Role of BioFuels in Global Warming Mitigation in India
Role of Bio-Fuels in the Indian Transport Sector Regional WorkshopClimate Change Mitigation in the Transport Sector Aditi Dass Winrock International India ADB, May 24-25, 2006
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Biofuel Options in India• Biodiesel - non-edible tree borne (TBOs) seeds – Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) – Jatropha curcas (Ratan Jyot) – Azadirachta Indica (Neem) – Shorea robusta (Sal)• Bioethanol – molasses: a byproduct of sugar industry
Government Actions on BiodieselYear Agency/ Actions Body2002 Government Committee on Development of Biofuels (CDB) of India constituted within the Planning CommissionApril Planning CDB recommended adoption of biofuels2003 Commission program - bio-diesel produced from oil bearing seeds of jatropha curcas as substitute for HSD Phase I - demonstration project 5 years – jatropha cultivation in 0.4 mh especially in wastelands – State Forest Departments, under supervision of MoEF, State Departments of Rural Development, Panchayati Raj and Agriculture would be involved. Phase II - self expansion of biodiesel program Contd….
Government Actions on BiodieselYear Agency/ Body ActionsAugust Ministry of Rural Identified as the nodal ministry. In2003 Development addition, biodiesel development boards (MoRD) have been formed in various statesJanuary MoRD DPR for the pilot phase (Jatropha2005 plantations on 400,000 ha).October Ministry of Bio-diesel purchase policy announced.2005 Petroleum and •From 2006, oil companies to purchase Natural Gas biodiesel at Rs.25/litre for blending with (MoPNG). diesel, through 20 purchase centres •The biodiesel should meet the norms set by the Bureau of Indian Standards •Extent of blending to increase from 5% to 20% in phases
State level policies and activitiesAndhra Pradesho Jatropha plantation on 40,000 acres during 2005-06o Free seedling material to Jatropha cultivation farmerso Grant to BPL (below poverty line) families to cover plantation costo INR 9.85 million for R & D on biofuelo Reduction in value added tax (VAT) to the biodiesel industriesUttaranchalo Uttaranchal Biofuel Board created to coordinate biofuel activities.o Plantation of Jatropha is being taken up on un-irrigated degradedforest-land o Plantation during 2004-05: 360 Ha o Plantation during 2005-06:10,000 Ha o Plantation planned till 2012: 200,000 Hao State Government signed agreement with private company toprocess 600,000 tonnes of Jatropha seeds to bio-diesel
State level policies and activitiesChattisgarh• Biofuel development authority from 26th January, 2005 under theChattisgarh Renewable Energy Development Agency• 80 million Jatropha seedlings planted during 2005• Target for 2006 - 160 million Jatropha seedlings• Most of these plantations are on government wasteland andfallow land• Pilot demonstration plantation in 300 acres of land of farmers ineach district.
KSRTC experience: use of pongamia oil in buses• Trials of 10% oil blend in 2 new buses taken up in 2004• Performance compared with 2 new diesel buses running on same route.• Initial problems in achieving proper mixing of pongamia oil with diesel solved by adding an enzyme-based additive• Cost of additive is INR 2200/litre and 1 litre of additive added in 6000 litres of fuel.• 12.5% mileage improvement observed in comparison with diesel buses• Slightly higher maintenance costs as fuel filters replaced after every 8,000 km (10,000 km on diesel operation)• Current market price of pongamia oil is INR 28/litre compared to price of diesel at INR 37/litre.• Overall saving of INR 3/litre by using blended diesel
Biodiesel Resources• Tree borne oil seeds• More than 300 different species of trees producing oil- bearing seeds. Current utilization of non-edible oilseeds is very lowOil source Botanical Potential Current % of name quantity (t/yr) utilization (t/yr) utilizatio nRice-bran Oryza sativa 474,000 101,000 21Sal Shorea 720,000 23,000 3 robustaNeem Melia 400,000 20,000 5 azadirachtaKaranja Pongamia 135,000 81,000 6 pinnata Source: Subramanian et. al, 2005
Wasteland AvailabilitySource Area Estimate/ (mha) scientificNational Commission on Agriculture (NCA-1976) 175.00 EDirectorate of Economics and Statistics, Department 38.40 Eof Agriculture and CooperationMinistry of Agriculture (1982) 175.00 EDepartment of Environment and Forests (B.B. Vohra) 95.00 ENational Wasteland Development Board (Ministry of 123.00 EEnvironment and Forests, 1985)National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use 187.00 EPlanning, ICAR-1994Society for Promotion of Wasteland Development 129.58 E(SPWD-1984)National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA-2000) 63.85 S
Diesel and Biodiesel DemandYear Diesel Bio- Bio- Bio- Potential vis-à-vis Dmd diesel diesel diesel different yield levels MMT (5%) (10%) (20%) MMT MMT MMT Yield level Production (ton of (63.85 Mha)2001-0 39.81 1.99 3.98 7.96 seeds/ year )22006-0 52.33 2.62 5.23 10.47 1 13.7772011-1 66.90 3.35 6.69 13.38 2 27.5422020-2 111.92 5.60 11.20 22.38 3 41.3112030-3 202.84 10.14 20.28 40.56 4 55.081 5 68.9438 Mha of wasteland required for 20%blending by 2030 with yield of 5 tons/ha
Ethanol• Production from following sources – Sugarcane - Major source of ethanol production in India. Average sugarcane productivity is about 70 MT per/ ha and ethanol productivity is 70 lt/ 1 MT of sugarcane. – Sugar beet: Sugar beet cultivation and its processing to ethanol needs to be promoted in the country – Starch (grain, corn etc) - Corn oil is edible and its use in India for production of ethanol is not economically feasible. – Cellulosic biomass: currently, economics are not favourable.
Government Actions on EthanolYear Agency/ Body Actions1979 Ministry of Constituted an interdepartmental committee to Petroleum, look at the opportunities for blending of alcohol Chemicals and with petrol Fertilisers IIP, Dehradun Trials were conducted on ethanol-petrol mix at three locations2001 MoPNG Launched pilot projects to test the feasibility of doping petrol with 5% ethanol.2002 MoPNG Allow the sale of 5% ethanol doping2002 GOI surcharge @ Rs 6/lt on petrol compared to Rs. 5.25/- 03 lt on ethanol doped petrol2003 GOI E5 made mandatory in 9 states and 4 UTs AP, Gujarat, UP, TN, Karnataka, Mah, Punjab, Haryana, Goa, UT - Damman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Chandigarh, Pondicherry
Government Actions on EthanolYear Agency/ Actions Body2004 Petroleum Doping of ethanol made mandatory under Ministry following conditions: 2. Price of indigenous ethanol should be comparable to price of indigenous ethanol for alternative uses. 3. Delivery price of ethanol at the location should be comparable to the import parity price of petrol at that location 4. Indigenous delivery price of ethanol at a particular location is comparable to the IPP of petrol at that location.2005 Indian ISMA were acting as nodal agencies for oil Sugar Mills industry and sugar industry respectively. Association (ISMA)
Ethanol ProductionYear Ethanol Potable Industry Other use Surplus Production Use Use M lt M lt M lt M Lt M lt1999-0 1654.0 622.7 518.9 57.6 455.802001-0 1775.2 647.8 539.8 59.9 527.722003-0 1969.2 693.7 578.0 70.0 627.542006-0 2300.4 765.2 631.4 81.0 822.87• gasoline dmd expected to increase from 7.9 MT to 16.4 MT in 2016-17• current availability of molasses and alcohol is adequate to meet thisrequirement after addressing the needs of chemical industry andpotable sectors
Markets for biofuels as transportation fuelBiodiesel• Commercial biodiesel production is yet to start• Current usage is limited to trials on vehicles and lab experiments• Current market price of biodiesel varies from INR 55 -110/ lt• Cost of Jatropha biodiesel is high (INR 80-110/lt) as Jatropha seeds are in high demand for raising new plantationsBio-ethanol• During Mar 2003 to Sep 2004, 0.37 billion liters of ethanol purchased by the oil industry as part of the 5% ethanol blending program• During 2003-04, sugar cane production went down due to drought and ethanol producers were unable to meet demand of oil companies• During 2003-05, ethanol prices increased from INR 15.50/l to INR 19.50/lt
Increase in the prices of petrol and diesel (as of August 2005)Date Price of Indian Petrol* Diesel* basket of crude (INR/litre) (INR./litre) (US$/ barrel)01.04.2003 27.09 33.49 22.1201.04.2004 31.86 33.70 21.7401.04.2005 50.16 37.99 28.2201.07.2005 54.23 40.49 28.4501.08.2005 54.14 40.49 28.45 •Retail prices in Delhi
Petrol/Diesel price build up in Delhi August 12, 2005Sl. Elements of pricing Value ValueNo (Petrol) (Diesel) (INR) (INR)1 Ex-storage point price (from 17.969 19.672 depots, terminals)2 Freight and other charges, etc. 00.143 00.1343 Sales Tax, Surcharge on ST, 21.530 08.135 Excise Duty, Cess and other statutory levies4 Dealer commission 00.848 00.5095 Total retail selling price per litre 40.490 28.45053% of the prices of petrol and 28.50% of the prices of dieselare due to taxes, duties, cess, etc
Bio-fuel priceEthanol INR 19.55/ lt molasses (INR 5,000/ ton in 2004), stabilize around INR2,500/ ton during 2005 ethanol at around INR 19/ lt. alcohol beverage manufacturers (40-45% of molasses), areshifting towards grain-based alcoholBiodiesel INR 55-110/ lt, artificially high prices expected to come down as harvest from the newplantations would become available projected prices of biodiesel in various studies ranges fromINR 16 – 50/ lt.
Issues/ ConcernsFood Security• Food grain production increased from average of 187 MT during Five Year Plan Period (1992-97) to 202 MT per annum during IX Plan period (1997 – 2002), although average area under food grain production had remained constant at around 122 mha• Increase food production by over 50% in the next two decades• Appx. 56% is arable land, used only for about 3 months during the monsoon period. Adequate energy for irrigation, enable production of current levels of food grains, fruits and vegetables from a smaller area by multiple cropping contd …
Issues/ ConcernsEnergy• About 125,000 villages in India are non-electrified/ poor, erratic and unreliable supply and farmers depend on diesel pump-sets for irrigation• Biofuels can help substitute a part of thisEnvironmental sustainability of biofuel• Environmental impacts of biofuels need to be studied in detail• Experiments in India on biodiesel use in vehicles have shown reduction in some important air pollutants
Benefits of biofuel• Generation of new employment opportunities in raising, reaping and processing of biofuel crops• Addition to the renewable energy options for decentralised distributed generation (DDG) of electricity and for motive power applications (water pumping, milling, etc.) in energy deficient rural India• Greening of wastelands and regeneration of degraded forest-lands, thereby helping in ecorestoration and preventing further land degradation• Better environmental performance through reduction in vehicular pollution and GHG emissions• Biofuels in vehicles results in reduction of SO2, particulate matter, CO, etc.
Biofuel in India - Challenges Produce large quantities of biofuels at prices competitive with fossil fuel products• Deal with issue of land ownership. The land ceiling laws vary from state to state, for which resources need to be mobilized as per different kinds of farming.• Putting in place the back-to-back arrangements from farmer to expeller to bio-diesel manufacturer to final consumers is necessary for the successful implementation of the bio-diesel policy.• Financial viability of the biodiesel is yet to be proven. The varied experience in yield levels and crop management practices has led to hesitation for planting biofuel crops
Life cycle analysis for various fuelsSource: Central Pollution Control Board, GOI, 2002
Biodiesel: pilot trials and lab-scale experiments • Daimler Chrysler carried out trials with 100% Jatropha biodiesel on Mercedes-Benz C220 CDI car during 2004. Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSMCRI) supplied 1,200 litres of Jatropha biodiesel for the trials. Covered 6,000 km successfully with average mileage of 13.5 km/litre • Trail by Indian railways on diesel locomotive using 5,000 litres of imported soybean biodiesel blends (B10, B20, B50, B100) during April-May 2004 • State Road Transport Corporations of Haryana, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Indian vehicle manufacturers - Tata Motors, and Mahindra & Mahindra carrying out trials with biodiesel blends.
Bioethanol Resourcs•Area under sugar cane production > 2.5 times since 1950-51• In recent years both area and yield stagnatedYear Area Yield • 1.77 billion litres ethanol produced in 2001-02; 70% (potable/ industrial use), (000 (t/ha) balance 0.53 billion litres for fuel ha) • Dependence on single source –1950- 1,707 32.10 sugarcane molasses.51 •Availability expected to increase as the alcohol beverage manufacturers1960- 2,415 45.50 (40-45% of molasses), shifting towards61 grain-based alcohol.1970- 2,615 48.30 • Commercial production of alternate crops, like sweet sorghum, Cellulose71 materials etc1980- 2,667 57.80 2004 Source: Singh J P,