ries, public land along roads, irrigation channels has been actively encouraging growing of and railway tracts, etc. – is proposed to be under- jatropha in watershed development projects. taken in 200 districts of 19 states involving theP A similar project similar to Maharashtra is participation of various departments/organiza- being attempted in Madhya Pradesh. tions of agriculture and rural development minis-P The Planning Board of Haryana Government tries, NGOs, cooperative bodies, farmers’ groups, is planning to grow jatropha on 50 000 acres etc. Initially pilot plantations over an area of (5000 acres each year) to attract farmers to 50 000 hectares each in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya crop cycle diversification. Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh isP The Gujarat Agricultural University is plan- proposed to be undertaken during 2003/04. To ning the plantation of jatropha on wastelands facilitate oil extraction and transesterification, for income generation. three to four contiguous districts, on the basis of availability of wasteland, about 15 000 hectares per district, would be identified in these states. Besides undertaking new plantations, the existing collection of TBOs (tree-borne oilseeds) will also be enhanced by creating infrastructure facilities, like establishment of seed produce procurement and oil-expelling centres, in each of the identified potential states/districts of the country. Besides increasing the availability of vegetable oil, the seed procurement/collection operation is signifi- cant because the earnings of tribal collectors engaged in the collection of TBOs are to a larger extent dependent on the collection of seeds. eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004 8
  9. 9. In addition to providing employment to the joint forest management societies, NGOs, thetribal and other weaker sections of society, the corporate sector, corporations, etc.available forest resources would also be optimallyutilized with no additional requirement of land Sourcesand inputs. Each seed produce procurement would be provided with preprocessing and facilities such as a processing shed, godown, cleaner and grader, decorticator,, de-pulper, oil expeller, moisture meter, gf030224/jatropha-biodiesel.htmweighting bridge, etc. The farmers/seed collectors The Hindu Business Line, 4 January 2004will bring their seeds to these procurement The Statesman, 3 March 2004centres for disposal at remunerative prices. The The Hindu, 3 January 2003crushing of seeds will also be undertaken at these The Financial Express, 13 February 2003centres. The necessary facilities for storage of Business Standard, 8 March 2003oil at these centres will be set up. In each district, The Hindu, 22 May 20038–10 such centres would be set up through the Current research on renewable energy and environmentSudha P*, Somashekhar H I, Rao S, and Ravindranath N H**. 2003. Sustainable biomass production for energy inIndia. Biomass and Bioenergy 25(5): 501–515 *Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India **<> T his paper assesses the biomass production potential for energy and its financial viability for India. The scenarios considered for estimating estimated to vary from 930 to 4650 PJ (Peta Joules). It is projected that the energy con- sumption in 2010 will be 19 200 PJ; thus planta- the biomass potential are incremental to biomass tion biomass could supply about 5%–24% of demand, sustainable biomass demand, and full projected total energy consumption in 2010. The biomass demand. Under these scenarios, two key barriers to producing biomass for energy are situations have been considered: no increase in the lack of demand for wood for energy and cropland by 2010 and increase in cropland by financial incentives to promote bioenergy, low 10% over the 1995 area. Annually, 62–310 million productivity of plantations, inaccessibility of tonnes of wood could be generated from the genetically improved planting stock, inappropriate surplus land after meeting all the conventional silviculture practices for high yields of plantations, requirements of biomass such as domestic land tenurial barriers, and absence of institutions fuelwood, industrial wood, and sawnwood, requir- to integrate biomass production for energy and ing an investment of 168 780 billion rupees. The bioenergy utilities. annual energy potential of plantation biomass is (13 tables, 33 references)9 eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004
  10. 10. Shanavas A and Mohan Kumar B*. 2003. Fuelwood characteristics of tree species in homegardens of Kerala, India.Agroforestry Systems 58(1): 11–24*College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala 680 656, KAU PO, Thrissur, India,<>Indiscriminate use of natural resources in the past dehiscent rubber [Hevea braziliensis] pericarp)has lead to fuelwood shortages in many parts of were evaluated. Variations were abound in thethe tropical world. To surmount this domestic calorific values and physical properties of speciesenergy crisis, not only must degraded sites be and tissue-types. In general, the sequence forplanned with trees having high fuel value poten- combustion of heat and specific gravity weretial but also must agro-forestry be promoted on heartwood, sapwood, bark; while mean ash per-arable lands. To enable the choice of species for centage followed the reverse order (bark,such energy plantations/agro-forests in the humid sapwood, heartwood). Ash content had a negativetropics of peninsular India, the author assessed the correlation with combustion of heat, but specificheat of combustion and physical properties that gravity exerted a positive influence. Furthermore,determine the combustion of the phyto-fuels such ash content and wood specific gravity were in-as ash content, specific gravity, and moisture con- versely related. Although green moisture contenttent. Bark and wood sample of 45-multipurpose tree increased in the order of bark, heartwood,species in home gardens of Kerala, India and three sapwood, but it failed to show any predictablefuel materials of local importance (coconut [Cocos relationship with combustion of heat.nucidera] endocarp, dried coconut spathe, and (24 references, 10 tables)Chavda T V and Philip S K*. 2002. Study of DC compressor based SPV powered refrigerator.SESI Journal 12(2): 101–108*SPRERI (Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute),Vallabh Vidhyanagar - 388 120 Gujarat, India<>Refrigerators working on DC (direct current) for rural applications would be 120 000 rupees.compressors are more suitable to work with SPV While the cost appears to be quite high when(solar photovoltaic) modules rather than the compared to a conventional AC refrigerator, yetconventional refrigerators working on AC (alter- this might be the only reliable and economicalnate current) compressors. This paper presents option for small refrigeration applications in manyresults of a study undertaken to design and test a sites. SPRERI (Sardar Patel Renewable Energy170-litre capacity DC compressor-based refrigera- Research Institute) is currently testing the systemtor integrated with a SPV power supply unit. in a village to obtain field data and also to reduceSpecifications of SPV system suitable for the the cost wherever possible. Use of a locally avail-purpose were formulated during the study. Based able refrigerator body with an imported compres-on the current costs prevailing in the market, it sor appears to be a promising option to reducewas estimated that the cost of a 170-litre solar the cost of the system.refrigerator along with SPV power supply system (7 figures, 7 tables, 3 references)Bhattacharya D K, Saxena S, Sharma V, and Ghosh D*. 2003. Development of solar yarn-drying machine-its perform-ance and techno-economic evaluation. IREDA News 14(2): 57–61*Northern India Textile Research Association, Sector 23, Raj Nagar, Gaziabad 201 002, IndiaThe energy requirement of the textile industry is a performance of the solar dryer has been found to beconsiderable fraction (9%) of the total energy quite beneficial and can save large quantities of fuel,requirement of India. Wet processing of textile alone if used in tandem with a conventional dryer. Thereconsumes 80% of this energy. This paper discusses is a need to undertake further studies to establishthe development of a solar yarn-drying machine, its this technology in the industry.performance and techno-economic evaluation. The (4 tables) eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004 10
  11. 11. Babu G V, Sharat A and Nagaraju J*. 2002. Solar decolorization of Rhodamine B dye using concentrating collectors.SESI Journal 12(2): 73–80*Solar Energy and Thermal Instrumentation Laboratory, Department of Instrumentation, Indian Institute ofScience, Bangalore 560 012, India <>The widespread presence of persistent organic trough concentrating collectors with TiO2 (Degussachemicals as pollutants in wastewater effluents P25) as the catalyst to detoxify Rhodamine B in anfrom industrial and other sources continues to be aqueous solution. The influence of photo catalysta serious environmental problem. As a cleaner and its mode of operation, addition of hydrogenalternative to conventional decontamination peroxide, insertion of twisted tapes into the receivertechnologies, TiO2 (titanium dioxide) mediated tube, and the intensity of solar irradiance on thesolar detoxification of organic pollutants is gaining reaction rate were investigated. It was observed thatwidespread approval. A detailed experimental the reaction rate varied with the square root of solarinvestigation was conducted on laboratory- and reactor concentration ratio.field-model solar reactors, both using parabolic (5 figures, 5 references)Filippini M*, Pachauri S**. 2004. Elasticities of electricity demand in urban Indian households.Energy Policy 32(3): 429–436*Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich Switzerland**<>In the past, several electricity demand studies Three electricity demand functions were eco-have been published on India based on aggregate nomically estimated using monthly data formacro data at the country or sub-national/state winter, monsoon, and summer season in order tolevel. Since the underlying theory of consumer understand the extent to which factors – such asdemand is based on the behaviour of individual income, prices, household size and other house-agents, the use of micro data, which reflects hold-specific characteristics – influence variationsindividual and household behaviour, more closely, observed in electricity demand in individualcan shed greater light on the nature of consumer households. The results show electricity demandresponses. In this paper, seasonal price and in- is income and price inelastic for all three seasons,come elasticities of electricity demand in the and that household, demographic, and geographi-residential sector of all urban area of India were cal variables are significant in determining theestimated for the first time using disaggregate electricity demand.level of survey data for about 30 000 households. (5 tables, 25 references)Reddy B S* and Balachandra P. 2003. Integrated energy-environment-policy analysis: a case study of India.Utilities Policy 11(2): 59–73*Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (East), Mumbai 400 065, India<>Various factors that influence the energy able energy planning) scenario was developed. Ademand in India and develop the energy and envi- comparison was made with the baseline scenario,ronmental outlook in the year 2010 have been which showed that the implementation of variousdiscussed in this paper. An integrated mathematical policy measures reduces the energy consumptionmodel incorporating various factors – such as GDP levels and improves the environment. The energy-(gross domestic product), population growth, related carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 are pro-energy intensity, environmental policies – was jected to decrease by about 13% (relative todeveloped. Using this framework, an SEP (sustain- baseline scenario). (12 tables, 4 figures, 7 references)11 eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004
  12. 12. Rana V*, Santosh, Kohli S**, and Yadvika. 2002. Pilot study on use of fixed film technique for performance enhance-ment of cowdung based biogas plants. SESI Journal 12(2): 93–100*Center for Rural Development and Appropriate Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IndianInstitute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India **<>Use of fixed technique or biofilters for enhancing investigated. The data of daily gas productionbiogas production with substrates of high solids has been collected for one year. The iron meshcontent has been explored to a very limited extent biofilter gave 10%–24% more gas, while thein the past for reactors of very small size and data stone chip biofilter performed more or less thecollected over a short duration. The present work same as compared with the control reactor. Thefocuses on the use of a new biofilter, which is an study suggests the superiority of matrix-likeiron mesh in a matrix-like configuration in a configuration of biofilters as of iron mesh inlarger size reactor with a capacity of 400 litres comparison with lumped configuration as ofwith cowdung slurry as the substrate. The use of stone chips.stone chips as biofilter material has also been (3 figures, 14 references)Kaushik S C*, Tyagi S K, and Mohan S. 2003. Performance evaluation of an irreversible Striling heat engine cycle.International Journal of Ambient Energy 24(3): 149–156*Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110016, IndiaThe Stirling engine has attracted the attention of tion. The expressions for maximum power outputseveral generations of engineers and physicists due and the corresponding thermal efficiency wereto it potential to provide high conversion of derived. The effects of various parameters such asefficiency. However, the Stirling engine has not been the effectiveness on the source- and sink-side andused practically due to limitations in its technology. the regenerative heat exchangers, and the internalAn irreversible heat engine model with a finite heat irreversibility parameter were studied in detail. Itcapacity of external reservoirs was used to evaluate was found that the effectiveness of the regeneratorthe performance of a Stirling heat engine. The affects only the thermal efficiency, while the effec-external irreversibilities were due to the finite tiveness of heat capacitance rates of the hot- andtemperature difference between the heat engine and cold-side heat exchangers, and the internal irrevers-external reservoirs as well as the direct heat leak loss ibility affect both the parameters. The effects of thebetween the source and the sink, while the internal internal irreversibility parameter were found to beirreversibilities were due to the regenerative heat more than those of the other parameters on maxi-loss and the other entropy generated during the two mum power output and the corresponding thermalisothermal processes in the cycle. The power output efficiency.was adopted as an objective function for optimiza- (4 figures, 9 references)Chandel S S*, Aggarwal R K, and Pandey A N. 2002. A new approach to estimate global solar radiation on horizontalsurfaces from temperature data. SESI Journal 12(2): 109–114*State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, Himachal Pradesh, B 34, SDA Complex, Kasumpti,Shimla 171 009, India <>This paper presents a new correlation model for model corresponding to three locations (namelyestimating monthly average values of global solar Amritsar, Delhi and Shillong). The study showsradiation from ambient air temperature data. The that the new model predicts better values ofmodel closely follows Allen’s model and considers global solar radiation as compared to otherthe effects of latitude and altitude of the location. models.Numerical calculations were made using the new (1 table, 3 figures, 6 references) eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004 12
  13. 13. Dung T Q*, Anisuzzaman M, Kumar S**, and Bhattacharya S C. 2003. Demonstration of multi-purpose battery chargingstation for rural electrification. Renewable Energy 28(15): 2367–2378*Solar Laboratory, 01 Mac Dinh Chi St., 01 District, Ho Chi Minh City,Vietnam **<>A 1-kWp multi-purpose BCS (battery charging telephone. The local and the district governmentstation) as a rural electrification system installed in actively participated in implementing the BCS,a remote village in Vietnam provides charging which has resulted in its continued operation sincefacility to the batteries brought by users and also its installation in 1998. The details of the site selec-supplies electricity to a cultural centre. About 45 tion, technical and financial management of thefamilies charge their batteries (20–50 ampere-hour BCS are described in this paper. An analysis of thecapacity) for lighting, and for coloured or black- systems’ operation and use of the facility illustrateand-white TV sets. The BCS has provided better the factors that need to be considered for thehealth services, new entertainment opportunities, successful implementation of BCS in remote ruraland connected the isolated village to the world areas of developing countries.through a photovoltaic-powered radio (4 figures, 4 tables, 9 references)Mirza U K*, Maroto-Valer M M, and Ahmad N. 2003. Status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 7(6): 501–514*The Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, 209 Academic Projects Building, University ParkP A 16802, USPakistan lies in an area of one of the highest solar Pakistan has been discussed. The role of a researchinsolation in the world. This vast potential can be and development organization in promotion hasexploited to generate electricity for off-grid commu- been presented. It concludes that the currentnities in the northern hilly area and the southern infrastructure has not been able to advance theand western deserts. Besides electricity production, status of solar energy of Pakistan and significantother applications such as solar water heaters and efforts are needed to utilize this cheap renewablesolar cookers also have vast potential. In this paper, energy source.the status and outlook of solar energy use in (1 table, 3 figures, 20 references)Dasappa S*, Sridhar H V, Paul P J, and Mukunda H S. 2003. Biomass gasification-a substitute to fossil fuel for heatapplication. Biomass and Bioenergy 25(6): 637–649*Center for ASTRA, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India<>This paper highlights case studies of low- and downstream process similar to diesel burner. Thehigh-temperature industrial heating requirements high-temperature application is meant for a heatbeing met using biomass gasification. The gasifi- treatment furnace in the temperature range ofcation system for these applications consists of an 873–1200 K. A 300 kg per hour of biomassopen top-down draft reburn reactor lined with gasifier replaces 2000 litre of diesel or light dieselceramic. Necessary cooling and cleaning systems oil per day completely. The novelty of this pack-are incorporated into the package to meet the age is the use of one gasifier to energize 16 burn-end-use requirements. Drying of marigold flower, ers in 8 furnaces with different temperaturea low-temperature application, has been consid- requirements. The system operates over 140 hoursered to replace diesel fuel in the range of 125–150 per week on a nearly non-stop basis over 4000 hourslitre per hour. Gas from the 500 kg per hour of operation replacing fossil fuel completely.gasifier system is piped into the producer gas (6 tables, 10 figures, 4 references)burners fixed in the combustion chamber with the13 eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004
  14. 14. Technological developmentsA new mercury detection method forms precipitates when it comes in contact with mercury. If the fish is contaminated, theM ercury contamination in fish is a serious health concern. Methyl mercury con-tamination occurs when mercury pollution from liquid changes its colour and becomes colour- less. The addition of a drop of dye allows the quantification of mercury contamination in fish.automobile emissions or industrial waste washes Indian Journal of Environmental Protectioninto the ocean or groundwater. Aquatic organ- 2002 22(11): 1297isms convert normal mercury ions into methylmercury and release the compound into the Adsorbed ozone cleans up wastewaterwater. Scientists at the US-based Scripps Re-search Institute have developed a screening A team of chemical engineers at the Universitymethod that can detect mercury contamination of Bradford, the UK has developed an efficientin fish. The method reported is fast and inex- method to trap high concentrations of ozone bypensive. The new method for mercury detection adsorbing it in beads of silica gel. Usually, ozoneuses a solution that changes colour if mercury gas is treated by pumping ozone through water.traces are found in fish. To test, a tiny pellet of However, the process can be very slow. Byfish tissue is placed in a tube with a few drops adsorbing in beads of silica gel, the ozone oxi-of acid and enzyme solution, which digests the dizes organic compounds 10 times more effi-tissue within a few hours. The mixture is then ciently than the conventional method. Once allstirred with a special dip-stick coated with a the ozone gets adsorbed, the beads can beresin. The dip-stick is then put into another recharged by simply drying the beads and thentube containing a mild acid that extracts the pumping more ozone through it.mercury from the resin, and then a few drops of Indian Journal of Environmental Protectionsolution is added into the tube. This solution 2002 22(11): 1298Web updatesSolar Electric Light Fund energy. Services are provided even to implement the suggestions and monitor actual savings. The study covers energy accounting, analysis ofS ELF (Solar Electric Light Fund, Inc.) is a non-profit charitable organization in Indiato develop and facilitate solar rural electrifica- specific energy consumption, performance of all major energy consumers/converters and distribu- tion systems. This web site provides the informa-tion and energy self-sufficiency in developing tion on the activities and achievements of Senergy.countries. The web site gives information aboutthe current events in the solar community,SELF’s renewable energy projects, solar electric- Biodiversity online: quick guideity, and photovoltaic technology. SciDev.Net has created a one-stop online guide,Energy audit which provides up-to-date information on biodiversity challenges faced by developingSenergy is an ISO 9001-2000 certified company countries. It looks at issues surrounding the needin Mumbai providing tailor-made solutions to to protect global biodiversity in developingoptimize energy consumption. It conducts countries and the need to promote social andenergy audits covering electrical and thermal economic growth. eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004 14
  15. 15. SD Gateway food, income and environmental quality’, in every country and for all people. The organiza- tion works directly with people to build a better The SD Gateway integrates online information world by helping increase agricultural productiv- developed by members of the Sustainable Devel- ity and rural employment while protecting the opment Communications Network. In addition environment. It is also working on a substitute to access over 1200 documents available on for petrol and diesel for a clean transport fuel sustainable development topics, the web site and a pollution-free environment. WII runs provides services such as a calendar of events, a multi-disciplinary programmes that are sustain- job bank, the Sustainability Web Ring. (This able, which means the project leads to long-term Internet tool allows users to navigate easily benefits for the end-user. between web sites that deal with the principles, policies, and best practices for sustainable devel- opment.) By following the links through the web ring, information from around the world can be found on how to deal with crucial issues such as was started in 1998 by a group climate change, cleaner production, waste, of renewable energy professionals who wanted poverty, consumerism, natural resource manage- their work to relate to their passion for solar ment, and governance, mailing lists (listservs), energy, wind power, and other forms of renew- and news sites. able energy. With this passion for renewable energy and their desire to create a long-term Portal sustainable (and, of course, a successful) busi- ness, they created perhaps the single-most recog- This portal is maintained by WII (Winrock nized and trusted source for renewable energy International India), which is an NGO registered on the Internet. By offering value-added infor- under the Indian Societies Act and is based in mation services via the Internet, their mission is New Delhi. WII’s mission is to ‘develop and to help promote the use of renewable energy implement solutions that balance the need for worldwide. eNREE invites contributions eNREE is meant for ENVIS members and all stakeholders interested in advancing, promoting, and sharing the knowledge in renewable energy and environment in India and abroad. We sin- cerely welcome your help in enriching this newsletter by sending us articles, case studies, etc. and also welcome feedback on the contents of the newsletter to help us make it more informative and rich in content. Please send in your contributions to Mr Shantanu Ganguly Editor Tel. 2468 2100 or 2468 2111 TERI, Darbari Seth Block E-mail Habitat Place, Lodhi Road Fax 2468 2144, 2468 2145 New Delhi – 110 003, India India + 91 • Delhi (0)1115 eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004
  16. 16. Conferences/Workshops/SeminarsEnvironment30 June–2 July 2004 Air Pollution 2004Rhodes, Greece Wessex Institute of Technology, Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst, Southampton SO40 7AA, United Kingdom Tel. 44 238 029 3223 • Fax 44 238 029 2853 E-mail • Web site–9 September 2004 GHGT-7th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control TechnologiesVancouver BC, Canada GHGT-7 Secretariat, Ted Morris, GHGT-7 Secretariat, Suite150, 10 Research Drive, Regina, Sk S4S 7J7, Canada Tel. 1 306 337 2290 • Fax 1 306 337 2301 E-mail • Web site energy7–9 April 2004 Asia Renewable Energy Conference and Exhibition (REAsia 2004)Beijing, China Ms Vivian Li, Project Assistant of Renewable Energy Fairs, Grace Fair International Limited, Room 1311, Tower A, Zhongypun Building, Wangjing New Industrial Zone, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100 012, China Tel. 86 10 64390338 • Fax 86 10 6439 0339 E-mail • Web site http://www.gracefair.com3–7 May 2004 WREN International Seminar.Brighton, UK Mr Mark Hopkins, Project Director, British Council Seminars,1 Beaumont Place, Oxford OX1 2PJ, United Kingdom Tel. 44 1865 302 710 • Fax 44 1865 557 368 E-mail • Web site seminars28 June–1 July 2004 Renewables 2004: International Conference on New and Renewable EnergyEvora, Portugal Technologies for Sustainable Development Ms Maria Fernanda Afonso, Conference Secretary, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon, Portugal Tel. 351 21 8417 378 • Fax 351 21 8475 545 E-mail • Web site–10 July 2004 North American Conference of IAEE/USAEEWashington, DC, US USAEE Conference Headquarters, 28790 Chagrin Blvd., Ste 350, Cleveland, OH 44122, US Tel. 216 464 2785 • Fax 216 464 2768 E-mail • Web site August–3 September 2004 World Renewable Energy Congress VII & ExpoColarado, US Ms Ivilina Thornton, Senior Events Specialist, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS 1623, Golden, Colorado, 80401, US Tel. 1 303 275 3781 • Fax 1 303 275 4320 E-mail • Web site–23 October 2004 World Renewable Energy Council/Network (WREN) International Seminars inBrighton, UK Britain: Renewable Energy Policy, Security, Innovation, Industry and Sustainability Contact: World Renewable Energy Network, PO Box 362, Brighton, BN2 1YH, UK Tel. 44 1273 625 643 • Fax 44 1273 625 768 E-mail • Web site eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004 16
  17. 17. About TERI A dynamic and flexible organization with a global vision and a local focus, TERI was established in 1974. While in the initial period the solutions to make the world a better place to live in. While TERI’s vision is global, its roots are firmly entrenched in Indian soil. It is with this purpose that focus was mainly on documentation and informa- TERI has established regional centres in Bangalore, tion dissemination, research activities in the fields of Goa, Guwahati, and Kolkata, and a presence in Japan, energy, environment, and sustainable development and Malaysia. It has set up affiliate institutes — TERI- were initiated towards the end of 1982. The genesis North America in Washington, DC, USA, and TERI- of these activities lay in TERI’s firm belief that Europe in London, UK. efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of With a staff strength of over 500, drawn from natural resources, large-scale adoption of renewable multidisciplinary and highly specialized fields, offices energy technologies, and reduction of all forms of and regional centres equipped with state-of-the-art waste would move the process of development facilities, and a diverse range of activities, TERI is the towards the goal of sustainability. largest developing-country institution working to move A unique developing-country institution, TERI is human society towards a sustainable future. TERI deeply committed to every aspect of sustainable makes effective use of the latest developments in development. From providing environment-friendly modern information technology in both its in-house solutions to rural energy problems to helping shape and outreach activities. TERI lays great emphasis on the development of the Indian oil and gas sector; from training, capacity building, and education. In 1999, it tackling global climate change issues across many set up the TERI School of Advanced Studies, recog- continents to enhancing forest conservation efforts nized as a deemed university by the University Grants among local communities; from advancing solutions to Commission, India. The TERI School is evolving as a growing urban transport and air pollution problems to research university, offering doctoral and master’s promoting energy efficiency in the Indian industry, the programmes in bioresources, biotechnology, energy, emphasis has always been on finding innovative environment, and regulatory and policy studies. ENVIS Centre on Renewable Energy and Environment E NVIS (Environmental Information System) was established as a plan programme under the MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forests), nition, solution of problems, capacity building, and information dissemination activities. The Centre has identified the areas where data gaps exist in the Government of India, in December 1982. TERI has renewable energy and environmental sectors: been hosting the ENVIS Centre on Renewable environmental impact of power, renewable energy Energy and Environment since July 1984. The and transport sector, pollution control technolo- major objectives are collection and dissemination of gies, hazardous wastes management, environmental information to support and promote research, devel- laws and regulations, environmental economics, opment, and innovation in environmental information and environmental planning, management and technology. Besides, TERI also hosts the EMCB policies. (Environmental Capacity Building) Node on Renew- At the TERI ENVIS Centre, conscious efforts able Energy and Environment since 2000/01 with are being made to bridge these data gaps by wider ENVIS as a sub-component. The objective of the information dissemination through journal publish- EMCB node is to build capacity in India through ing, query response service, document delivery development and maintenance of a web site as an service, capacity-building initiatives, and related information clearing house for the identified sector. activities. The library of the Centre subscribes to Since its inception, TERI ENVIS Centre and different journals, books, and CD-ROMs relevant EMCB Node have been actively engaged in re- to its scope and activities to remain updated and source generation, data collection, problem recog- provide value-added services.P Editor Shantanu Ganguly P Assistant Editor Shehnaz Ahmed17 eNREE • Vol. 1 Issue 1 • March 2004