Cultivation And Use Of Jatropha For Bio-Diesel Production In India


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Cultivation And Use Of Jatropha For Bio-Diesel Production In India

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Cultivation And Use Of Jatropha For Bio-Diesel Production In India

  1. 1. CULTIVATION AND USE OF JATROPHA FOR BIO-DIESEL PRODUCTION IN INDIA DR. M.S.PUNIA, Executive Director NATIONAL OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS DEVELOPMENT BOARD MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, GOVT OF INDIA 86, SECTOR-18, GURGAON -122015 (HARYANA), INDIABackground India is the seventh largest country in the world after Russia, Canada, China,USA, Brazil and Australia covering geographical area of 328.73 million ha., whichconstitutes 2.42 percent of earth’s surface. India with 109 crore population is thesecond most populous nation of the world after China. The climatic contrasts, thevaried landscapes and the widely divergent environmental conditions of India accountfor the magnificence of its flora and fauna. It ranks sixth in the world in terms ofenergy demand. Its economy is projected to grow 8-9 percent over the next twodecades and there will be a substantial increase in demand for oil to managetransportation and to meet various other energy needs. While India has significantreserves of coal, it is relatively poor in oil and gas resources. Due to stagnatingdomestic crude production, India imports approximately 72 percent of its petroleumrequirement. The annual requirement of petroleum products of the country is approx. 124MMT. Our domestic production of crude oil and natural gas is approximate 34 milliontones during 2006-07. The huge gap between demand and supply is met only byimport. The net import burden was increased from USD 25.18 billion in 2004-05 toUSD 37.17 billion in 2005-06 and taking into account, the average prices till now,the net import bill for 2006-07 is around USD 46.9 billion. The increasing trendsshow one and half times increase annually and if the present increasing trend iscontinued. This is a matter of very serious concern for the country. If the correctivemeasures are not taken in time, the India’s maximum revenue will drain out in theimport of petroleum products. Among various petroleum products, being developed from crude oil, diesel isbeing consumed maximum (i.e.80%) for transport of industrial and agricultural goods
  2. 2. and operation of diesel driven tractors and pump sets in agricultural sector. Thedepletion of available vital fossil fuel resources and our over commitment to use thefossil fuels is likely to lead us to the energy crisis situation in the years to come. Thedemand for diesel is likely to touch 66 million tonnes in 2011-12 and 80 million tonnesin 2012-15. Contrary to the demand situation, the domestic supply is in position tocater to only about 30% of the total demand. Therefore, attempt needs to be madeto reduce dependence on imports and seek better alternatives. The best alternatives are bio-fuels and the country has a ray of hope for thesame through various sources namely virgin or used vegetable oils, biogas, alcohols,ethers, esters and other chemicals derived from cellulosic bio-mass such asherbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, Tree borne oilseedslike Jatropha, Karanja, Neem, Oil Palm etc. Among bio-fuels, bio-diesel is gainingworldwide acceptance as a solution to energy crises. At present, India is using 80 percent diesel driven vehicles. It is possible to blend 20 per cent bio-diesel withpetro-diesel without any modification in the diesel engine. It is estimated that 5%,10% and 20% blending of bio-diesel will require following quantity of bio-dieselconsidering 52.33 MMT demand during 2006-07:- Year Diesel Bio-Dies Bio-Diesel @ Bio-Diesel @ Demand el @ 5% 10% MMT 20% MMT MMT MMT 2006-07 52.33 2.62 5.23 10.47 2011-12 66.90 3.35 6.69 13.38 2012-15 80.00 4.00 8.00 16.00 As illustrated above, there is urgent need to explore possibility of analternative source of bio-diesel. To meet this challenging and horrible situation, ourscientists have got success in identifying Jatropha as best alternative source ofbio-diesel production. 2C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  3. 3. Jatropha – An introducation Jatropha, a large soft-weeded deciduous shrub, is also known as Ratanjyot,Jamalgota, Chandrajyot etc. It is a wildly growing hardy plant, in arid and semi-aridregions of the country on degraded soils having low fertility and moisture. It canthrives well on stony, gravelly or shallow and even on calcareous soils having soildepth of about 2 feet. It can be grown under wide range of arid and semi-aridclimatic conditions but can not with stand heavy frost. Jatropha is not grazed byanimals including goats.and serve as a live bio-fence around fields It can becultivated successfully in the regions having scanty to heavy rainfall with annualrainfall ranges from 500-1200 mm. The bushy plant (3-4 metre high) of Jatropha bears numerous side branchesarising from its main stem. The flowers are yellowish green in loose panicles. Theflowering occurs twice in a year i.e in March-April and in September-October. Theripe fruits are about 2-5 cm. large and ripen fruits are yellow in colour. The seedsresemble with castor seed in shape either ovoid or oblong and are covered in a dullbrownish black capsule. The genus Jatropha belonging to Euphorbiaceae family of plant kingdom ,is adiploid with chromosome number (2n) 22, contains about 175 species in the world. InIndia, following 18 species are found scattered in various states of the country. Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Jatropha glandulifera Jatropha heynei Jatropha integerrima Jatropha maheshwarii Jatropha multifida Jatropha mulendnifera Jatropha villosa Jatropha nana Jatropha podagrica Jatropha hastata Jatropha tanjovurensis Jatropha hastata Jatropha macrofayala Jatropha acrocurcas Jatropha diyoka Jatropha sinera Out of above, Jatropha curcas gained prominence because of its addedfeatures like excellent adaptability to various habitats, larger fruits and seeds, high oilyielding, soil conservation capabilities, thriving well as live fence etc.USES : 3C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  4. 4. All parts of the plan exude sticky, bitterly pungent and astringent latex, whichcan be used as making ink. The bark contains tanin, wax, resin, saponins etc. thatmakes it useful for industrial purposes. The kernel, which forms 60-68% of theweight of seed contains oil about 46-58% of the kernel weight and 30-40% of seedweight. The oil is used for illumination without smoke, substitute of diesel, kerosene,lubricants, soaps and candle manufacturing. It can be used as hair oil and hasapplication to livestock against sores. As an excellent source of organic manure, itcontains 3.2% nitrogen, 1.4% phosphorus and 1.2% potash.Jatropha oil as best alternative to diesel Among various alternative sources, Jatropha is one of the best alternative forbio-diesel production due to its following characteristics:- It can be grown in areas of low rainfall (500 mm per year) high rainfall, irrigated areas and problematic soils with much higher yields. Jatropha is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and is hardy. Jatropha lends itself to plantation with advantage on lands developed on watershed basis, on low fertility marginal, degraded, fallow, waste and other lands such as along the canals, roads, railway tracks, on borders of farmers’ fields as a boundary fence or live hedge in the arid/semi-arid areas. As such it can be used to reclaim wastelands in the forests and outside. Jatropha is not browsed by animals. Being rich in nitrogen, the seed cake is an excellent source of organic manure. One hectare of Jatropha plantation can produce 3 to 4 MT seed. Gestation period is two years Various parts of the plant have medicinal value, its bark contains tannin, the flowers attract bees and thus the plant has honey production potential. Like all trees, Jatropha removes carbon from the atmosphere, stores it in the woody tissues and assists in the build up of soil carbon. It is thus environment friendly. 4C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  5. 5. Jatropha can be established from seed, seedlings and vegetatively from cuttings. Use of branch cutting for propagation is easy and results in rapid growth; The bush can be expected to start bearing fruit within two years and in some cases after one year of planting. The plant is undemanding in soil type and does not require tillage. It can meet a number of objectives such as meeting domestic needs of energy services including cooking and lighting; as an additional source of household income and employment through markets for fuel, fertilizer, animal feed, medicine, and industrial raw material for soap, cosmetics, etc. in creating environmental benefits – protection of crops or pasture lands, or as a hedge for erosion control, or as a windbreak and a source of organic manure. It has the desired physio-chemical and performance characteristic comparable to petro-diesel. Jatropha oil has higher cetone number (51), which is comparable to diesel (46 to 50) and makes it an ideal alternative fuel and requires no modification in the engine. The initial flash point of Jatropha oil is 1000C as compared to 500C in case of diesel. In view of higher flashpoint, it has advantage over petro-diesel such as more safety during storage, handling and transport. However, higher flash point may create initial starting problem in the engine. Similarly, higher viscosity of Jatropha oil could pose the problem of smooth flow of oil in fuel supply pipe and nozzle. These problems/difficulties can easily be overcome by esterification of Jatropha oil, which is a very effective way of overcoming high viscosity and smoke emissions of vegetable oil by forming their ethyl/methyl esters.Constraints in Jatropha cultivation Jatropha curcas is a potential source of bio-diesel, however, it needs to beexplored. The initiatives made to explore the possibility and potential of Jatrophahave not yet reach to the final conclusion. The constraints are as hereunder:- 5C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  6. 6. i. The existing Jatropha curcas are giving yield in the areas where annual rainfall is above 500 MM. ii. The Jatropha curcas can not tolerate frost and also the temperature below 0’C. iii. There is no fruiting or grain filling during summer season in most of the states where temperature goes above 43’C. iv. The productivity is comparatively low and not much economically beneficial to the farmers with the existing planting material. v. Jatropha curcas needs one or two life saving irrigation during summer season for better harvesting. vi. Almost all types of wastelands are suitable but soil depth should be more than 2 ft. vii. Non-availability of Minimum Support Price of produce of the farmers. viii. No seed standard have been made so far to check the quality plantation.Efforts to overcome constraints: The following efforts are being made to overcome the above constraints in thecountry:- i. Location specific package of practice are being developed through State Agricultural Universities and other research institutes located in 23 states of the country. ii. Superior quality planting material having high oil content and yield are being identified for further multiplication and production of quality planting material. iii. Varietal development through hybridization as well as other techniques are being made by using promising line from various states. iv. Research trials are being conducted to test in different locations with various permutation-combination. v. Various agronomic trials are being conducted for productivity enhancement vi. Possibility for Jatropha cultivation through inter-cropping suitable for different states and agro-climatic conditions are being explored. vii. Model plantations are being developed on Agricultural Universities/Govt. seed farms in all the potential states to provide quality planting material to the farmers. viii. Seed standards are being made to bring Jatropha curcas into Seed Act so that Seed Law Enforcement can be made effective to ensure the quality plantation. ix. The Minimum Support Price (MSP) of bio-diesel has been declared and is likely to be revised further, however, MSP of seed is still to be finalized. 6C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  7. 7. x. A concrete policy for bio-fuel including ethanol (petrol) and bio-diesel production as substitute of petro-diesel is to be made. xi The necessary efforts are being made for promotion of Jatropha. 7C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  8. 8. Potential of Jatropha cultivation in India The country has 168 million ha. arable lands out of its 328.73 million ha.geographical area. There is about 63 million ha. wastelands in the country, out ofwhich about 40 million ha. area can be developed by undertaking plantations ofJatropha. The state-wise availability of wastelands and their exploitable potentialunder Jatropha plantation is as under: Sr. States Available Exploitable potential No. wasteland of Jatropha (million ha.) plantation (million ha.) 1. Andhra Pradesh 5.175 4.396 2. Arunachal Pradesh 1.832 0.997 3. Assam 2.001 1.456 4. Bihar/Jharkhand 2.099 1.860 5. Goa 0.061 0.04 6. Gujarat 4.302 2.871 7. Haryana 0.373 0.262 8. Himachal Pradesh 3.165 0 9. Jammu & Kashmir 6.544 0 10. Karnataka 2.084 1.789 11. Kerala 0.145 0.10 12. Madhya Pradesh / 6.971 6.620 Chhattisgarh 13. Maharashtra 5.349 4.855 14. Manipur 1.295 1.262 15. Meghalaya 0.99 0.937 16. Mizoram 0.407 0.407 17. Nagaland 0.840 0.840 18. Orissa 2.134 1.888 19. Punjab 0.223 0.106 20. Rajasthan 10.564 5.688 21. Sikkim 0.356 0.213 22. Tamil Nadu 2.301 1.795 23. Tripura 0.127 0.128 24. Uttar Pradesh/ Uttranchal 3.877 1.214 25. West Bengal 0.571 0.258 26. Union Territories 0.057 0.055 Grand Total 63.843 40.037 The above wasteland may be classified as gullied and ravenous, up-land withor without scrub, degradable land under plantation, pastures, grazing, miningindustrial wasteland, hill slopes, fallow land, railway tracks, canal, field boundary andcommunity waste land etc. The Jatropha can be grown in all above categories of 8C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  9. 9. wastelands with minimum care. This should be a major thrust area in making countryindependent in bio-fuel sector.CULTIVATION OF JATROPHASeed source for raising nursery The Jatropha plant once planted in the field, starts fruiting after 2 years andcontinues upto 30-40 years. Therefore, the freshly harvested seeds from theidentified quality planting material having desirable characteristics like high seedyield, high oil content in seed, synchronized maturity, resistant to insect, pests anddiseases etc. should always be used for raising of nursery. The quality parentmaterial (seeds & seedlings) should be obtained from the most reliable sources likeState Departments of Agriculture, Horticulture, Forests etc., State AgriculturalUniversities, R&D institutions of Indian council of agricultural research (ICAR),Council of Scientific and Industrial research (CSIR), Indian council of ForestResearch and Education (ICFRE), registered nurseries etc. The NOVOD Board hasraised model plantation of Jatropha in 10,083 ha. area in the following states, whichwill serve as basic parental material: State Plantation State Plantation (ha.) (ha.) Andhra 355 Mizoram 500 Pradesh Arunachal 185 Meghalaya 113 Pradesh Bihar 10 Maharashtra 1634 Chhattisgarh 604 Madhya Pradesh. 742 Gujarat 1129 Nagaland 440 Haryana 460 Rajasthan 176 Jharkhand 700 Tamil Nadu 464 Karnataka 374 Uttar Pradesh 779 Kerala 50 Uttrakhand 618 Manipur 250 West Bengal 100 Sikkim 100 Grand Total 10083Raising of quality nursery Seedlings are raised in the flat seed beds or in poly bags of half kg. capacity filledwith mixture of soil and FYM in the ratio of 4:1. Two seeds are sown in each polybags at a depth of 1.5-2.0 cm and watered regularly. The seeds germinate after a 9C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  10. 10. week. When the seedlings are around 4 weeks older, the weaker of two seedlingscan be removed and used for gap filling. The plants can also be raised easilythrough cutting February-March, is the best time for sowing of nursery andJuly-August (rainy season) is the best time for transplanting seedlings in the field.Propogation practices Jatropha can grows easily from seeds. However, commercially it can bepropagated by three different ways such as by seeds, nursery and stem cutting.By seeds Fully matured seeds should be selected for sowing. Pre-soaking in water for 24hrs is advised. Another way is to soak seeds is cow-dung slurry for 12 hrs beforesowing. Soaked seeds are generally sown in poly bags of 10 x20 cm size filled withsoil, sand and FYM (Farm yard manure) in the ratio of 1:2:1 respectively.Germination is generally noticed after 4-5 days and continues up to 15 days. If theseedlings are to be retained by 5-6 months before transplantation, then bigger polybags (15x25 cm) should be taken. Bold & disease free seeds from fresh collections are to be used for obtainingbetter germination percentage and Growth performance. Low Germinationpercentages and high mortality rates were found if the seeds from previous years areused.Sowing in nursery beds Raised beds (10 cm high) are prepared by digging and mixing soil with sandand FYM in 1:1:1 ratio. Each bed is prepared having 1 m x 5 m dimensions. Shallowfurrows of 2 cm depth are made by finger or using a stick. Soaked seeds are placedin furrows at an interval of 5 cm. and covered with a thin layer of soil. Care is taken toavoid deep sowing. Light Irrigations are given after seed germination and bare rootedseedlings are transplanted after 3-4 months in the field during the rainy season.By stem cutting Jatropha responds well for vegetative propagation. Propagation throughbranch cuttings is not new and farmers know these technique. In fact, 90% Jatropha 10C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  11. 11. spread throughout the country for ‘live fence’ was by branch cuttings only. Cuttingsplanted during monsoon immediately after Ist showers give better root initiation, highsurvival rate and good growth performance.i. Superior Jatropha tray/ genotypes are selected on the basis of their high seed yield and oil content.ii. From the selected tree, collect the branches having 2-3 cm diameter, put them in a bucket of water.iii. Cut them into 15-20 cm long pieces with a knife or a mini hand-saw.iv. Dip the cuttings into a tuve rooting hormone mixture (may be commercial seradix or growth harmones like IBA or NAA of 100 ppm concentration.v. Put the cuttings in a poly bagged rooting media (Soil + Sand in 1:1) by inserting the basal region (about 3 cm).vi. Place the poly bags inside a closed polythene chamber or mist chamber to avoid the drying of cuttings. Allow the cuttings inside the chamber for a period of 2-3 weeks. Rooting can be seen through the transparent polybags in about 3 weeks of time.Rooting response is always better in harmone treated cuttings than in untreatedcuttings. After removing from polychamber, the clones (vegetative propagules) are tobe kept out side under partial shade for 2 weeks before transferring them to the fieldfor transplanting. Using polythene chamber or mist chamber is advantageousbecause the plants do not lose more water through evapo-transpiration due tochecking of wind velocity, the cuttings are kept always moistened thus not allowingthem to become dry and ensures easy and profuse rooting. The cuttings are planted in the month of February-March to get best sproutingand survival. Experience gained suggests heavy mortality in cuttings if plantedduring rainy season.Plantation practices The disease free and bold seedlings of Jatropha are transplanted in rows at aspacing of 3x2 meter under irrigated condition accommodating 1666 plants/ha. Onrainfed wasteland high density planting at 2 m x 2 m accommodating 2500 plants/ recommended.Direct planting by seeds The land is ploughed once or twice depending upon the nature of soil. In caseof heavy soil deep ploughing is desirable, whereas in light soil shallow ploughing issufficient. The 30 cm x 30 cm pits dug in the field at required spacing should be filledwith a mixture of soil, FYM (2-3 kg) and fertilizer (20 g urea, 120 g single superphosphate and 16 g murate of potash. Two seeds per pit should be dibbled at each 11C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  12. 12. pit with the onset of monsoon. When the seedlings are 4 weeks old weaker seedlingcan be removed and the seedlings so removed can be used for gap filling.Transplanting Four weeks healthy seedlings should be planted in the pit at required depth.Eight to ten week old seedlings are to be planted in 30 cm x 30 cm pits dug in thefield at required spacing and filled with a mixture of soil, FYM (2-3 kg.) and fertilizer(20 gm urea, 120 g single super phosphate and 16 g murate of potash).Care after plantation One irrigation is applied immediately after plantation, however, during dryperiod only life saving irrigations should be applied to the plants as and whenrequired. Usually from second year onwards irrigation is not required unless soils areshallow and sandy. Two irrigations in a year if applied at both the flowering periodstages will enhance the yield. The NPK in the ratio of 46:48:24 kg per ha is to be applied in split doses fromsecond year onwards so as to obtain economic yields. Inter-culturing should becarried out whenever necessary. Annually, 3-4 weed lings may be carried out forkeeping weed free field during initial growth period.Inter-cropping with Jatropha The inter-cropping during initial years of plantation i.e. upto gestation period issuggested to increase income per unit area. The crops being utilized forinter-cropping should have following characteristic:- Annual crops having no competition in nutrient uptake, height, shade etc. Leguminous in nature to increase soil fertility Require less spacing, irrigation etc. Shade loving Having high economic value Keeping in view of above, the following crops should be selected forinter-cropping:-1. Pulse & oilseeds crops: Moong, Urd, Gram, Pea, Lentil, Cowpea, Sesamum, Soybean, Rapeseed & Mustard, Linseed etc. 12C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  13. 13. 2. Vegetable crops: Ginger, Potato, Sweet potato, Carrot, Bitter guard, Tomato, Cucumber, Chilly, Cucurbits etc.3. Medicinal & aromatic crops: Mentha, Ashwagandha, Kalmegh, Sarpgandha, Isabgol, Satavar etc.Plant protection Jatropha plants are less prone to attack by diseases and insects. Following few common diseases and insects are to be checked from time to time for better seed yields:(A) Diseases S . Name of Causal organism Control No. disease 1. D a m p i n g Phytopthera pithium Spray of Keptan 50% @ off 0.2% 2. Collar rot Myerophomina phaseolina Drenching of 1% Baurdeax mixture 3. Root rot Fusarium moniliforme Spray of thiram @ 0.2% 4. Leaf spot Helminthosporium utramera Spray of Blitox @ 0.2% (B) Insects 1. Leaf minor Spray of 1.5 ml/litre of water of metasystox 25 CC 2. Blue Bug Spray of phosphomedin/ Dimethoate @ 2.0 ml/3 lt. of water 3. Green bug Spray of 2 ml/3 lt. water of phosphomedinSeed yield In India, it flowers between September-December and March-April. Thefruiting extends from September to December. The fruits mature 2-4 months afterflowering. With proper care, average seed yield under rainfed condition is expectedas under: Years Expected seed (Kg/ha/yr) 2 250-300 3 500-600 4 1000-1500 5 1600-2000 6 & onwards 2500-4000Collection, processing and oil extraction 13C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  14. 14. The ripe fruits are plucked from short trees. The collected seeds are sun driedand decorticated manually or by decorticators. One person could collect anddecorticate 25-30 kg seed per day. Kernels are sold in the market in small quantities. This is an income generating village level activity and can be integrated with therural development programme alongwith collection of other – non-traditional oilseedslike mango stones, karanj and neem. The oil is extracted from modern oil expellershaving high oil recovery and possessing various capacity.Bio-diesel production and Trans-esterification Bio-diesel is a methyl ester formed by a process called Tranesterification.Here, the Jatropha oil is reacted with methanol in the presence of a catalyst to yieldmethyl esters and glycerol. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is commonly used catalyst,though potassium hydroxide (KOH) can also be used. The methanol and NaOH arepremixed and added to the Jatropha oil, mixed for few hours and left to gravity settlefor about 8 hrs. The bio-diesel comes to top leaving glycerine to settle at the bottom. This process is done through a machine called trans-esterification unit. Trans-esterification of vegetable oils with simple alcohol has long been thepreferred method for producing bio-diesel. In general, there are two methods oftrans-esterification. One method simply uses a catalyst and the other is without acatalyst. The former method has a long history of development and the bio-dieselproduced by this method is now available in North America, Japan and some westernEuropean countries.Basic Reaction The overall transesterification reaction is given by 3 consecutive andreversible equations as below: The first step is the conversion of triglycerides todiglycerides, followed by the conversion of diglycerides to monoglycerides, and ofmonoglycerides to glycerol, yielding one methyl ester molecule per mole of glycerideat each step: CatalystTriglyceride + ROH Diglyceride + RICOOR Catalyst Catalyst 14C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  15. 15. Diglyceride + ROH Monoglyceride + RIICOOR CatalystMonoglyceride + ROH Glycerol + RIIICOOR The overall chemical reaction of the trans-esterification process is as follows:- CH-COORI Catalyst CH2 OH RI COOR I +3ROH I + CH-COORII CHOH RII COOR I I + CH3-COORIII CH2OH RIII COOR Triglyceride Methanol Glycerol Bio-diesel (Vegetable oil) As seen above, the trans-esterification is an equilibrium reaction in whichexcess alcohol is required to drive the reaction close to completion. Fortunately, theequilibrium constant favors the formation of methyl esters such that only a 5:1 molarratio of methanol:triglycerides is sufficient for 95-98% yield of ester. It might be anticipated that in such a system, glycerol would play a major rolein achieving conversions close to 100%. Several catalysts were tried for the purposeof trans-esterification by several workers, but alkoxides are the most efficientcatalysts, although KOH and NaOH can also be used. Transmethylation occurs inthe presence of both alkaline and acidic catalysts. As they are less corrosive toindustrial equipment, alkaline catalysts are preferred in industrial processes. Aconcentration in the range of 0.5-1% has been found to yield 94-99% conversion tovegetable oil esters. The energetic have indicated that about 50 kw of electricity per ton ofbio-diesel is required, of which 60-70% is consumed for the production of glycerin.The process requires mixing of vegetable oil with a mixture prepared by dissolvingKOH catalyst in methanol and heating at 70°C with stirring for 1 h. The mixture isallowed to settle under gravity. The glycerin, being heavier, settles down in thebottom layer and the upper layer constitutes the bio-diesel (esters). The glycerin isseparated and the esters are washed with water for catalyst recovery. The bio-diesel 15C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  16. 16. layer is finally dried using silica gel and it is now ready for blending with diesel invarious proportions for engine operation. The blend, for convenience, is referred toas Bxx, where xx indicates the amount of bio-diesel in percentage in the blend (i.e.B-20 blend is 20% bio-diesel and 80% diesel).Cost economics The cost of cultivation of Jatropha varies depending upon location,geographical area, availability of inputs etc. The cost of plantation of Jatropha isestimated to be Rs. 25,000 per ha. whereas that of bio-diesel production variesdepending upon input cost and cost of bio-products as illustrated hereunder:-Cost of plantation (one ha.) Hypothesis: Spacing: 2Mx2M No. of plants per ha. 2,500 Gestation period: Three years. Sr. No Component Cost of plantation (Rs. per ha.) First Year Second year 1. Site preparation i.e. cleaning and leveling of field 600 2. Alignment and staking 300 3. Digging of pits (2500 Nos.) of 30 Cm3 size 3000 4. Cost of FYM (including carriage) 2 kg per pits 2000 5. Cost of fertilizer @ Rs. 6 per kg (50 gm. per plan 870 495 during 1st year and 25 gm from 2nd year onward). 6. Mixing of FYM, insecticides fertilizers and 1500 - refilling of pits 7. Cost of plants (including carriage) 2500 Nos. 10000 2000 during first year and 500 Nos. of plants during second year for replanting @ Rs. 4.0 per plant. 8. Planting and replanting cost 1500 300 9. Irrigation – 3 irrigation during 1st and one 1500 500 irrigation during 2nd year @ Rs. 500/- per irrigation. 10. Weeding and soil working 1200 1200 11. Plant protection measure 300 - Sub Total 22770 4495 Contingency (10% of the above) 2277 450 Grand Total 25047 49451 USD = Rs.40.50Cost of Bio-diesel production 16C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  17. 17. The cost of bio-diesel is the most important aspect of promotion of Jatrophafor bio-diesel production in the country. Being eco-friendly, easy to produce rawmaterial, easy oil extraction and trans-esterification, it is cheaper also if producedcommercially as illustrated below:- S r . Component Total expenditure/ revenue No. S.C. – Rs.5/kg S.C. – Rs.5/kg S.C. – Rs.5/kg T.C.-Rs.5/litre T.C.-Rs.5/litre T.C.-Rs.5/litre G -Rs.20/kg G -Rs.30/kg G -Rs.40/kg 1. Cost (Rs.) 1.1. Seed cost (SC) – 100 kg 500 500 500 seed 1.2. Oil extraction (100 kg 100 100 100 seed @ Rs.1 per kg) 1.3. Trans-esterification cost 165 165 165 (TC) for 33 litre oil Sub-Total 765 765 765 2. Recovery (Rs. 2.1. Oil meal – 65 kg @ Rs. 3 195 195 195 per kg 2.2. Glycerol (G) – 10 kg 200 300 400 Sub-Total 395 495 594 3. Cost of bio-diesel 11.21 8.18 5.15 (Rs./litre) {Cost – recovery/33 litre} To meet the challenges of excessive import, we have to strengthen ouroilseed sector and lay special emphasis on harnessing the existing and augmentingfuture potential source of green fuel. The organized plantation and systematiccollection of Jaropha oil, being potential bio-diesel substitutes will reduce the importburden of crude petroleum substantially. The emphasis should be made to invest inagriculture sector for exploitation of existing potential by establishing model seedprocurement centres, installing preprocessing and processing facilities, oil extractionunit, trans-esterification units etc. There is also need to augment the future potentialby investing largely on compact organized plantation of Jatropha on the available 17C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc
  18. 18. wastelands of the country. This will enable our country to become independent in thefuel sector by promoting and adopting bio-fuel as an alternative to petroleum fuels. -.-.-.-.-.-.- 18C:My DocumentsPaper-Bio-dieselproductioninIndia(May,07).doc