Potential of Jatropha curcas L. as aNon-Edible Feedstock of Biodiesel Fuel                Tatang H. SoerawidjajaHead, Cent...
Introduction• Biodiesel :   [basic notion] diesel engine fuel made from bioresources.   [1st generation] diesel engine f...
• Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L) is undoubtedly                the most popular oil-yielding tree identified as           ...
Basic information on Jatropha curcas L• Small tree, reach a height of 2 to 7 meter,.• Planting method : seedling, stem cut...
• Many claims stated that Jatropha curcas has a potential  annual productivity of 12 ton/ha seeds (or 4 ton/ha oil).  Fiel...
The Pakuwon Jatropha Nursery• Established in 2005; initially collected 9 Jatropha breeds  from all over Indonesia and plan...
Intrinsic characteristics of crude Jatropha curcas oil (CJCO)   Specific gravity (15/15 oC)        :   0.918 – 0.923.   ...
• Soon after harvesting, the seeds should be dried until the  moisture content is less than 10 % (to remove water) by  sun...
Fatty acids composition of Jatropha curcas oil (%-weight)     Fatty acid          Eckey (1954)       Gubitz et.al. (1999)M...
Precautions due to the presence of phorbol esters               • Phorbol esters are diterpenoid                 derivativ...
• Makkar et.al. (2009) :   During degumming, some phorbol esters were      removed into the acid gums and wash water.   ...
Needs to enhance the competitiveness of Jatropha curcas• According to Azam, Waris, and Nahar [Biomass and  Bioenergy 29, 2...
• Azadirachta indica : fast-growing firewood crops ( for  2nd generation biofuels), nitrogen-fixing tree, can stand  salt...
THANK YOU VERY MUCH       for your attentiontatanghs@che.itb.ac.id   hstatang@ yahoo.com
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Potential of Jatropha Curcas L. as a Non-Edible Feedstock of Biodiesel Fuel

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Potential of Jatropha Curcas L. as a Non-Edible Feedstock of Biodiesel Fuel

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Potential of Jatropha Curcas L. as a Non-Edible Feedstock of Biodiesel Fuel

  1. 1. Potential of Jatropha curcas L. as aNon-Edible Feedstock of Biodiesel Fuel Tatang H. SoerawidjajaHead, Center for Research on Sustainable Energy, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha no. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia 7th Biomass-Asia Workshop BPPT 2nd Bulding, Jakarta, Indonesia, 29th Nov. – 1st Dec. 2010
  2. 2. Introduction• Biodiesel :  [basic notion] diesel engine fuel made from bioresources.  [1st generation] diesel engine fuel composed of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME).• Current raw materials :  Soybean oil (USA).  Rapeseed oil (Europe).  Palm and coconut oils (South East Asia).  Tallow and lard (Australia and New Zealand).  Edible raw materials!. 2
  3. 3. • Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L) is undoubtedly the most popular oil-yielding tree identified as a potential source of non-edible raw material for biodiesel.• The initial, and rather euphoric, popularity of Jatropha curcas stems from the widespread general knowledge that it is a non-edible oil-yielding tree well adapted to marginal areas with poor soil and low rainfall, where it grows without competing with annual food crops, thus filling an ecological niche. Various parts (i.e. flowers, fruits and seeds) of the tree Jatropha curcas L. 3
  4. 4. Basic information on Jatropha curcas L• Small tree, reach a height of 2 to 7 meter,.• Planting method : seedling, stem cutting (more usual).• Start to yield fruits at 4 – 6 months old and can live up to 30 years or more. Each fruit contains 2 or 3 seeds.• Seeds : black, elipsoidal,13 – 19 mm long,  10 mm thick, 0.5 – 1.0 g/seed, 35–48% shell and 52–65% kernel.• The fatty oil is contained in the kernel; average oil content: 52 % of kernel or 33 % of whole seed. 4
  5. 5. • Many claims stated that Jatropha curcas has a potential annual productivity of 12 ton/ha seeds (or 4 ton/ha oil). Field data [Heller (1996)] indicated yield of only up to 4 ton/ha seeds or up to 1.3 ton/ha/yr oil. Compare : 3.5 – 4.5 ton/ha/yr for oilpalm, 2 – 2.2 ton/ha/ yr for coconut, 1 – 1.5 ton/ha/yr for rapeseed, and  ½ ton/ha/yr for soybean [but rapeseed and soybean meals have economic value!].  Need R & D to increase productivity etc!.• The Pakuwon Jatropha Nursery and Experimental Plantation, located between Bogor and Sukabumi in West Java, Indonesia, and operated by Indonesian Center for Estate-crops Research and Development (ICERD) is carrying out R&D activities to increase productivity, ease of harvesting, etc. 5
  6. 6. The Pakuwon Jatropha Nursery• Established in 2005; initially collected 9 Jatropha breeds from all over Indonesia and planted in a 50 ha area.• 2005 : 25-30 capsules/shrub (C/S) or a first year yield of 0.3-0.4 ton/ha seeds.• 2006 : First Improved Population (IP-1), > 200 C/S, 0.9- 1.0 ton/ha (1st year) or 4 – 5 ton/ha/yr (4th year and a.w.).• 2007 : IP-2, > 400 C/S, 1.9-2.2 ton/ha (1st year) or 6 – 8 ton/ha/yr (4th year and afterward).• 2009 : IP-3, 8 – 9 ton/ha/yr seeds (4th year and a.w.).• Other activities : developing Jatropha breed with simultaneously maturing fruits for efficient harvesting, genetic, pest , and disease controls, certification of distributed seed and inter-crop selection. 6
  7. 7. Intrinsic characteristics of crude Jatropha curcas oil (CJCO) Specific gravity (15/15 oC) : 0.918 – 0.923. Saponification value, (mg-KOH)/g : 188 – 197 Iodine value, (g-I2)/(100 g) : 93 – 107 Unsaponifiable matter content, % : 0.4 – 1.1• CJCO, which typically contains 1.45% phospholipids 290 ppm (mg/kg) phosphorus.  Must be degummed!. (otherwise will cause phosphate deposit).• Many investigators reported CJCO with very high acid values (sometimes > 100 mg-KOH/g) . Not intrinsic character of CJCO but resulted from poor post-harvest management of the seeds!. 7
  8. 8. • Soon after harvesting, the seeds should be dried until the moisture content is less than 10 % (to remove water) by sun drying or, if possible, via dry-cooking ( 100 oC) to also deactivate/kill oil-hydrolyzing enzimes. Keep the seeds dry afterward!. Don’t place bags of seeds on wet floor/ground and protect them from rain!.• Proper seed management would lead to CJCO of satisfactory quality; acid value less than 1 mg-KOH/g.• High acid oils lead to either high processing cost or high processing loss; such CJCO would be low-priced. 8
  9. 9. Fatty acids composition of Jatropha curcas oil (%-weight) Fatty acid Eckey (1954) Gubitz et.al. (1999)Myristic, C14:0 0 – 0.5 0 – 0.1Palmitic, C16:0 12 – 17 14.1 – 15.3Stearic, C18:0 5–7 3.7 – 9.8Arachidic, C20:0 0 – 0.3 0 – 0.3Behenic, C22:0 - 0 – 0.2Palmitoleic, C16:1 - 0 – 1.3Oleic, C18:1 37 – 63 34.3 – 45.8Linoleic, C18:2 19 – 40 29.0 – 44.2Linolenic, C18:3 - 0 – 0.3• Oleic-linoleic oil!. Usual method of biodiesel preparation should be applicable!. 9
  10. 10. Precautions due to the presence of phorbol esters • Phorbol esters are diterpenoid derivatives having two hydroxyl groups on neighbouring carbon atoms are esterified to fatty acids. • Contained in Jatropha curcas seed and the oil obtained from it. Content in oil is up to 1.6 % [Ahmed and Salimon (2009)] . • Toxic and carcinogenic when consumed by human or animal.  Some special precautions need to be exercised during the processing of Jatropha curcas seeds and oils. 10
  11. 11. • Makkar et.al. (2009) :  During degumming, some phorbol esters were removed into the acid gums and wash water.  The acid gums could not be used for animal feed!.  Care should be taken when disposing the wash water (from degumming as well as transesterification) into the environment.  Stripping/deodorization of Jatropha oil at 260 oC and 3 mbar pressure with 1% steam injection completely degraded phorbol esters . Toxic degradation products should not be ruled out!.• The toxicity of phorbol esters has also prohibited the use of Jatropha seed meals could not as animal feed.• Deotoxification researches are being carried out but not much progress has been reported so far. 11
  12. 12. Needs to enhance the competitiveness of Jatropha curcas• According to Azam, Waris, and Nahar [Biomass and Bioenergy 29, 293 - 302 (2005)], the order of potential productivity of non edible oil plants are : Pongamia pinnata, 5499 kg/ha/yr; Calophyllum inophyllum, 4680; Azadirachta indica, 2670; Jatropha curcas, 2500.• Pongamia pinnata : fast-growing firewood crops ( for 2nd generation biofuels), nitrogen-fixing tree, can stand salty/sea water, seed contains oil and bioactive chemicals.• Calophyllum inophyllum : can stand salty/sea water, good for coastal area conservation (wind-break, etc), seed contains, in addition to fatty oil, resinous 4-phenyl coumarin derivatives having potential for medicine as well as (through cracking process) biogasoline. 12
  13. 13. • Azadirachta indica : fast-growing firewood crops ( for 2nd generation biofuels), nitrogen-fixing tree, can stand salty/sea water, seed contains oil and bioactive chemicals.• There exist need to develop other value-added products from Jatropha curcas !. Otherwise, it will be losing competition against the above multipurpose energy crops.• Possibilities e.g. :  animal feed from detoxified meal;  bioactive chemicals (from bark exudate/latex) for medicine, insecticide, or pesticide. Also need researches!. 13
  14. 14. THANK YOU VERY MUCH for your attentiontatanghs@che.itb.ac.id hstatang@ yahoo.com

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