Solar Air Conditioning


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Solar Air Conditioning

  1. 1. SOLAR AIR CONDITIONINGSolar air conditioning refers to any air conditioning (cooling) system that uses solar power.This can be done through passive solar, solar thermal energy conversion and photovoltaic conversion(sun to electricity). The U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007[1] created 2008 through2012 funding for a new solar air conditioning research and development program, which shoulddevelop and demonstrate multiple new technology innovations and mass production economies ofscale. Solar air conditioning will play an increasing role in zero energy and energy-plus buildingsdesign.[who?]Contents • 1 Solar A/C using desiccants • 2 Passive solar cooling • 3 Solar Closed Loop Absorption & Adsorption Cooling • 4 Photovoltaic (PV) solar cooling • 5 Geothermal cooling • 6 Zero energy buildings • 7 See also • 8 References • 9 External linksSolar A/C using desiccantsAir can be passed over common, solid desiccants (like silica gel or zeolite) to draw moisture from theair to allow an efficient evaporative cooling cycle. The desiccant is then regenerated by using solarthermal energy to dry it out, in a cost-effective, low-energy-consumption, continuously repeating cycle.[2] A photovoltaic system can power a low-energy air circulation fan, and a motor to slowly rotate alarge disk filled with desiccant.Energy recovery ventilation systems provide a controlled way of ventilating a home while minimizingenergy loss. Air is passed through an "enthalpy wheel" (often using silica gel) to reduce the cost ofheating ventilated air in the winter by transferring heat from the warm inside air being exhausted to thefresh (but cold) supply air. In the summer, the inside air cools the warmer incoming supply air toreduce ventilation cooling costs.[3] This low-energy fan-and-motor ventilation system can be cost-effectively powered by photovoltaics, with enhanced natural convection exhaust up a solar chimney -the downward incoming air flow would be forced convection (advection).A desiccant like calcium chloride can be mixed with water to create an attractive recirculating waterfall,that dehumidifies a room using solar thermal energy to regenerate the liquid, and a PV-powered low-rate water pump[4]The potential for near-future exploitation of this type of innovative solar-powered desiccant airconditioning technology is great.[citation needed]
  2. 2. Active solar cooling wherein solar thermal collectors provide input energy for a desiccant coolingsystem: A packed column air-liquid contactor has been studied in application to air dehumidificationand regeneration in solar air conditioning with liquid desiccants. A theoretical model has beendeveloped to predict the performance of the device under various operating conditions. Computersimulations based on the model are presented which indicate the practical range of air to liquid fluxratios and associated changes in air humidity and desiccant concentration. An experimental apparatushas been constructed and experiments performed with monoethylene glycol (MEG) and lithiumbromide as desiccants. MEG experiments have yielded inaccurate results and have pointed out somepractical problems associated with the use of glycols. LiBr experiments show very good agreementwith the theoretical model. Preheating of the air is shown to greatly enhance desiccant regeneration.The packed column yields good results as a dehumidifier/regenerator, provided pressure drop can bereduced with the use of suitable packing.[5]Passive solar coolingMain articles: Passive cooling and Passive solarIn this type of cooling solar thermal energy is not used directly to create a cold environment or driveany direct cooling processes. Instead, solar building design aims at slowing the rate of heat transfer intoa building in the summer, and improving the removal of unwanted heat. It involves a goodunderstanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer: heat conduction, convective heat transfer, andthermal radiation, the latter primarily from the sun.For example, a sign of poor thermal design is an attic that gets hotter in summer than the peak outsideair temperature. This can be significantly reduced or eliminated with a cool roof or a green roof, whichcan reduce the roof surface temperature by 70 °F (40 °C) in summer. A radiant barrier and an air gapbelow the roof will block about 97% of downward radiation from roof cladding heated by the sun.Passive solar cooling is much easier to achieve in new construction than by adapting existing buildings.There are many design specifics involved in passive solar cooling. It is a primary element of designinga zero energy building in a hot climate.Solar Closed Loop Absorption & Adsorption CoolingMain article: Absorption heat pumpThe following are common technologies in use for solar thermal closed loop air conditioning. • Absorption: NH3/H2O or Ammonia/Water • Absorption: Water/Lithium Bromide • Absorption: Water/Lithium Chloride • Adsorption: Water/Silica Gel or Water/Zeolite • Adsorption: Methanol/Activated Carbon[6]Active solar cooling uses solar thermal collectors to provide thermal energy to drive thermally drivenchillers (usually adsorption or absorption chillers).[7] The Sopogy concentrating solar thermal collector,for example, provides solar thermal heat by concentrating the sun’s energy on a collection tube and
  3. 3. heating the recirculated heat transfer fluid within the system.[8] The generated heat is then used inconjunction with absorption chillers to provide a renewable source of industrial cooling.[9]There are multiple alternatives to compressor-based chillers that can reduce energy consumption, withless noise and vibration. Solar thermal energy can be used to efficiently cool in the summer, and alsoheat domestic hot water and buildings in the winter. Single, double or triple iterative absorption coolingcycles are used in different solar-thermal-cooling system designs. The more cycles, the more efficientthey are.Efficient absorption chillers require water of at least 190 °F (88 °C). Common, inexpensive flat-platesolar thermal collectors only produce about 160 °F (71 °C) water. In large scale installations there areseveral projects successful both technical and economical in operation world wide including e.g. on theheadquarters of Caixa Geral de Depósitos in Lisbon with 1579m² solar collectors and 545 kW coolingpower or on the Olympic Sailing Village in Qingdao/China. In 2011 the most powerful plant atSingapores new constructed United World College will be commissioned (1500 kW).These projects have shown that flat plate solar collectors specially developed for temperatures over 200°F (featuring double glazing, increased backside insulation, etc.) can be effective and cost efficient.[10]Evacuated-tube solar panels can be used as well. Concentrating solar collectors required for absorptionchillers are less effective in hot humid, cloudy environments, especially where the overnight lowtemperature and relative humidity are uncomfortably high. Where water can be heated well above190 °F (88 °C), it can be stored and used when the sun is not shining.The Audubon Environmental Center in Los Angeles has an example solar air conditioning installation.[11] The Southern California Gas Co. (The Gas Company), and its sister utility, San Diego Gas &Electric (SDG&E), are also testing the practicality of solar thermal cooling systems at their EnergyResource Center (ERC) in Downey, California. Solar Collectors from Sopogy and HelioDynamics wereinstalled on the rooftop at the ERC and are producing cooling for the building’s air conditioningsystem.[9]In the late 19th century, the most common phase change refrigerant material for absorption cooling wasa solution of ammonia and water. Today, the combination of lithium and bromide is also in commonuse. One end of the system of expansion/condensation pipes is heated, and the other end gets coldenough to make ice. Originally, natural gas was used as a heat source in the late 19th century. Today,propane is used in recreational vehicle absorption chiller refrigerators. Innovative hot water solarthermal energy collectors can also be used as the modern "free energy" heat source.For 150 years, absorption chillers have been used to make ice (before the electric light bulb wasinvented).[12] This ice can be stored and used as an "ice battery" for cooling when the sun is not shining,as it was in the 1995 Hotel New Otani in Tokyo Japan.[13] Mathematical models are available in thepublic domain for ice-based thermal energy storage performance calculations.[14]The ISAAC Solar Icemaker is an intermittent solar ammonia-water absorption cycle. The ISAAC usesa parabolic trough solar collector and a compact and efficient design to produce ice with no fuel orelectric input, and with no moving parts.[15]Makers include SOLID [16] and Mirroxx [17] for commercial installations and ClimateWell,[18] Fagor-Rotartica, Sopogy, SorTech and Daikin mostly for residential systems.
  4. 4. Photovoltaic (PV) solar coolingMain article: Photovoltaic electricityPhotovoltaics can provide the power for any type of electrically powered cooling be it conventionalcompressor-based or adsorption/absorption-based, though the most common implementation is withcompressors which is the least efficient form of electrical cooling methods.For small residential and small commercial cooling (less than 5 MWh/yr) PV-powered cooling hasbeen the most frequently implemented solar cooling technology. The reason for this is debated, butcommonly suggested reasons include incentive structuring, lack of residential-sized equipment forother solar-cooling technologies, the advent of more efficient electrical coolers, or ease of installationcompared to other solar-cooling technologies (like radiant cooling).Since PV coolings cost effectiveness depends largely on the cooling equipment and given the poorefficiencies in electrical cooling methods until recently it has not been cost effective without subsidies.Pairing PV with 14 SEER and less coolers is the least efficient of all solar cooling methods. Using moreefficient electrical cooling methods and allowing longer payback schedules is changing that scenario.For example, a 100,000 BTU U.S. Energy Star rated air conditioner with a high seasonal energyefficiency ratio (SEER) of 14 requires around 7 kW of electric power for full cooling output on a hotday. This would require over a 7 kW solar photovoltaic electricity generation system (with morning-to-evening, and seasonal solar tracker capability to handle the 47-degree[vague] summer-to-winter differencein solar altitude). The photovoltaics would only produce full output during the sunny part of clear days.A solar-tracking 7 kW photovoltaic system would probably have an installed price well over $20,000USD (with PV equipment prices currently falling at roughly 17% per year). Infrastructure, wiring,mounting, and NEC code costs may add up to an additional cost; for instance a 3120 watt solar panelgrid tie system has a panel cost of $0.99/watt hour peak, but still costs ~$2.2/watt hour peak. Othersystems of different capacity cost even more, let alone battery backup systems, which cost even more.Due to the advent of net metering allowed by utility companies, your photovoltaic system can produceenough energy in the course of the year to completely offset the cost of the electricity used to run airconditioning, depending on the amount of your electric costs you wish to offset.A more efficient air conditioning system would require a smaller, less-expensive photovoltaic system.A high-quality geothermal heat pump installation can have a SEER in the range of 20 (+/-). A 100,000BTU SEER 20 air conditioner would require less than 5 kW while operating.Newer and lower power technology including reverse inverter DC heat pumps can achieve SEERratings up to 26, the Fujitsu Halycon line being one notable example, but its requirements of 200-250vAC input makes its use in the USA in smaller grids newer.There are new non-compressor-based electrical air conditioning systems with a SEER above 20 comingon the market. New versions of phase-change indirect evaporative coolers use nothing but a fan and asupply of water to cool buildings without adding extra interior humidity (such as at McCarran AirportLas Vegas Nevada). In dry arid climates with relative humidity below 45% (about 40% of the
  5. 5. continental U.S.) indirect evaporative coolers can achieve a SEER above 20, and up to SEER 40. A100,000 BTU indirect evaporative cooler would only need enough photovoltaic power for thecirculation fan (plus a water supply).A less-expensive partial-power photovoltaic system can reduce (but not eliminate) the monthly amountof electricity purchased from the power grid for air conditioning (and other uses). With American stategovernment subsidies of $2.50 to $5.00 USD per photovoltaic watt,[19] the amortized cost of PV-generated electricity can be below $0.15 per kWh. This is currently cost effective in some areas wherepower company electricity is now $0.15 or more. Excess PV power generated when air conditioning isnot required can be sold back to the power grid in many locations, which can reduce (or eliminate)annual net electricity purchase requirement. (See Zero energy building)The key to solar air conditioning cost effectiveness is in lowering the cooling requirement for thebuilding. Superior energy efficiency can be designed into new construction (or retrofitted to existingbuildings). Since the U.S. Department of Energy was created in 1977, their Weatherization AssistanceProgram[20] has reduced heating-and-cooling load on 5.5 million low-income affordable homes anaverage of 31%. A hundred million American buildings still need improved weatherization. Carelessconventional construction practices are still producing inefficient new buildings that needweatherization when they are first occupied.It is fairly simple to reduce the heating-and-cooling requirement for new construction by one half. Thiscan often be done at no additional net cost, since there are cost savings for smaller air conditioningsystems and other benefits.Since U.S. President Carter created the Solar Energy Tax Incentives in 1978, hundreds of thousands ofpassive solar and zero energy buildings have demonstrated 70% to 90% heating-and-cooling loadreductions (and even 100% reduction in some climates). In contrast, well over 25 million newconventional U.S. buildings have ignored well-documented energy efficiency techniques since 1978.As a result, U.S. buildings waste more energy (39%) than transportation or industry.[21] If theirarchitects and builders had listened to the U.S. Department Of Energy presentations at the NationalEnergy Expositions three decades ago, American buildings could be using $200 billion USD lessenergy per year today.[citation needed]Geothermal coolingEarth sheltering or Earth cooling tubes can take advantage of the ambient temperature of the Earth toreduce or eliminate conventional air conditioning requirements. In many climates where the majority ofhumans live, they can greatly reduce the build up of undesirable summer heat, and also help removeheat from the interior of the building. They increase construction cost, but reduce or eliminate the costof conventional air conditioning equipment.Earth cooling tubes are not cost effective in hot humid tropical environments where the ambient Earthtemperature approaches human temperature comfort zone. A solar chimney or photovoltaic-poweredfan can be used to exhaust undesired heat and draw in cooler, dehumidified air that has passed byambient Earth temperature surfaces. Control of humidity and condensation are important design issues.A geothermal heat pump uses ambient Earth temperature to improve SEER for heat and cooling. Adeep well recirculates water to extract ambient Earth temperature (typically at 6 to 10 gallons[vague] per
  6. 6. minute). Ambient earth temperature is much lower than peak summer air temperature. And, muchhigher than the lowest extreme winter air temperature. Water is 25 times more thermally conductivethan air, so it is much more efficient than an outside air heat pump, (which become less effective whenthe outside temperature drops).The same type of geothermal well can be used without a heat pump but with greatly diminished results.Ambient Earth temperature water is pumped through a shrouded radiator (like an automobile radiator).Air is blown across the radiator, which cools without a compressor-based air conditioner. Photovoltaicsolar electric panels produce electricity for the water pump and fan—eliminating conventional air-conditioning utility bills. This concept is cost-effective, as long as the location has ambient Earthtemperature below the human thermal comfort zone. (Not the tropics)Zero energy buildingsGoals of zero energy buildings include sustainable, green building technologies that can significantlyreduce, or eliminate, net annual energy bills. The supreme achievement is the totally off the gridautonomous building that does not have to be connected to utility companies. In hot climates withsignificant degree days of cooling requirement, leading-edge solar air conditioning will be anincreasingly important critical success factor.See also • Absorption heat pump • Air Conditioning • Concentrating solar power • Desiccant • Earth cooling tubes • Earth sheltering • EnerWorks • Geosolar • Geothermal heat pump (or Geothermal exchange heat pump) • HVAC • International Solar Energy Society (ISES) • Passive cooling • Passive house • Passive solar building design • Passive solar • Photovoltaics • Solar power • Solar powered refrigerator • Solar hot water • Solar thermal energy • Zero energy buildingReferences
  7. 7. 1. ^ "U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007". bin/query/z?c110:H.R.6.ENR:. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 2. ^ San, J. Y., Lavan, Z., Worek, W. M., Jean-Baptiste Monnier, Franta, G. E., Haggard, K., Glenn, B. H., Kolar, W. A., Howell, J. R. (1982). "Exergy analysis of solar powered desiccant cooling system". Proc. of the American Section of the Intern. Solar Energy Society: 567-572 3. ^ EERE Consumers Guide: Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems 4. ^ See Liquid Desiccant Waterfall for attractive building dehumidification 5. ^ A packed bed dehumidifier/regenerator for solar air conditioning with liquid desiccants (by Factor, H. M. and Grossman, G., Technion – Israel Institute of Technology) 6. ^ Solar Powered Air Conditioning 7. ^ George O. G. Löf (1993). Active solar systems. MIT Press. p. 682. ISBN 9780262121675. PA682&dq=solar-cooling+adsorption-or-absorption&ei=_QcvSsD4ApzazQSS-Y2jBw. 8. ^ "Solar Air Conditioning Explained" 9. ^ a b Nathan Olivarez-Giles (2009-08-20). "Using solar heat to power air conditioning". Los Angeles Times.,0,996681.story. Retrieved 2009-09-15. 10. ^ "Solar Cooling." Accessed on 1 July 2008 11. ^ Les Hamasaki. "10 Ton Solar Air Conditioning at the Debs Park Audubon Environmental Center in Los Angeles (6 minute video)". v=AtMC2MXc_n8. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 12. ^ Gearoid Foley, Robert DeVault, Richard Sweetser. "The Future of Absorption Technology in America". U.S. DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Retrieved 2007-11-08. 13. ^ "Ice-cooling System Reduces Environmental Burden". The New Otani News. New Otani Co.,Ltd.. 2000-06-28. Retrieved 2007-11- 08. 14. ^ "Development of a thermal energy storage model for EnergyPlus". 2004. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 15. ^ 16. ^ 17. ^ 18. ^ 19. ^ Dsire: Dsire Home 20. ^ EERE: Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program Home Page 21. ^ links • Absorption Heat Pumps (EERE) • AbsorPilot (Spanish) • EU: solar Heating and Cooling:. • Cooling with Solar Heat: Growing Interest in Solar Air Conditioning. • Liquid Desiccant Waterfall for attractive building dehumidification • Passive solar cooling • Passive solar cooling in a hot humid climate • Solar Heating and Cooling Programme, International Energy Agency.
  8. 8. • Solar Thermal Absortion Cooling System. • Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) panels from SRB (Segura Roig Benvenuti) and CERN. • Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Solar Cooling • Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) • Center for Energy and innovative Technologies • Advantix Systems - Solar-Powered Liquid Desiccant HVAC Systems • SOLEM Consulting - International consortium of solar cooling engineering consultants~~SOLAR ENERGY INTELLIGENCEMore Jobs, Economic Progress, Clean EnvironmentWhy be Stupid? subscription to a Solar Magazine for your School Library 2 HotGlobal Warming is DESTROYING the Wine Industry Syrup Industry Feels the Heat from Global Warming Warming Impacts in USA CLIMATE CHAOSand the DESTRUCTION of the POOR INTO THE FUTURE - Super Energy EfficientIndestructible Homes and BuildingsFire Proof, Earthquake Proof, Hurricane Proof, Tornado Proof, Tidal Wave Proof, almost bomb proofhttp://monolithic.comhttp://jctropicalhomes.com
  9. 9. KALWALLhttp://kalwall.comKalwall is the most Highly Insulating and Energy Efficient, Light-transmitting, structural panelTechnology in the World~WIND Energyhttp://vestas.comhttp://israelwindpower.com Power Generation Technology Stirling Enginehttp://stirlingenergy.com Thermal Energy Solar Technologyhttp://raw-solar.comhttp://stginternational.orgSolar Panelshttp://www.firstsolar.comhttp://kyocerasolar.comhttp://evergreensolar.comhttp://solenergy.orghttp://energy.sourceguides.comSOLAR Heated SWIMMING POOLS, Spas, Hot Tubs, GREENHOUSES and Buildings http://www.fafco.com http://www.apricus.com http://heliocol.com http://chromagen.biz SWIMMING POOLS, Spas, Hot Tubs and GREENHOUSES with FIREWOOD.Backup your Solar Heating System with Firewood or Geothermal Systems
  10. 10. http://swisssolartech.com http://waterfurnace.comhttp://radiantheat.cahttp://radiantsolar.comhttp://radiantcompany.comhttp://radiantsolartech.combook: Solar Hot Water Systems: Lessons Learned 1977 to Today; by Tom Lane heating and cooling ~ Earth Energyhttp://waterfurnace.comhttp://geoexchange.org - Geothermal Home Hybrid SystemsReduce Your Energy Costhttp://swisssolartech.com Energy Expo 2010http://geothermalenergy2010.comEuropean Geothermal Energy Councilhttp://egec.orgGeoExchangehttp://geoexchange.orgGround Source Heat Pump Design, Energy Information Services, Alabamahttp://geokiss.comSolar Refrigeratorshttp://sunfrost.comSolar AIR CONDITIONINGhttp://southwest-solar.com Solar Lighting
  11. 11. Winter Food Production In High Tunnels SOLAR Building HeatingEurope COOLING of Buildings HYDRO Power Generationhttp://microhydropower.com PUMPShttp://hi-ram.bizhttp://rampumps.com WATER PUMPShttp://www.lorentz.deSolar DESALINATION TAX CREDITS
  12. 12. Solar Today Magazinehttp://solartoday.orgHome Power Magazinehttp://homepower.comSolar Industry Magazinehttp://solarindustrymag.comGlobal Solar Technology Magazinehttp://globalsolartechnology.comSolar Progress Journal, Australian Solar Energy Society Energy Training Energy Industries Associationhttp://seia.orgArizona - ARISEIAWeb: www.arizonasolarindustry.orgCalifornia - CALSEIAWeb: www.calseia.orgColorado - COSEIAWeb: www.coseia.orgFlorida - FLASEIAWeb:
  13. 13. IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI - Great Lakes Renewable Energy Association(Great Lakes SEIA)Web: www.glrea.orgHawaii - HISEIAWeb: www.hsea.orgHeartland SEIA-KS, IA, MO, NEWeb: www.hseia.orgMDV-SEIA-MD, DC, VAWeb: www.mdv-seia.orgMid-Atlantic SEIA-DE, NJ, PAWebsite: www.mseia.netNew York - NYSEIAWeb: www.nyseia.orgNew England - Solar Energy BusinessWeb: www.sebane.orgOregon - OSEIAWeb:
  14. 14. Texas - TXSEIAWeb: Solar Energy Societyhttp://ases.orgALABAMAAlabama Solar Associationwebsite: Solar Energy Associationweb site: Renewable Energy AssociationWebsite:
  15. 15. CALIFORNIALos Angeles Renewable Energy SocietyWebsite: www.LA-RES.orgNorthern California Solar Energy Association (NorCal Solar)http://norcalsolar.orgRedwood Empire Solar Living Associationwebsite: www.solarliving.orgSan Diego Renewable Energy Society (SDRES)Web: sdres.orgCOLORADOColorado Renewable Energy Societyweb site:
  16. 16. CONNECTICUTNortheast Sustainable Energy Associationweb site: www.nesea.orgDELAWARENortheast Sustainable Energy Associationweb site: www.nesea.orgFLORIDAFlorida Renewable Energy Associationweb site: www.cleanenergyflorida.orgStudent ChapterUniversity of Florida - Gainesvilleweb site: www.ufases.orgGEORGIA
  17. 17. Georgia Solar Energy Associationweb site: www.gasolar.orgIDAHOIdaho Renewable Energy Associationwww.idahosolar.orgINDIANAIndiana Renewable Energy Associationwww.indianarenew.orgILLINOISIllinois Solar Energy Associationweb site: www.illinoissolar.orgMidwest Renewable Energy Associationweb site:
  18. 18. IOWAMidwest Renewable Energy Associationweb site: www.the-mrea.orgKANSASHeartland Renewable Energy Societyweb site: www.heartland-res.orgKENTUCKYKentucky Solar Energy Societyweb site:LOUISIANALouisiana Solar Energy Societyweb site: www.lses.orgMAINENortheast Sustainable Energy Associationweb site:
  19. 19. MARYLANDPotomac Region Solar Energy Associationweb site: www.prsea.orgMASSACHUSETTSNortheast Sustainable Energy Associationweb site: www.nesea.orgMICHIGANGreat Lakes Renewable Energy Associationweb site: www.glrea.orgMidwest Renewable Energy Associationweb site: www.the-mrea.orgMINNESOTA
  20. 20. Minnesota Renewable Energy Societyweb site: mnRenewables.orgMISSISSIPPIMississippi Solar Energy Societye-mail: sdlewis@megagate.comMISSOURIHeartland Renewable Energy Societywww.Heartland-RES.orgNEVADASolar NVweb site: www.solarnv.orgSunrise Sustainable Resources Groupweb site:
  21. 21. NEW HAMPSHIRENortheast Sustainable Energy Associationweb site: www.nesea.orgNEW JERSEYNortheast Sustainable Energy Associationweb site: www.nesea.orgNEW MEXICONew Mexico Solar Energy Associationweb site: www.nmsea.orgNEW YORKNortheast Sustainable Energy Associationweb site: www.nesea.orgNew York Solar Energy Society, Inc.web site:
  22. 22. NORTH CAROLINANorth Carolina Sustainable Energy Associationweb site: www.energync.orgStudent ChaptersAppalachian State UniversityDepartment of Technologywebsite: www.asuses.netOHIOGreen Energy Ohioweb site: www.greenenergyohio.orgOREGONSolar Oregonweb site: www.solaroregon.orgPENNSYLVANIA
  23. 23. Northeast Sustainable Energy Associationweb site: www.nesea.orgRHODE ISLANDNortheast Sustainable Energy Associationweb site: www.nesea.orgSOUTH CAROLINASouth Carolina Solar Councilweb site: www.scsolarcouncil.orgTENNESSEETennessee Solar Energy Associationhttp://tnsolarenergy.orgTEXASTexas Solar Energy Societyweb site: www.txses.orgUTAHUtah Solar Energy Associationwebsite:
  24. 24. VERMONTNortheast Sustainable Energy Associationweb site: www.nesea.orgVIRGINIAPotomac Region Solar Energy Associationweb site: www.prsea.orgWASHINGTON STATESolar Washingtonweb site: www.solarwashington.orgWASHINGTON, DCPotomac Region Solar Energy Associationweb site: www.prsea.orgWISCONSIN
  25. 25. Midwest Renewable Energy Associationweb site: Drivehttp://plantdrive.comGreasecar Vegetable Fuel Systemshttp://www.greasecar.comConvert Used Cooking Oil into Diesel Fuel of Using Vegetable Oil CarsConverting your Diesel Engine to Vegetable Oil Powered Systemshttp://vegpoweredsystems.comGolden Fuel Systemshttp://goldenfuelsystems.comGood Greasehttp://www.goodgrease.comVeg PowerPower from Vegetable Oilhttp://www.vegpower.comELSBETT Diesel Technologyhttp://elsbett.comVeg Oil Motoringhttp://vegoilmotoring.comBio Car
  26. 26. EnviofuelStraight Vegetable Oil Productshttp://www.enviofuel.comFRYBRIDThe Future of Vegetable Oil Technologyhttp://frybrid.comVegie Carshttp://vegiecars.comOrganic Mechanichttp://www.theorganicmechanic.orgFattywagonshttp://www.fattywagons.comDVD: S.V.O. Seminar 2006 http://www.goldenfuelsystems.comDVD: Greasy Rider Liquid Gold 2 http://www.goldenfuelsystems.comuse search engines to locate dvdsDVD: FUELhttp://thefuelfilm.comGrease Universityhttp://greasology.orgbook: Internal Combustion; by Edwin Blackhttp://www.internalcombustionbook.com Autos Links and Veggie Autos SOLARhttp://votesolar.orghttp://seia.orghttp://ases.orghttp://lcv.orgBlack Box Voting
  27. 27. http://blackboxvoting.orgAlabama Conservation Votershttp://conservationalabama.orgAlaska Conservation Votershttp://acvoters.orgArizona Conservation Votershttp://azlcv.orgCalifornia Conservation Votershttp://www.ecovote.orgColorado Conservation Votershttp://coloradoconservationvoters.orgConnecticut Conservation Votershttp://ctlcv.orgFlorida Conservation Votershttp://www.flvotegreen.orgGeorgia Conservation Votershttp://gavoters.comIdaho Conservation Votershttp://conservationvotersforidaho.orgMaine Conservation Votershttp://mlcv.orgMaryland Conservation Votershttp://mdlcv.orgMassachusetts Conservation Votershttp://mlev.orgMichigan Conservation Votershttp://michiganlcv.orgMinnesota Conservation Votershttp://conservationminnesota.orghttp://mnvotercenter.orghttp://mncandidates.orgMissouri Conservation Voters
  28. 28. http://movotesconservation.orgMontana Conservation Votershttp://www.mtvoters.orgNebraska Conservation Votershttp://nlcv.orgNew Jersey Conservation Votershttp://njlcv.orgNevada Conservation Votershttp://nvgreenvote.orgNew Hampshire Conservation Votershttp://conservationnh.orgNew Mexico Conservation Votershttp://cvnm.orgNew York Conservation Votershttp://nylcv.orgNorth Carolina Conservation Votershttp://nclcv.orgOhio Conservation Votershttp://www.ohiolcv.orgOregon Conservation Votershttp://olcv.orgPennsylvania Conservation Votershttp://www.conservationpa.orgSouth Carolina Conservation Votershttp://conservationvotersofsc.orgTennessee Conservation Votershttp://tnconservationvoters.orgTexas Conservation Votershttp://www.tlcv.orgVermont Conservation Voters
  29. 29. Virginia Conservation Votershttp://valcv.orgWashington Conservation Votershttp://wcvoters.orgWisconsin Conservation Votershttp://www.conservationvoters.orgWyoming Conservation Voters LAWN CAREbook: The Organic Lawn Care Manual, by Paul Tukey Lawns: Natural And Organic; by Don Williamson Lawn Care Sources & Resources Lawnshttp://safelawns.orgOrganic Lawn and Yard Carehttp://yardandgardens.comOrganic Land Carehttp://www.organiclandcare.netbook: Food Not Lawns; by Heather C. Flores Complete Book of Edible Landscaping; by Rosalind Creasy
  30. 30. book: Landscaping with fruit; by Lee Reich Edible Flower Garden; by Rosalind Creasy SOIL, HEALTY LAWNS, HEALTHY PEOPLE400% Increase in Productivitybook: Soul of Soil; by Grace Gershuny Solutionshttp://growingsolutions.comProperly prepared compost tea is an excellent soil builder and organic fertilizer.Some Compost Teas may reduce or eliminate various plant pests and diseases.SoilSoup Compost Teahttp://soilsoup.comSoilSoup Compost Tea is an excellent soil builder and organic fertilizer.Soil Soup is very easy to handle and use.Remineral your Soilhttp://remineralize.orgSoil Regeneration with Volcanic Rock Dust Rock Dust added to soil can double the plant or lawn growth.Effective Micro-Organisms Micro-Organisms properly combined with Volcanic Rock Dust can increase Productivity by200 percent to 400 percent.In Thailand, soil properly treated increased productivity by over 400 percent.VermiCohttp://vermico.combook: Worms Eat My Garbage; by Mary Appelhof Compost is an excellent soil builder and organic fertilizer.Worm Compost breaks down slowly in soil, where there is much rain or lawn watering.
  31. 31. Chemical fertilizers, which are made from Fossil Fuels, will wash out of the soil quickly and pollutesurrounding areas, causing fish kills and making drinking water unsafe.Worm Tea may reduce or eliminate various plant pests and diseases.Also, various worms added to soil, will increase its productivity.Epridahttp://eprida.comBiochar - Carbon Soils - CharcoalBiochar is an excellent soil builder.Biochar can dramatically reduce the amount of fertilizers and water needed, and greatly increase soilproductivity.Soils in the Amazon Jungles, to which Biochar was added several hundred years ago, are still veryproductive today.Thus, one treatment of certain types of biochars may last hundreds of years.Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World; by Paul Stamets The One Straw Revolution; by Masanobu Fukuoka Users Guide to Permaculture; by Rosemary Morrow Holzers Permaculture: A Practical Guide to Small-Scale, Integrative Farming and Gardening; bySepp Holzer Cataloge of BooksAcresUSA carries many books, DVDs and other materials about successful organic gardening, organicfarming, organic animal care and natural health and living.FREE PUBLICATIONS about ORGANIC FARMING, SOLAR ENERGY, GREENHOUSES more information, please contact local gardeners and farmers who specialize in Organic gardening,Permaculture gardening, Biodynamic gardening, Japanese Kyusei Nature gardening - Shizen Nouhou,Biointensive gardening, Heirloom gardening-Heritage Seeds, Lasagna gardening, Square Foot
  32. 32. gardening, Vertical gardening, Wall and Fence gardening, Roof Top and Balcony gardening, Indoorgardening with LED Grow Lights and, Micro Greens gardening, Windowsill gardening,Container gardening, Keyhole gardening, Organic Aquaponics gardening, African Bag Gardens, NoDig gardening, Agroforestry gardening, Israeli Greenhouses Technology for Hot Climates, OrganicHydroponics gardening and Gardening Therapy.Gardening is micro-climate specific. These means that local gardeners might know of gardeningtechniques and resources which are helpful for the location you live in.Keep researching, reading, refining your gardening methods and experimenting with different growingtechniques.Organic Gardening technology is changing and improving all the time. Also, as the climate changes,you may need to learn other gardening techniques for various climates. your Books, Share or Trade your Books with Other Peoplehttp://olegzunbaum.insanejournal.com PEST CONTROLhttp://peststop.livejournal.comORGANIC WEED CONTROLhttp://stopweeds.livejournal.comSAVE THE BEEShttp://friendsofthebees.orgPesticide Action Network North Americahttp://panna.orgNational Farm Worker Ministry - Episcopal Farmworker Ministryhttp://nfwm.orgStop the Pesticide Poisoning of Farm Workers and their ChildrenPest Management at the Crossroadshttp://pmac.netEco Fly TrapEpps Biting Fly Trap
  33. 33. Fly traps POLLUTION and RECYCLING with Effective Microorganismsbook: Our Future Reborn: EM Technology Changes The World; by Teruo Higa Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save The World; Paul Stamets Up Oil Spillshttp://fungi.comWORM Composting and RECYCLING Technologiesbook: Worms Eat My Garbage; by Mary Appelhof http://wormdigest.orgMore Books about Worm Technologieshttp://wormbooks.com eBook: The Miracle of Tithing; by Mark Victor Hansen Summary: The Miracle of Tithing Faith Like Potatoes, by Angus Buchan understand All of the actors, Please select the option for English Subtitles. Thank You.~
  34. 34. Book of Isaiah:Learn to do good, seek justice, rebuke the oppressor; defend the fatherless, plead for the widow…andyou shall eat the good of the land.Every day help someone who can never reciprocate. This is my obligation.~ John Woodens PHILOSOPHYThe great UCLA basketball coachThe best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.~ Mahatma GandhiThose who bring Sunshine into the lives of others cannot keep it from themselves.Be a Bringer of the LIGHT.Who is my NeighborLuke 10:29SOW A SEED IN YOUR TIME OF NEEDMP3 File Super Power Breathing: For Super Energy, High Health & Longevity, by Patricia Bragg God ~ Be Thankful ~ Forgive ~ Receive the Blessings ~ Give God the Glory~
  35. 35. proverb:A Good Person leaves an inheritance to their childrens children.What kind of an inheritance are you leaving?~GREEN CHURCHEShttp://green3church.insanejournal.comhttp://green4church.insanejournal.comYour Local Foodbank Needs YouPlease Help. Thank YOU!http://foodbank77.insanejournal.comGLEANER GROUPSPlease setup a Gleaner Group in your Local area for Foodbanks and Soup Kitchens, etc.http://glean4food.insanejournal.comGeneral Links share these web sites with friends and others who are concerned about our childrens future andour grandchildrens future.Thank you for all of your help~