Vol. XIII No. 1                                              January - March 2011                                         ...
OIL TECHNOLOGISTS’                        ASSOCIATION OF INDIA                           WESTERN ZONE                 EDIT...
From the Editors’s Desk     New year and new adventures. OTAI and IHPCIA work-     ing in tandom will show new avenues in ...
Trade & Commerce              DISTRESSING                                    at farming as a profession?     45% of farmer...
It is a very serious problem. Tenancy reforms           with those of the corresponding quarter of the pre-need to get foc...
food, drugs and cosmetics. Since then the food              is a gigantic task and the UPA government’s ef-supply has grow...
clude home products (28.7%), beverages (12%)              time item, which includes the sale of property.and processed foo...
Technology              INTERESTING                                                    SEARCH             New Developments...
CURIOUS                                    more allergies observed among people who use                                   ...
the US, is that there is no system in the country           A GMO is an organism whose genetic materialthat can help the c...
the consumer, retailer, and brand marketer per-              house in the personal care market. L’Oreal,spective. These fo...
to plant-derived proteins for the likes of skin and      built a “green” portfolio, much work remains to behair products. ...
stock feed for biodiesel processing plants all over           claims “Simply Organic” and “Naturally Organic.”India.”     ...
KNOW HOW                                             NOW, AIRCRAFT          Biodiesel production from                     ...
tests on military derivatives of commercial en-              would build the refinery,” says Todaro.gines, which will help...
biofuels from idea to reality, UOP is turning its at-      pacity to supply natural oils without going to bio-tention to n...
project is funded (•2 million) for five years.                        MEXICO TO JATROPHAUnfertile lands in the Wale-wale a...
DARE IT                                bel brands during the recession; commodity and                                     ...
ness models” was answered in part by Martin Wolf             cycle becomes something that is important forof Seventh Gener...
pan (38,408), the United States (27,656), and                Co-sponsors of the meeting included the Ameri-Germany (10,145...
search community. These included the choles-                mors. There was also a 30% reduction in tumorterol-lowering ef...
cently rejected a petition for a soy protein health      Self Determination Dossier for SE5-OH.claim similar to the one ap...
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
Jatropha: Alive And Kicking
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Jatropha: Alive And Kicking

  1. 1. Vol. XIII No. 1 January - March 2011 News Letter OIL TECHNOLOGISTS’ ASSOCIATION OF INDIA WESTERN ZONE Inside This Issue • The Soap Opera • Green Trend • Be Natural • Mushrooms cosmetic magic • Biomass & Surfactants • Ecofriendly Soaps • Jatropha - alive and Kicking This news letter is for free circulation only to the members of OTAI-WZ C/o. Department of Oils, Oleochemicals & Surfactants Institute of Chemical Technology Tel.: 91-22-32972206/91-22-24146526 (Formerly UDCT) Fax: +91-22-24124017 Nathalal Parekh Marg Email: info@otai-westernzone.org Matunga (East), Mumbai-400 019 Website: www.otai-westernzone.org INDIA. 1 1 Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ)
  3. 3. From the Editors’s Desk New year and new adventures. OTAI and IHPCIA work- ing in tandom will show new avenues in technology and economics. Exciting events will blister the new road maps. Come December - An International Conference on Soaps, Detergents and Cosmetics will unveil the splendour of progress in the field in India and all over the world. The stage will be set for mutual exchange of technologies and commerce. There will be good ex- change of ideas from abroad but India will show case its own progress. The lead team is leaving no stone unturned to make it a grand spectacle. Hard thinking and ambitious ideas will sizzle in the event. Do you want to pitch in? Get on the phone. Now or E-mail your ideas to OTAI- Western Zone. Hurry. Time is running out. 3 3 Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ)
  4. 4. Trade & Commerce DISTRESSING at farming as a profession? 45% of farmers want to quit farming If farmers are committing suicide, why should Swaminathan they come to farming? Farming sector is facing a number of problems. Unless we attend to them, the younger generation will not take to farming. I Prof M.S. Swaminathan, the father of Green have asked the students to look at different as-Revolution and Chairman of National Commission pects of agriculture in order to bring in technologyon Farmers (NCF) that called for revamp of poli- and value addition into the system. Besides, wecies to revitalise agriculture, says agricultural sec- need to minimise risks and increase support ser-tor in India is entering a state of serious crisis. vices such as insurance and credit. Quoting figures from National Sample Survey For different reasons more and more farmersOrganisation, he says half of the farmers in the are moving out of farming activity. Reports of shiftcountry want to quit farming. Prof Swaminathan, in land use patterns from agriculture to non-agri-who was here to deliver the Convocation Address culture are also causing a serious concern. Howat the Acharya N.G. Ranga Agriculture University do you view this problem?here on Thursday, called for the creation of spe-cific mitigation policies for each of the 128 agro- About 45 per cent of farmers interviewed by Na-climatic zones. In an interview, he speaks on the tional Sample Survey Organisation wanted to quitcurrent problems Indian agriculture faces and farming. The pressure on land is increasing andpossible solutions to tackle them. average size of land holdings is dwindling. Farm- ers are getting indebted and temptation to sell Farmers continue to commit suicide. Hundreds prime farm land for non-farm purpose is growingof tenant farmers are reported to have committed as land prices go up steeply. We need to improvesuicide in the last few days. Why this crisis con- productivity and profitability of small holdings.tinues to haunt farmers? How is climate change going to impact agricul- We are entering a state of agrarian crisis. This ture sector and what could be the strategies tocrisis has many dimensions. It is not a single or minimise risks?simple cause that is responsible for this. There isthe problem of high investments in some crops. We need to set up Climate Risk ManagementThere are problems peculiar to rain-fed and irri- Research and Training Centre in each of the 128gated lands. Farming has become unviable. The agro-climatic zones. We also should evolve poli-NCF has recommended cost of production plus cies for each of these zones and develop codes50 per cent. At present, they are giving 15 per cent for drought and flood management.more as against manifolds more in other indus-tries such as pharmaceuticals. Calamity relief mechanism too needs a change. The traditional way of sending Central teams to Probably, the Food Security Act would force the assess the damages and bargain with States onGovernment now to look at this issue seriously. relief will not work. This is not a way to deal withUnless we revitalise farming and make our farm- calamities. Money never reaches farmers on timeers enthusiastic it is difficult to feed 100 crore to invest in the next cropping season.people and 100 crore farm animals. It is going tobe a difficult period. Tenant farmers seem to be the worst hit as cri- sis hits agriculture sector. How do you view this Youth are shying away from agriculture. Why problem and what are your suggestions to over-is this happening and how do we make them look come this? 4OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ) Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011
  5. 5. It is a very serious problem. Tenancy reforms with those of the corresponding quarter of the pre-need to get focus as part of agrarian reforms. The vious year because of the acquisitions made byissues of owner cultivation, tenant cultivation, ab- the company since then.sentee landlords should get immediate focus.They should have a security of tenancy. Also, we “Enhanced penetration and improved volumesare seeing increase in contract cultivation. This have driven our sales growth. Continuing focusalso requires changes in regulation. It must be a on optimizing our category mx is also enablingwin-win situation (for owners and producers). us to improve our profitability,” GCPL Chairman Adi Godrej said. We need to have new systems of manage-ment. We need to put all pieces together. We don’t The company’s international operations havehave an integrated approach. In the West, they also performed strongly during the period, he said.call it farm to fork. So many Ministries and depart-ments are there to take care of water, rainwater, The company is eyeing acquisitions and in thefoodgrains and food processing. How are we go- next 12 months, we hope to complete some,” heing to deliver it as one offering to farmers would said.hold the key. The FMCG major is scouting for acquisition None of these problems are insurmountable. opportuni-ties all over the developing world besidesThey are problems created by us and we can find India, the company’s chairman said.solutions. It is right time to abandon indifferenceto agrarian problems. (Courtesy : Soaps, Detergents & Toiletries Review/December 2010) The Hindu Business Line, 31st December,2010. TAKE GOOD CARE (Courtesy : AICOSCA Newsletter, December,2010). Historic food safety & child nutrition laws in US “DO YOU KNOW” THE ailing US food safety system moved closer Godrej consumer products Q2 profit to towards its biggest overhaul in more than 70 grows to Rs. 131 Cr years after the House of Representatives passed legislation that would increase inspections and give regulators the power to recall tainted foods.FMCG players Godrej Consumer Products The Bill, named the PDA Food Safety(GCPL) reported a net profit of Rs.131 crore for Modernisation Act, would empower the US Foodthe second quarter ended September 30,2010. and Drug Administration (PDA) to order a food recall when a company refuses the agency’s re- The company had a net profit of Rs.83 crore in quest to do so voluntarily. It requires the PDA tothe quarter ended September 30,2009, Godrej inspect food facilities more often, expand its ac-Consumer Products said in a statement. cess to food facility records, and requires food producers and processors to identify possible The company also said its board of directors hazards and develop prevention plans. The legis-has declared a second interim dividend of Re 1 lation also aims to make imported food safer byper share for the financial year 2010-11. calling for more inspections of foreign food pro- duction facilities and requiring importers to verify During the period under review, the company’s the safety of foreign suppliers and imported food.net sales stood at Rs.575.59 crore in the corre-sponding quarter last fiscal. The company said The legislation would be the largest overhaul offigures for the current quarter are not comparable US food safety laws since 1938, when Congress gave the PDA the authority to give the safety of 5 5 Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ)
  6. 6. food, drugs and cosmetics. Since then the food is a gigantic task and the UPA government’s ef-supply has grown into a vast network dependent forts to bring in a Food Security Act has met withon more fresh foods and imported products, but roadblocks. India’s mid-day meal programme inoversight laws have largely failed to keep pace. schools is the biggest in the world, but is mired in corruption. As the country boasts of 9% GDP This is a big victory for consumers that finally growth, it is of paramount importance that we lookbrings food safety laws into the 21st century,” said into food security, food safety and child nutrition.lean Halloran, the director of food policy initiative While half of India lives in ostentatious luxury, weat Consumers Union. “For a long time we have cannot allow the other half to go hungry and mal-been saying that we needed to do a better job of nourished.making sure our food is safe, and under this Bill,we will,” she said. pn vnair@saffronmedia. Inyet another significant move President Barack (Courtesy : Ingredients South Asia, 1-15Obama has signed the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids January 2011)Act into law. Flanked by cabinet officials, top Demo-crats, and schoolchildren, Obama said that“across the country, too many kids don’t have “THE SOAP OPERA”access to healthy meals.” The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act will expand the number of children Soaps business holds the key to go’sin school lunch programmes by 115,000. increase prospectsthe reimbursement rate to school districts formeals by six cents, and replace the “junk” foodavailable outside the cafeteria, such as in vend- JWALIT WAS & KIRAN KABTTA SOMVANSHIing machines, with more healthful options. The$4.5 billion expansion of the school lunch Hindustan Unilevers (HUL) strategy to launch newprogramme, which feeds 16 million children, products in existing categories with higher pro-gained bipartisan support in the Senate.yet initially motional budget appears to have worked. Thestalled in the House before passing mostly along company reported substantial improvement inparty lines. overall sales volumes and margin for the Septem- ber 2010 quarter. In fact the numbers were the “Today is a great day for kids throughout our best in the last three quarters.country as they will soon have healthier, and morenutritious food in their schools,” said US secre- Though on a year-on-year basis, HULs num-tary of agriculture Tom Vilsack. ‘As we continue bers were lacklustre, what caught the Streets at-to focus on the twin issues of childhood obesity tention was a better rate of growth in volumes andand hunger, we will increase access to good, qual- operating profits compared with the previousity meals in school cafeterias so the nutritional quarters growth. Volumes, for instance, rose 14%needs of ouryoungsters are better met. The Presi- in the September quarter from the year-ago level.dent and First Lady have advocated strongly for This was better than the 11 % growth in the Junepassing the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of quarter. Also,, operating margin before deprecia-2010, and this Bill, along with the resources and tion was 16.3% as against 15.5% in the last quar-the powers provided under it, are going to allow ter. The performance of the soaps and detergentsUS FDA to be much more effective and aggres- business, the segment contributing almost 45%sive in responding to obesity and hunger chal- to HUL sales, has long remained a sore point forlenges for America’s kids.” the company. This is because of the difficulty to pass on the full impact of rising raw material costs In India, more than 30-35% of our population, to consumers. In the September quarter, however,especially, children below Syears are malnour- it increased prices of products in the category.ished. Child nutrition is a major concern for our This resulted in a higher year-on-year growth inplanners, but are handicapped by the sheer size sales and better margin compared with the previ-of the problem. Feeding a population of 1.2 billion ous quarter. Other revenue segments for HUL in- 6OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ) Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011
  7. 7. clude home products (28.7%), beverages (12%) time item, which includes the sale of property.and processed foods (4.6%), Compared with the Going ahead, food inflation is likely to ease givenyear-ago quarter, the sales growth in the home the better monsoon season. This should aid prof-products and processed food segments has been itability and increase the companys topline. Thegood but not as impressive as the soap & deter- companys stock increased by 1.4% after the re-gent and beverages categories. This can be sults announcement. In the last two months, It hasmainly attributed to the highly competitive nature increased 14.5%. Given that HULs earnings perof the industry and slow industry growth. In terms share has remained stagnant over the last fewof segment-wise net profits; of the four catego- quarters, the stocks current valuation seems tories, only processed food category has shown have factored in the possible future growth. Whileincrease in profitability. Despite growth in sales, the company has delivered improved numbers inthe remaining categories have showed decline in the September quarter, the performance of itsprofits mainly due to higher input costs. This ex- soaps and detergents business will determine theplains the 170 basis points decline in the overall extent i its future turn around.operating margin. Despite lower operating mar-gin, net profit grew by 32% mainly due to one- (Courtesy : Soaps, Detergents & Toiletries Review/December 2010) 7 7 Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ)
  8. 8. Technology INTERESTING SEARCH New Developments in Lack of Research-fit Development Cotton Technologies effort in cottonseed and cottonseed processing By Fred Bourland, University of Arkansas, USA HUGE amount of Research work is being car- ried out on cotton not only in India but all overCOTTONSEEDS were once considered as a the world. However, it is conspicuous by it ab-byproduct of cotton fiber production. Now, cotton- sence in case of cottonseed even though itseeds are important sources of oil and protein. forms two third portion of the seed cotton. WeHowever, utilization of cottonseed has been hin- are more interested in immediate researchdered by the present of gossypol, which renders work on removal of Gossyol from cottonseedthe seed inedible by non-ruminant animals. Con- meal which will open flood gates of demandsiderable work in the 1970’s led to the develop- both within and outside the country especiallyment of glandless cottons. These glandless cot- as poultry feed & fish meal. All over the worldtons did not accumulate gossypol in glands that cattle feed is assessed on the basis of proteinare associated with most plant parts. However, contents. However, in India the preference isthe removal of these gossypol glands made the for oil content inspite of the fact that researchplant vulnerable to a wide array of insects and results glaringly reveal that oil in oil cake is ofpests that feed on leaves and stems. little use to the cattle. Oil is required for gen- eration of energy. The cattle themselves gen- Using biotechnology, Texas A&M University has erate the required energy while rumination. Thusnow developed cotton lines that produce gland- we are wasting almost 6 to 7 lakh tonnes ofless seed on glanded plants. This technology may precious cotton seed oil every year. It is a tragicfurther increase the value of cottonseed and help happening in India, that the cottonseed oil caketo address the protein needs of millions of hungry with protein content as low at 20-22% (6-7 per-people now and into the future. Gin trash was also cent oil) is sold on par or at higher rate thanonce considered as a byproduct of cotton pro- cottonseed meal (DOC) with protein content asduction and was usually burned. New technology high as 40 to 42 percent with negligible oil con-is now being developed to greatly expand the use tent.to gin trash. As per the research carried by the NationalThese include: Dairy Development Board (NDDB) Anand. Pro-* Recycling back into the soil as a mulch on fields/ tein, content in cottonseed meal is of By-pass gardens or as mushroom compost type i.e it by-passes rumen, i.e. first compart-* Mixed with water and grass seed and sprayed ment of cattle’s stomach and therefore prevent on the sides of roads to control erosion degeneration and thus the maximum amount* Pressed into briquettes to be burned as fuel of protein is absorbed by the cattle. Education* Slathered on walls for noise control of cattle feeders to use proteinous cottonseed* Mixed with construction materials and used to extraction instead of traditional cottonseed cake make decking for homes and adoption of scientific processing by the cot-* Used for the inner lining of bathtubs and other tonseed processors is an urgent need in the containers. larger national interest. (Courtesy : AICOSCA Newsletter, (Courtesy : AICOSCA Newsletter, November, 2010) September, 2010) 8OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ) Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011
  9. 9. CURIOUS more allergies observed among people who use different textile products made from them. Stud- ies conducted in everyday conditions reportedly Scientific basis for natural fibres showed that garments made of natural cellulosic being better than sysnthetics fibres like cotton or linen have a positive influence for clothing on physiological parameters of the human body level of immunoglobulin. The lowest level of body Ever since their advent a few decades ago, syn- temperature and increase of immunoglobia dur-thetic fibres have been offering stiff competition ing sleeping in cotton or linen bedding is said toto cotton. Initially, they proved to be attractive be- have proved that such raw materials have a posi-cause of their easy care and wash and wear prop- tive influence on human rest and steep quality.erties. Subsequently, quite a number of new syn- Further, wearing cotton paijamas positively influ-thetic fibres came to be developed through re- enced the activity of setacions glands that im-search which entailed huge amounts of invest- prove resistance to skin allergies. It is also statedments by chemical industries. Cotton came to that wearing polyester clothes can be a reasonlose ground and its market share in the global use for desynchronisation of muscle motor units andof fibres for clothing came down substantially. thus, an increase in fatigue among users. Cloth- ing made of natural cellulosic fibres is said to have However, later on, cotton could regain some been found to positively influence the human bodylost ground as some of the problems with cloth- ensuring well being without causing fatigue.ing made of synthetic fibres came to light. It wasnoticed that they caused skin allergies to some (Source : ICAC Recorder September 2010).people besides some other minor ailments. Also, (CAI, Cotton Statistics & News 5thcotton’s superiority over synthetic came to be October, 2010)better appreciated because of its unique proper-ties such as moisture absorption and weaving (Courtesy : AICOSCA Newsletter,comfort. It was the preferred fibre for inner wear September, 2010)garments, kids’ clothes, sports wear, etc. Morerecently, cotton also entered the fashion wearmarket. Fashion designers came to use cotton, AWAITespecially finer cottons, for some of their cre-ations. All these enabled cotton to withstand fur- GM soyabean not now : Monsantother onslaught from synthetic and could even re-gain some of the lost market share. It is estimatedthat presently cotton’s market share in the global Biotech major Monsanto is testing a Bt (Bacillususe of fibres for clothing is around 40 per cent. thuringiensis) corn that offers protection against insects and weeds but it is not looking to intro- It now appears that research undertaken at dif- duce genetically modified (GM) soyabean orferent centres in countries like Poland and Japan pulses. The company is also readying to intro-has established the scientific basis why natural duce a new variety of GM cotton that incorporatesfibres are better than synthetic fibres in clothing. the properties of its Bollgard II and Roundup ReadyThe ICAC Recorder of September 2010 carries a fex cotton.detailed article on the subject. Some of the high-lights of this article are mentioned below for infor- “The Bt corn that is being tested now has dualmation. technology. The new cotton variety has charac- teristics of the Bollgard II and the Roundup Ready One of the results from the study of the reac- Flex,” said Dr Gyanendra Shukia, Director, Cor-tions to human body from the use of synthetic fi- porate Affairs, Monsanto India Ltd, in an interviewbres is said to have been that they may lead to a to Business Line.higher tendency to fatigue. Due to the use of con-siderable amounts of man-made fibres in clothes The reason why Monsanto is not ready to bringand bed, bed linen, there are said to have been in GM soyabean, one of its popular offerings in 9 9 Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ)
  10. 10. the US, is that there is no system in the country A GMO is an organism whose genetic materialthat can help the company recover its costs. is altered using genetic engineering techniques.“Soyabean or pulses or rice are open pollination These techniques use DNA molecules from dif-varieties and hence farmers do not buy their hy- ferent sources that are combined into one mol-brids,” he said. ecule to create a new set of genes. This DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it modi- But the company is prepared to bring in these fied or novel genes.crops as well as know-how in other crops underpublic-private partnership. “Developing crops un- (The Hindu Business Line, 10th October, 2010).der such partnership will help us. We will helpdevelop technology and hand it over to the gov- (Courtesy : AICOSCA Newsletter,ernment. In such circumstances, we will get com- October, 2010)pensation for our work,” he said. “We are looking at a free market in which the BE NATURALintellectual property rights will be recognised andwhere the system will favour innovation that will Green trend drives personal carehelp farmers,” Dr Shukia said, elaborating on rea- ingredients marketsons for not looking beyond the introduction of Btcorn. Anna Ibbotson On the moratorium announced by the Govern- The natural personal care industry has continuedment on Bt Brinjal, he said it had slowed down to gain momentum over the past year despite aresearch on GM crops a bit. “I don’t say that people crippling global recession. Driven by consumerhave stopped research but things are at a point demand not only for natural products but also forwhere clarity is required. We hope facts that are sustainable manufacturing processes amongscientifically-based will prevail,” he said. brand marketers, the naturals market is expected to maintain a healthy growth rate over the next Dr Shukia said Monsanto is of the view that there few years. This is great news for raw materialsis ‘no sense’ in making labelling of products manu- suppliers who now face a tremendous opportu-factured from genetically modified organisms nity to innovate and develop key raw ingredients(GMOs) mandatory in India. However, it supports that not only meet formulators’ and consumers’other options such as individuals making a per- demand for naturalness but also offer the perfor-sonal decision not to consume food containing mance required to be on par with their syntheticgenetically modified ingredients or companies counterparts.voluntarily labelling their products as not contain-ing GMOs. On a global scale, the natural personal care market is approaching $300 billion at the retail Pointing out that that the Food and Drug Ad- level, with the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, In-ministration (FDA) of the US has determined dia, and China) and Argentina expanding theirthat genetically-modified crops do not differ from share at a rapid rate. In Europe, still the largestnon-GM crops and products containing GMOS region, the natural personal care segment postedneed not be labelled, he said: “FDA does re- nearly 14% growth in 2009, compared to the over-quire the product to be labelled if the ingredient all market at just 4%. In the United States, theis a potential allergen or somehow changes the segment peaked at 8%—still quite robust consid-nutritional properties of the food. “To date, no ering the overall performance in the industry as aapproved biotech crop is either an allergen, or whole.has any significant nutritional differences fromnon-GM counterparts. If labelling is made man- GREEN IS GROWINGdatory in India there ought to be proper infra-structure in place for companies to comply with A number of key drivers have converged to spurthe law,” he said. growth in the natural personal care market from 10OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ) Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011
  11. 11. the consumer, retailer, and brand marketer per- house in the personal care market. L’Oreal,spective. These forces make the naturals market Colgate-Palmolive, and Clorox have also recog-quite attractive to ingredients suppliers: nized the potential, throwing the power of their mega-marketing machines behind previously un- 1. Growing environmental awareness among known small brands such as Tom’s of Maine andconsumers has lead to a global shift in their de- Burl’s Bees.sire, behavior, and attitude toward natural prod-ucts. Going green is no longer considered an ec- THE PROBLEM OF PERFORMANCEcentric behavior of a small but highly committedsegment of the population. Now, the average con- Amid all of this attention, suppliers are workingsumer has become more aware of his or her im- overtime to develop natural ingredients to meetpact on the planet and has begun taking steps to the demand. While great strides have been madereduce that impact wherever possible. in some ingredient categories to deliver the natu- ral positioning and the performance required, 2. Innovative product development in the some categories remain a challenge.naturals category has made green products morewidely available, fueling consumers’ demand for • Specialty surfactants. Of the $600+ millionmore environmentally friendly products. As green specialty surfactants market, only about 10% ofproducts become more accessible and affordable, the raw ingredients available in this category areit becomes much easier for consumers to adopt naturally derived. Natural alternatives for thesethem as a viable alternative to traditional synthetic products, which reduce skin and eye irritation offormulations. commodity surfactants and boost foaming prop- erties in hair and skin-care rinse-off products, are 3. Mainstream acceptance of organics and gaining traction particularly in the mass-market“locavore” eating habits, whereby consumers product categories. Growth in the naturally derivedsource food products from their local region, has segment is expected to reach nearly 4% CAGRalso prompted greater interest in natural personal (compound annual growth rate) through 2013. Thecare products. As consumers strive to avoid pes- leading product in this segment is alkylticides as well as synthetic growth supplements polyglucosides (APG), supplied by Cognis (thein their food, they have also begun reducing the market leader), Clariant, and Croda.incidence of other synthetic chemicals with whichthey come into contact. APG are manufactured from plant-derived ma- terials such as vegetable oils and starch. 4. Media hype and marketing have also playeda significant role in the growing green trend. The • Specialty emollients. Among the most widelypowerful combination of brand marketing tactics, used ingredients in personal care, emollients areretail promotions, celebrity endorsements, and effective in facial creams and cleansers, wipes,widespread media coverage has reinforced con- and other skin-care products for their moisturiz-sumers’ awareness of and desire for more sus- ing, softening, and anti-aging properties. Here,tainable products and practices. In Europe, where naturally derived products have a stronger shareregulation under the REACH [Registration, Evalu- at just over 50% of the market, which totals in ex-ation and Authorization of Chemicals] act makes cess of $400 million, and this market is expectedavailable the certification seal for products that to grow by more than 3.5% CAGR through 2013.meet certain requirements, this adds to the mar- By their very nature, these ingredients are moreketing appeal of natural products. As a result of readily available, accessible and affordable tothese factors, major global marketers have derive from natural sources, such as mineral andstepped up efforts to meet consumer demand and vegetable oils, and there is a general movementcapitalize on the market opportunity, as evidenced in the industry away from synthetics and animal-by key acquisitions that have brought some niche based ingredients (such as lanolin).naturals brands mainstream. Estee Lauder’sstring of acquisitions that began with Aveda in • Conditioning proteins. Similarly in condition-1997 has made the company a naturals power- ers, there is a strong shift away from animal-based 11 11 Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ)
  12. 12. to plant-derived proteins for the likes of skin and built a “green” portfolio, much work remains to behair products. Now more than 60% of the condi- done to solve the problems of performance, avail-tioning market consists of plant-derived products, ability, and pricing that make the naturals propo-supplied in large part by Croda and Cognis, the sition a significant barrier, especially in the hair-clear market leaders. Despite their broader ac- care and cleansing product lines.ceptance, botanical proteins remain less eco-nomical to produce leading many manufacturers With the naturals trend well-entrenched aroundto consider fish-based proteins as possible alter- the globe, ingredients suppliers are eyeing thenatives, as well as milk- and silk-based proteins, burgeoning opportunity in the Asia-Pacific region.which have also shown some potential. Some, Cognis included, have already established production facilities, particularly in China, to lever- • Hair fixative polymers. Even more than sur- age the anticipated growth here and compete di-factants, fixative ingredients used in hair sprays rectly with local domestic suppliers.and other hair styling products prove to be a sig-nificant challenge when it comes to developing As suppliers and formulators strive to reducean effective, viable natural alternative. Synthetics, the amount of “science” in their products tosuch as vinyl, acrylic, and polyurcthane polymers, achieve a more natural slant, there is an overallmake up 99% of the active ingredients on the movement toward a more collaborative, interac-market. It seems that, with the possible excep- tive relationship. Working together to develop mul-tion of cornstarch-based formulas, devising the tifunctional ingredients that solve multiple perfor-fixative properties from natural ingredients to meet mance challenges not only helps reduce the num-the hair-styling demands of consumers is a for- ber of ingredients in the product, which imparts amidable challenge. more natural position, but also works to reduce the overall cost of production—which benefits both • Substantiated specialty actives. Members of parties, as well as, ultimately, the consumer.this unique class of ingredients, backed by scien-tific testing, are 100% naturally derived and used Anno Ibbotson (Anna.lbbotson@by formulators specifically to make performance klinegroup.com) is industry manager with K//neclaims in the skin-care product category. Driven &, Company. Reprinted with permission.largely by the demand for anti-aging properties,this category is expected to post a healthy CAGR (Courtesy : inform, November 2010,of 7% over the next three years as the enormous Vol. 21 (11)baby boomer population turns to these productsto stave off the signs of aging. These ingredients, “NEVER SAY NEVER”including peptides, bio-tech actives and enzymes,and their associated claims are key to formula- JATROPHAtors in the luxury, high-end mass market, profes-sional, and specialty trade classes as they caterto this mature population, which typically enjoys a Second thoughts on jatropha in Indiahigher level of disposable income.INNOVATION IS THE KEY TO GROWTH India established a mandate in 2009 that by 2017 it would be able to supply at least 20% of its The growth in the naturals market presents a oil consumption with home-grown biofuels. To thisunique opportunity for raw ingredients suppliers end, the government has been encouraging theto carve out a strong position as a leader in this cultivation of Jatropha curcas as a source ofindustry. To do so would likely require a block- biodiesel feedstock.buster R&D [research and development] break-through to discover and develop a viable natural The Inter Press Service (IPS) reports, however,alternative to one of the more vexing performance that Suneel Parasnis, Asia coordinator of Privateissues, such as surfactants or fixatives. While Financing Advisory Network, said, “Biofuels havejust about every player in the supplier market has failed because of unavailability and high price of 12OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ) Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011
  13. 13. stock feed for biodiesel processing plants all over claims “Simply Organic” and “Naturally Organic.”India.” These claims were challenged by Herb UK, which argued that they were misleading because “they Federal planners in India initially bought into the implied the products met an independent organicidea that jatropha can grow well and produce oil- standard.”rich seeds when grown on waste land. The ideawas attractive because it avoids the question of After studying a response from Simply Organic,using land for growing food vs. growing fuel. In including the submission of documentation and2003, potentially 36 million hectares of land were certification from some US-based certifiers, theidentified as being ideal for jatropha growth in In- ASA upheld the complaint.dia, much of it government waste and forest land,land in railroad rights of way, and in hedges and While noting that the US organic certificationwindbreaks around private farms. provided by the advertisers covered a list of in- gredients, the ASA said it had not seen any docu- In response to governmental land and tax in- mentation that set out which ingredients were usedcentives, many Indian farmers and oils compa- in the Simply Organic product range, or thatnies were growing jatropha by 2006. Enthusiasm showed whether those ingredients were coveredhas waned, however, as farmers have found that by the certified list. The Agency also noted that ajatropha produces better yields on fertile, irrigated certificate of analysis provided by the advertiserland. Application of fertilizer increases yields still was out of date, concluding that “the status of thefurther. advertised product range was unclear.” Smallholders are finding that jatropha can sur-vive on “waste” land, but not in volumes that pro- The ASA has instructed the company not to useduce enough yield to support the needed inputs. the ad again in its current form.Another issue is impatience. The IPS interviewedK. Kotesh-war Rao of Nandan Biomatrix Ltd. (Courtesy : inform, November 2010,(Hyderabad, India), which has developed patents Vol. 21 (11)on higher oil-yield genotypes of jatropha. He said,“One of the biggest problems is having farmers THE REVERSEpull out of jatropha before fruit-bearing starts bythe third year.... For the next 35 years they needonly tend and harvest but they run out of patience.” Method for producing phospholipid The report is available at http://ipsnews net/news.asp?idnews=52890. Sakai, M., et al., Kabushiki Kaisha Yakult Honsha, US7695944, April 13,2010. (Courtesy : inform, November 2010, Vol. 21 (11) A method for producing a phospholipid using transphosphatidylation, which comprises homog- enizing a mixture of a raw material phospholipid, BEWARE a hydroxyl-containing acceptor phospholipase D, and water in the absence of an organic solvent to obtain a homogenized mixture; and subjecting the Organic hair care claims misleading homogenized mixture to a transphosphatidylation reaction at 15-65°C. The homogenized mixture has a lamellar lyotropic liquid crystal structure. AnThe UK’s Advertising Standards Agency (ASA) has objective phospholipid can be obtained from theruled that an advertisement for hair care products homogenized mixture throughdescribed as “naturally organic” was “likely to be transphosphatidylationn without using an organicmisleading” to consumers. solvent or calcium. The magazine ad for US-based natural and or- (Courtesy : inform, November 2010,ganic beauty brand Simply Organic contained the Vol. 21 (11) 13 13 Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ)
  14. 14. KNOW HOW NOW, AIRCRAFT Biodiesel production from Biofuel could be cleared Jatropha curcas: A review for aircraft useParawira, W., Sci. Res. Essays 5:1796-1808, Graham Warwick2010. IN just five years, the aviation industry’s decades- Biodiesel has attracted considerable attention long reliance on petroleum-based fuels has beenduring the past decade as a renewable, biode- turned on its head. The future lies in fuels fromgradable, and nontoxic fuel alternative to fossil sources that range from animal fat to microal-gae.fuels. Biodiesel can be obtained from vegetable But with the technology in hand, the question nowoils (both edible and nonedible) and from animal is whether biofuel producers can raise the invest-fat. Jatro-pha curcas Linnaeus, a multipurpose ment needed to launch commercial-scale produc-plant, contains high amounts of oil in its seeds tion.that can be converted to biodiesel. Jatopha curcasis probably the most highly promoted oilseed crop Approval of biofuels for use in aircraft, expectedat present in the world. The availability and by mid-2011, is a critical step. A standard for jetsustainability of sufficient supplies of less expen- fuels using synthesized hydrocarbons has alreadysive feedstock in the form of vegetable oils, par- been crafted and the first annex, covering syn-ticularly J. curcas, and efficient processing tech- thetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) produced via thenology to biodiesel will be crucial determinants of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process, was approved lastdelivering a competitive biodiesel. Oil contents, year. But a second annex covering bio-SPK—alsophysicochemical properties, and the fatty acid called hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ)—iscomposition of J. curcas reported in the literature eagerly awaited, as these promise to reduceare provided in this review. The fuel properties of aviation’s greenhouse gas emissions.Jatropha biodiesel are comparable to those of fos-sil diesel and conform to the American and Euro- For an industry that has used one jet fuel forpean standards. The objective of this review is to decades, development of the new D7566 specifi-give an update on the J. curcas L. plant, the pro- cation by standards organization ASTM Interna-duction of biodiesel from the seed oil and research tional has moved surprisingly quickly. But it hasattempts to improve the technology of converting not been easy, requiring substantial fuel and en-vegetable oil to biodiesel, and the fuel properties gine testing to ensure synthetic kerosenes areof the Jatropha biodiesel. The technological meth- truly drop-in replacements for petroleum-basedods that can be used to produce biodiesel are jet fuel.presented together with their advantages and dis-advantages. The use of lipase as biotechnologi- As expected, the proposal to amend D7566 tocal solution to alkali and acid catalysis of transes- include bio-SPK did not pass a ballot of ASTMterification and its advantages are discussed. members in June. Opponents, mainly the engineThere is need to carry out research on the detoxi- manufacturers, argued that more data are neededfication of the seed cake to increase the benefits on different fuels from different manufacturers andfrom /. curcas. There is also need to carry out more engine testing is required. One reason islife-cycle assessment and the environmental im- that most of the fuel tested came from Honeywellpacts of introducing large-scale plantations. There International’s UOP, which won a Pentagon con-is also still a dearth of research about the influ- tract to supply HRJ for qualification testing, saysence of various cultivation-related factors and their Tim Edwards, who is leading biofuels research atinteractions and influence on seed yield. Many the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL;other areas that need to be researched on Jatro- Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio).pha curcas L. are pointed out in review. After the vote, the Air Force agreed to share (Courtesy : inform, November 2010, fuel to allow additional commercial engine dem- Vol. 21 (11)) onstrations. The service is also conducting biofuel 14OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ) Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011
  15. 15. tests on military derivatives of commercial en- would build the refinery,” says Todaro.gines, which will help with certification. These in-clude flight tests of the Fl 17 derivative of Pratt & Eventually, to kick-start the market, SustainableWhitney’s PW2000 turbo-fan on the C-17 airlifter. Oils decided to form AltAir as an independent com-An aircraft flew in August with all four engines fu- pany. The business plan is to build add-on unitseled by a 50:50 blend of conventional JP-8 and at traditional refineries. With 100-million-gallonHRJ [made from] from beef tallow. capacity, these bolt-on facilities will each cost “a couple of hundred million dollars” and provide Data from the additional fuel and engine test- about 10% of the fuel required annually at an av-ing will be presented to ASTM members, and a erage-sized airport, he says.re-ballot in December 2010 is expected to suc-ceed. This should lead to approval early next year While the near-term focus is on plant oils andof an annex to the D7566 synthetic-fuel standard animal fats as feedstocks, aviation is enamoredallowing bio-SPK to be used in aircraft in blends of algae because it promises high oil yields fromof up to 50% with conventional jet fuel. This will small land areas and does not compete with foodbe a pivotal event, as certification is expected to for land or water. Work is underway scaling upremove a significant barrier to investment in large- algae production in both open ponds and closedscale facilities to produce HRJ fuels in economic bioreactors, in a bid to drive down costs, but Sanquantities. Francisco-based Solazyme says it is ready to move into commercial-scale oil production using “Nothing matters until you get that approval,” a different algae pathway (for more informationsays Tom Todaro, chief executive officer (CEO) on Solazyme, see inform 27:373-375,2010).of AltAir Fuels (Seattle, Washington, USA) andchairman of the board of Sustainable Oils Solazyme has adapted the fermentation pro-(Bozeman, Montana, USA), which produces oil cess used to produce ethanol, replacing yeastfrom camelina, a plant that largely does not com- with algae. Sugars produced from a wide rangepete with food crops for land or water. “The prob- of feedstocks—switchgrass, corn stover, sugarlem is the availability of financing, not camelina. cane, municipal waste, and cellulosic biomass—We can’t get the money until the fuel is certified,” are fed to the algae, which convert the sugar tohe says. oil. The oil is then extracted from the algae and converted to HRJ using UOP’s process. AltAir Fuels is the first to license UOP’s pro- Solazyme has delivered 1,500 gallons of algal HRJcess to produce HRJ. The Seattle-based com- to the US Navy for engine testing.pany signed memorandums of understanding with14 airlines in December 2009 to negotiate the pur- The company says it is on track to be cost-chase of up to 750 million gallons (2,800 million competitive with petroleum-based fuel in 18-24liters) of camelina-derived fuel. This is to be pro- months, targeting $60-$80 a barrel. “We shouldduced at a facility in Ana-cortes, Washington, and be producing quantities that can fill some demandwould replace about 10% of the fuel consumed in the aviation market in the next three years,” saysannually at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. CEO Jonathan Wolfson.“Once ASTM approves the fuel, we can begin thepermitting process,” he says, adding that con- Solazyme is talking to airlines about long-termstruction will take 18 months. supply agreements and to refining partners about establishing a supply chain. “We are working with The creation of AltAir illustrates the challenges numerous partners to provide a rapid path to com-of starting biofuel production. Sustainable Oils mercialization that includes access to feedstockworks by signing contracts with farmers to grow and financing,” he says, noting the addition of UScamelina that it will buy back at an agreed price. agribusiness Bunge as a strategic investor “is anFarmers grow a specific strain of camelina de- indicator of how we are thinking about feedstockveloped by biotechnology company Targeted ... we are confident that the supply will be there.”Growth. Sustainable Oils extracts the oil fromcamelina seeds, “but we hoped someone else After playing a key role in the rapid progress of 15 15 Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ)
  16. 16. biofuels from idea to reality, UOP is turning its at- pacity to supply natural oils without going to bio-tention to new processes and feedstocks. mass and other carbon sources,” argues Rekoske. “We’ve made [bio-SPK] fuels from about 12 dif-ferent types of natural oils,” says Jim Rekoske, One of the most promising new pathways,vice president and general manager of UOP’s Edwards says, is being called “alcohol oligomer-renewable energy business. “We are confident ization.” This starts with an alcohol, like ethanolwe can look at an oil and say what yield of jet fuel or butanol; removes the oxygen; and grows hy-you will get from that feedstock.” drocarbons from the molecules. Gevo, Virent, and Swedish Biofuels are among the companies UOP’s process “is completely feedstock flex- working on this “catalytic renewable jet” pathway.ible,” Rekoske says, and can convert any natural Brazilian biotechnology company Amyris, mean-oil with hydrocarbon chains of appropriate lengths while, is pursuing an advanced fermentation pro-into jet fuel. “A flexible process allows you to source cess that goes direct from cellulosic biomass tothe cheapest available oil.” The challenge now, liquid fuel using specially tailored microorganisms.he says, is in bringing together three different in-dustries—agriculture, refining, and transporta- Richard Altman, executive director of the Com-tion—to reach long-term agreements that will pro- mercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative, saysvide the confidence needed to scale up feedstock the catalytic, fermentation, and pyrolysis renew-and fuel production. “That’s the process that is able jet pathways are competing to be the nexttaking time.” process approved by ASTM in the 2013 timeframe. ASTM, meanwhile, has formed a task Feedstock flexibility will allow an HRJ fuel pro- force to look at fully synthetic fuels, called SKA,ducer to switch to a higher-yield feedstock. “If the for “synthetic kerosene with aromatics.”question is, do you want to invest in growingcamelina if you can be supplanted in five years by Synthetic parafhnic kerosenes are limited toalgae, the answer is long-term agreements with 50% blends by the need for aromatic hydrocar-customers and refiners. It’s just negotiation,” says bons found in conventional jet fuel, but synthe-Rekoske. He believes there has been significant sized aromatics—or changes to engine seal ma-progress, with two groups close to definitive sup- terials— could allow 100% synthetic fuels. “Weply agreements with airlines. are doing a lot of work on fully synthetic fuels,” says Edwards. Honeywell and the FAA are work- With approval for bio-SPK now within sight, in- ing to determine by 2013-2014 the minimum aro-terest is shifting to more advanced biofuels, and matics required in engines, says Rekoske, add-there is growing excitement—and debate—over ing that “100% synthetic is still the goal.”which pathways will be next to be approved. “Partof our work is to figure out what is next, what’s the Graham Warwick is senior editor, technology,most mature,” says AFRL’s Edwards. “It starts for Aviation Week. He can be contacted via emailwith people sending us fuels. We’re working on at warwick@aviationweek.com. Reprinted withdifferent feedstocks, different processes, and fully permission.synthetic fuels.” (Courtesy : inform, December 2010, Much of the work is focused on processes for Vol. 21 (11))producing jet fuel from ligno-cellu-losic feedstockssuch as forest, agricultural, and municipal waste, “JATROPHA ALIVE & KICKING”which is available in huge quantities. UOP is work-ing on upgrading pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel. Fast EU to build jatropha processingpyrolysis is the rapid decomposition of biomass plant in Ghanain the presence of heat and absence of oxygen.The resulting bio-oil can be upgraded to fuel. “We THE European Union (EU) announced a projectare looking at a variety of different things for next- to produce bio-energy at Walewale, in the Westgeneration fuels. But there is a tremendous ca- Mamprusi District of Ghana, on October 7. The 16OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ) Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011
  17. 17. project is funded (•2 million) for five years. MEXICO TO JATROPHAUnfertile lands in the Wale-wale area will beplanted with jatropha, and the seeds will be pro- KUO Group signs agreement forcessed in-country to obtain crude oil and by-prod- bioenergyucts. ANTONIO Brufau, chairman of Repsol, an inte- According to Giuseppe Enne, project coordi- grated international oil and gas company head-nator of the Ghana Jatropha Project and the quartered in Madrid, Spain, and FernandoNucleo Ricerca Desertificatione of the Universita Senderos Mestre, chairman of the KUO Group,de Sassari (Italy), an “appropriate and cost-effec- one of Mexico’s largest conglomerates, signed antive expeller for jatropha oil extraction” will be con- agreement on October 28 to create a joint com-structed (http://ghanaian-chronicle.com/ pany called Kuosol,dedicated to the development?p=8812). Several governmental and non-govern- of bioenergy from the cultivation of Jatrophamental organizations within the country are col- curcas,laborating with the Ghana Jatropha Project toimplement the plans. Both Repsol and the KUO Group will have a 50% stake in Kuosol; the total investment is esti- The project aims to improve Ghana’s sustain- mated at $80 million. The headquarters of Kuosolable renewable energy, to create income-gener- will be in Mexico, and its activities are envisionedating activities, and to mitigate land degradation to range from farming to industrial installations.effects in rural area in the country. Its main objective will be to use integrated biom- ass plantations of 7. curcas oil to generate biofu- San Nasamu Asabigi, Deputy Northern Regional els and bioenergy in a sustainable manner.Minister of Ghana, said jatropha could be an al-ternative to reduce the energy crisis facing the In 2008, the KUO Group began a pilot project incountry. He added, “About 69% of the total energy the Yucatan state of Mexico to produce bioenergyconsumed in Ghana is from the already depleted from nonedible second-generation crops on landforest, 10% from electricity, and 21% from im- not suitable for agriculture. The first phase wasparted petroleum.” developed with more than 300 hectares of J. curcas oilseeds to obtain an oil to produce biodie- sel. The project allows the KUO Group to harness JATOIL SHIPMENTS vacant lots formerly used for pork-raising, to re- use recycled water, rich in nutrients, for irrigation Jatoil schedules regular shipments^ of on its farms, and to provide easy access to car- crude jatropha oil bon credits under the Clean Development Mecha- nism (CDM) of the 2007 Kyoto Protocol.AFTER purchasing more oil-producing fields,Jatoil Ltd. (Pyrmont, New South Wales, Australia) The immediate objectives of the Kuosol com-announced plans in October to make regular pany are (i) to plant and cultivate 10,000 hectaresweekly shipments of crude jatropha oil from its of jatropha in Yucatan, Mexico, principally on third-plantations in Central Java (Indonesia) to a power party lands; (ii) to harvest 44 million liters of crudestation customer in the Netherlands. The oil for bio-fuels; and (iii) to develop an integratedcompany’s 70%-owned joint venture (JV), PT use of biomass from forest plantations, cogen-Jatoil Waterland, purchased an additional 522 eration of steam and electricity for self-supply, withhectares (ha) of three- to four-year-old jatropha surplus production sold.trees near its 1,000 ha plantation, which in Julypro-duced Jatoil’s first shipment of second-gen- It is estimated that agricultural development willeration biofuel for a consortium of airline compa- be completed in the next three years, allowing in-nies for use in commercial operations (inform dustrial production to st§ in 2013.27:555, 2010). A company statement indicated theacquisition of these additional hectares effectively (Courtesy : inform, December 2010,doubles the JV’s current capacity of 700 metric Vol. 21 (11))tons over the next 12-18 months. 17 17 Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ)
  18. 18. DARE IT bel brands during the recession; commodity and supply costs are unpredictable; and regulation has toughened. Detergent industry faces the future Nonetheless, participants and speakers alike remained upbeat. Despite slow growth in devel- Catherine Watkins oped markets, opportunities abound in develop- ing countries such as China and India. LatinTHE French proverb suggesting that the more America is a more difficult challenge because ofthings change, the more they stay the same could loyalty to local brands.be applied to the seven AOCS World Conferenceson Detergents held in Montreux, Switzerland. Al- “Developing markets were the only place in thethough the speed of change in 2010 is exponen- world last year where growth in the laundry seg-tially faster than the speed of change in 1977 when ment was acceptable,” Schmitz noted. Automaticthe first conference was held, many of the busi- washing machines are gaining traction in Chinaness realities facing the global fabric and home and Eastern Europe, he added, but competi-care industries remain the same. tion among product manufacturers in emerging markets is “brutal.” Regulatory and environmental pressures, avail-ability and pricing of raw materials, poor margins, Looking to the future, Schmitz found that therethe fickle consumer, a volatile economic environ- is still room for global consolidation in the laundryment, mature markets, the perpetual search for market. “The top three players could control overinnovation—these are constants of the industry 60% of the market in the next five years,” hethat have not changed over the years. Nonethe- said.Perhaps the greatest challenge for the indus-less, in light of the global focus on sustainability try is “discontinuous innovation, which opensby both consumers and regulators, everything has doors for private label” goods, Schmitz said. “Thechanged. lasting solution is innovation,” he concluded. Held October 4-7, 2010, the Montreux meeting Also sounding the call for innovation was Chriswas billed as providing “New Strategies in a Dy- DeSoiza, vice president of Milliken Research Corp.namic Global Economy.” Indeed, the “new nor- (Spartanburg, South Carolina, USA), who spokemal” of recession and volatile commodity costs about the future of the textile business. Sevenfigured prominently during the three-day meeting, cents of every dollar spent globally is on clothing/as did sustainability, innovation, collaboration, and textiles, he said; Asia is the number one consumerthe promise of emerging markets. of textiles and apparel. Furthermore, developing countries produce more than 60% of all apparelBIG BUSINESS and textiles. Annual retail sales for the global laundry care Textile trends that DeSoiza feels will affect fab-category have reached $65 billion, Bill Schmitz of ric care include customized three-dimensionalDeutsche Bank told participants, comprising $49 printed apparel as well as electroluminescentbillion in detergent sales, $9 billion for fabric soft- materials or stimuli-sensitive polymers. A technol-eners, and $6 billion for laundry aids. ogy developed by Milliken for food service uni- forms, called BioSmart, could be extended to other For consumer products companies like The markets. When clothing treated with the Bio-SmartProcter & Gamble Co. (P&G), the laundry care process is laundered with chlorine bleach, recep-category represents a significant percentage tor sites bind the chlorine to the surface of the(30%) of revenue. But the industry is under pres- fabric, killing bacteria on contact.sure, P&G head Bob McDonald noted: Annualgrowth decreased to 4% in 2009, compared to SUSTAINABILITY HOW-TO5% the previous three years; established brandsin North America lost market share to private la- Kasper Rosted’s call for “truly sustainable busi- 18OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ) Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011
  19. 19. ness models” was answered in part by Martin Wolf cycle becomes something that is important forof Seventh Generation, Inc. (Burlington, Vermont, the industry to address.USA). As the company’s director of product sus-tainability and authenticity, Wolf provided a Quinn laid out the inescapable equation: Con-sustainability how-to for attendees. (Seventh Gen- sumers equate the amount of foaming action witheration is a self-declared “socially responsible” the cleaning power of a detergent. But foam re-company that produces a variety of household, quires extra rinsing to remove and thereforelaundry, and cleaning products.) wastes water. (Consumers also still believe that bigger packs sold at the same price as concen- “We look at the supply chain to understand trated versions give better value, which slowswhere our materials are coming from, focusing adoption of compacts.)first on palm kernel oil sustainability,” he noted.But the company goal is not just sustainable prod- “We need to be bolder,” he said, “and formu-ucts but rather sustainable relationships, gover- late for superior cleaning without foam for [laun-nance, social justice, and equity. dering] without rinsing. But is this a step too far for industry?” Several speakers examined how the Japaneseculture approaches eco-consciousness. Emile Regardless of whether the industry takes thatIshida of Tohoku University defined “nature tech- step in the future, Quinn called upon his col-nology” as technology for the creation of a spiritu- leagues to roll out concentrates now “fasjsr andally ^.rich life using the least energy and fewest better, in collaboration if possible.”materials. He gave as an example a small, effi-cient wind generator currently under development CHINA AND THE RISE OFTHE RESTin Japan that is based on the wing of a dragonfly.The generator has a rotor with a diameter of only The optimistic tone of the conference was due200—500 millimeters, according to Ishida. in part to the growth prospects for fabric and home care in emerging markets. Koichi Nakamura of the Japan Soap & Deter-gent Association (JSDA) gave details of how the For example, India currently spends only $3 pereco-consciousness of the Japanese has helped capita on household cleaning products, whereasshape buying habits. For one, the market share China spends only $6. Compare those figures toof refill-able liquid detergents in Japan has reached the US and Western European average of $60about 80% in 10 years. (Consumers first buy a and the cause for optimism is clear. As Deutscheplastic container of detergent; refills are packaged Bank’s Bill Schmitz noted the Chinese detergentin pouches.) For another, JSDA members have category would grow from $5 billion to $22 billionreduced the amount of plastic packaging by 15% if Chinese consumption were equal to that offrom levels used in 1995. The issue of water use Russia’s.looms large in any discussion of sustainabil-ity infabric and home care. (P&G’s McDonald noted, “When we think of China, we tend to forget“There are some places where water is more about innovation and creativity,” said Max vonexpensive than detergent.”) Zedtwitz, a professor at Tongji University in China, who advised participants not to underestimate the Life cycle analyses of laundry products intellectual sophistication of that country. “I wouldclearly show that the majority of water use oc- not be surprised if the first person to set foot oncurs in the user’s home and not in the manu- Mars is Chinese,” he added.facture of products. Unilever’s Randy Quinn,executive vice president of laundry, suggested Chinese expenditures on research and devel-that approximately 70% of the water used in opment (R&D) have grown at eight times the pacelaundering clothes by hand or machine is of US expenditures; Chinese R&D spending likelywasted in rinsing. Adding up the billions of will reach 2.5% of GDP (Gross Domestic Prod-washes in water-scarce countries (which soon uct) by 2020. In 2008, Guangdong province alonewill be virtually every country), and the rinse filed more patent applications (103,883) than Ja- 19 19 Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ)
  20. 20. pan (38,408), the United States (27,656), and Co-sponsors of the meeting included the Ameri-Germany (10,145). can Cleaning Institute; the International Associa- tion for Soaps, Detergents, and Maintenance Prod- The numbers are staggering: More than 10 mil- ucts (AISE); the Comite Europeen des Agents delion students take the college entrance exams Surface et leurs Intermediates Organiquesevery year, von Zedtwitz said, and between five (CESIO); the Japan Oil Chemists’ Society; andand six million freshmen enter college each year. the Japan Soap and Detergent Association. Par-Furthermore, more than 50% major in engineer- ticipating organizations include the China Asso-ing, science, or medicine. ciation of Surfactant Soap & Detergent Industries, the Italian Chemical Society, the Oil Technologists’ “Send your most challenging R&D problems Association of India, the Swiss Cosmetic andto China,” von Zedtwitz urged. Many companies Detergent Association, and the UK Cleaning Prod-already have; more than 1,200 foreign-owned R&D ucts Industry Association.centers had been set up in China by 2009, henoted. Catherine Watkins is associate editor of inform and can be reached at cwatkins@aocs.org. Here are more statistics from Chor Pharn Leeand the Futures Group in Singapore: The global (Courtesy : inform, December 2010,middle class will increase from 430 million in 2000 Vol. 21 (11))to 1.15 billion in 2030. In 10 years, the No. 1 En-glish-speaking country in the world will be China.By 2025, five of the top 10 most populous cities “WONDER STORY”will be in South Asia (Karachi, Pakistan; Dhaka,Bangladesh; and Delhi, Calcutta, and Mumbai inIndia). In 2030, 221 Chinese cities will have popu- International Symposium on thelations of more than one million; Europe has 35 Role of Soy in Health Promotion andtoday and the United States has nine. Chronic Disease Prevention and Treatment But the story does not begin and end in Asia,the Futures Group notes. The Persian Gulf states Mark Messina and Virginia Messinaare reinventing their petrochemical industries andwill earn $9 trillion in the next 14 years from petro- COMMERCIAL soybean production in the Unitedleum. States began in the 1930s. Today, the United States grows more soybeans than any other Many questions remain. China’s working popu- country and is responsible for nearly one-third oflation is expected to peak in 2015. Will China get the world’s more than 200 million metric tons pro-old before it gets rich? India’s working population duced annually. The United States also leads thelikely will peak in 2035. Will India become the new way in developing innovative soy products for hu-contender? Perhaps the answers to these ques- man consumption and in investigating health ef-tions will be clearer by the time the industry meets fects of these new products, as well as those ofagain in Montreux in 2014. the more traditional soyfoods such as miso, tempe, soymilk, and tofu. Nearly 2,000 peer-re- The far-ranging program, which also covered viewed papers from research related to soy andsmarter ways of conducting R&D and health are published annually.neuromarketing, was organized by an executive For four days this past October in Washington,committee comprising J. Keith Grime, president, DC, the latest of this research was presented andJKG Consulting, LLC, USA; and co-chairs Tho- discussed by scientists from around the globe atmas H. Mueller-Kirschbaum, corporate senior vice the 9th International Symposium on the Role ofpresident, Henkel AG & Co. KGaA, Germany; and Soy in Health Promotion and Chronic DiseaseManfred Trautmann, vice president and general Prevention and Treatment. Presentations ad-manager, BU Detergents & Intermediates, Clariant dressed emerging research areas as well as is-International, Switzerland. sues that are vigorously debated within the re- 20OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ) Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011
  21. 21. search community. These included the choles- mors. There was also a 30% reduction in tumorterol-lowering effects of soy protein and the use recurrence in the study by Kang, which took placeof soyfoods by women with breast cancer. A ses- in Harbin (China); however, benefits were limitedsion was also devoted to findings regarding equol, to postmenopausal women with estrogen-sensi-a compound that is not found in soybeans but is tive tumors and there was no effect on mortality.produced by intestinal bacteria from the soy iso-flavone daidzein. The results of these two Chinese studies are impressive, but the findings are from a population Highlights from the symposium are presented of women who are likely to have consumedbelow. A more in-depth report will appear in the soyfoods for all or most of their lives. BeforeJournal of Nutrition. Westernoncologists can recommend soyfoods for the specific purpose of improving prognosis, itSOY AND BREAST CANCER will be necessary to demonstrate that they apply to non-Chinese women who have not consumed The influence of soy intake on breast cancer soy prior to their diagnosis.prognosis continues to be a contentious issue be-cause of its potential public health impact. Sev- CHOLESTEROL REDUCTIONeral presenters at the symposium directly ad-dressed this issue. Gertraud Maskarinec from the In 1999 the US Food and Drug AdministrationCancer Research Center of Hawaii (Honolulu, (FDA) approved a health claim for soyfoods andUSA) and Seema A. Khan, Northwestern Univer- coronary heart disease, which was endorsed asity Feinberg School of Medicine (Chicago, Illinois, year later by the American Heart AssociationUSA), discussed recently conducted clinical stud- (AHA). However, over the past 5 years, the cho-ies; Xiao Ou Shu, Vanderbilt University (Nashville, lesterol-lowering effects of soy protein have beenTennessee, USA) and Xinmei Kang, from the challenged, most notably by the AHA. In their mostCancer Hospital of Harbin Medical University recent position paper published in 2006, the AHA(Heilongjiang, China), presented findings from in essence withdrew its support of the healthepidemiologic research. claim. Although they acknowledged the role soyfoods can play in heart-healthy diets because The clinical studies addressed markers of of their fatty acid profile, the AHA concluded, onbreast cancer risk. Maskarinec examined the ef- the basis of 22 studies, that soy protein loweredfects of soyfood intake (~2 servings/d) on nipple LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol by onlyaspirate fluid volume in a 12-mo crossover study 3%. However, the AHA’s review of studies did not(6 mo per phase) that included 96 healthy pre- include a comprehensive statistical analysis.menopausal women, and Khan looked at breast Based on a meta-analysis presented at the sym-cell proliferation in high-risk pre- and postmeno- posium, David Jenkins of the University of Torontopausal women aged 25 to 55 y by examining cells (Ontario, Canada) found that soy protein loweredobtained by fine needle aspiration, before and af- LDL-cholesterol by almost 50% more than theter 6 mo of isoflavone supplementation (100 mg/ AHA’s estimate for a total average reduction ofd). These markers were not affected in either 4.3%. Furthermore, when the analysis was lim-study, which suggests that soy was not associ- ited to the 11 studies in which the soy and controlated with breast cancer risk. diets were evenly matched, LDL-cholesterol was reduced by 5.2%. James W. Anderson, Univer- In the epidemiologic studies, soy intake was as- sity of Kentucky (Lexington, USA), presented simi-sociated with improved prognosis among women lar findings on the basis of a meta-analysis of 20with breast cancer. Shu reported that recurrence parallel trials published since 1995.and mortality were reduced by about 30% amongShanghai breast cancer patients who consumed The FDA is currently evaluating the evidencethe equivalent of at least 2 servings/d of soy. Pro- related to the soy protein health claim, and thetective effects were noted in both pre-and post- results of these two meta-analyses suggest thatmenopausal patients and in patients with both their 1999 decision will be affirmed. In contrast,estrogen-sensitive and hormone-independent tu- the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) re- 21 21 Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ)
  22. 22. cently rejected a petition for a soy protein health Self Determination Dossier for SE5-OH.claim similar to the one approved by the FDA.However, as explained by Janice Harland, In regard to efficacy, Takeshi Aso, Tokyo Medi-HarlandHull (Gloucester, United Kingdom), EFSA cal and Dental University (Japan), described theconsidered only four of the 23 studies included in results of three Japanese studies showing thatthe petition. These were studies that used iso- equol alleviates hot flashes. Evidence was alsolated soy protein (ISP) from which the isoflavones presented suggesting that equol may exert/skel-were extracted (ISP-) as the intervention product. etal benefits (Yuko Tousen, from the Japanese Na-This restriction was adopted in order to determine tional Institute of Health and Nutrition) and promotewhether soy protein specifically was responsible cardiovascular health (Takeshi Usui, Clinical Re-for cholesterol reduction. However, since search Institute, National Hospital Organizationisoflavones are naturally associated (via hydro- Kyoto Medical Center).gen bonding) with the protein in soybeans andISP- is produced for experimental purposes only, EMERGING RESEARCH AREASthis approach has limited practical implications.The issue is currently under discussion between In some cases, research presented in Wash-European authorities, EFSA, and those who sub- ington provided the most definitive data to date inmitted the petition. support of long-existing hypotheses. For example, Mindy Kurzer, University of Minnesota (Minneapo- Finally, Arash Mirrahimi, Claire E. Berryman, lis-St. Paul, USA), presented the results of a sys-and Li Wang, from The Pennsylvania State Uni- tematic review and meta-analysis, which includedversity (University Park, USA), provided estimates 17 studies, that showed isoflavone supplementsof the extent to which substituting soyfoods for reduced both the frequency and severity of hotcommonly consumed protein sources in the US flashes. However, there were also several pre-diet may lower blood cholesterol as a result of sentations that addressed emerging areas of re-differences in fatty acid intake. Using NHANES search regarding soy and health.(National Health and Nutrition Examination Sur-vey) III population data, they estimated LDL-cho- For example, Robin van den Berg, Unilever, pre-lesterol levels were lowered by 4.3% when 24 g sented the results of a 14-wk clinical study thatsoy protein (essentially the amount of soy protein showed an isoflavone-contain-ing beverage re-established by the FDA for cholesterol reduction) duced facial wrinkles and increased collagen syn-from soyfoods replaced 24 g protein from animal thesis in postmenopausal women. Animal dataproducts. Taken together, these findings suggest presented by Thomas Badger, Arkansasthat soyfoods can lower LDL-cholesterol by ap- Children’s Hospital (Little Rock, United States),proximately 9%, which in turn will theoretically suggested that soy may have a role in helping tolower the incidence of heart disease by 9 to 18%. prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, an emerg- ing public health concern as rates of obesity in-EQUOL crease among children and adults. Finally, Grzegorz Wegrzyn, University of Gdansk (Poland), Equol is a bacterially derived product of the soy- described clinical work indicating that the soybeanbean isoflavone daid-zein that is believed to have isoflavone genistein could play a role in treatmentpotential health benefits. Only approximately 25% of children with mucopolysaccharidoses, an in-of Westerners host the gut bacteria capable of herited metabolic disorder caused by geneticconverting daidzein to equol. Presentations at the mutations leading to dysfunction of one of thesymposium greatly expanded knowledge of the enzymes involved in the degradation ofsafety and efficacy of this compound. For ex- glycosamino-glycans in lysosomes.ample, Belinda Jenks, Pharmavite, LLC(Northridge, California, USA), discussed a wide CONCLUSIONSarray of safety studies that have been conductedusing SE5-OH, an equol-rich product produced The diversity of presentations at the ninth inter-via fermentation of soy hypocotyledon. There now national soy symposium is a testament to the con-exists a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) tinued interest in understanding the health effects 22OTAI NEWS LETTER (WZ) Vol. XIII No.1 January - March 2011