The Holocaust


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The Holocaust

  1. 1. The Holocaust Friday, November 16 th
  2. 2. Reading for this lesson <ul><li>From the William Lyon Mackenzie King book: </li></ul><ul><li>Page 39: How Canada neglected to help Jewish refugees </li></ul><ul><li>Page 41: Canada’s Japanese wartime internment camps </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nazism and the Jews <ul><li>Hitler and the Nazi Party blamed Germany’s troubles on its Jewish population </li></ul><ul><li>Once they were in power, they began a campaign to punish all Jewish people in Germany </li></ul>
  4. 4. Jewish refugees <ul><li>Jews in Germany and other parts of Europe start fleeing their countries, looking to escape Nazi officials </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian government did not want Jews coming here – less than 5000 arrived between 1933 and 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Some Jewish refugees were forced to return to Germany </li></ul>
  5. 5. World War 2 <ul><li>As Germany invades Poland and other parts of Europe, they send in death squads to target Jewish population </li></ul><ul><li>Some were executed, others sent to ghettos </li></ul>
  6. 6. The entire state was involved <ul><li>One scholar has called Germany of this time a “genocidal nation” </li></ul><ul><li>All aspects of government and society were mobilized to assist in persecution of Jewish population </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis also target Roma (Gypsies), homosexuals, the physically and mentally disabled, some Christian groups </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Why were German people so willing to do this? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Some people helped <ul><li>Oskar Schindler. </li></ul><ul><li>Abdol Hossein Sardari </li></ul><ul><li>Raoul Wallenberg </li></ul><ul><li>Others would hide Jewish neighbours in their homes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Concentration Camps <ul><li>After 1939, Germany sets up these camps for Jews and POWs, where they serve as slave labour </li></ul><ul><li>Set up about 15000 camps in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Extermination through labour’ – people would be worked to death – disease, injury, or if too weak, would be executed </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone in the camps was tattooed with ID number </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Prisoners in Austria's Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp climbing the 186 steps of the Stairway of Death, carrying stone slabs. Around 44,000 inmates are believed to have died there </li></ul>
  11. 12. Death in the Ghettos <ul><li>Starvation and disease slowly starts killing off people in ghettos </li></ul><ul><li>In some places, Jews organize uprisings against Nazis </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous is the Warsaw Ghetto uprising in 1943 </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Final Solution <ul><li>As Nazis take over most of Europe, number of Jewish people under their control grows into several million </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi leadership decides in January 1942 to implement a “Final Solution” to create an industrialized killing network </li></ul>
  13. 14. Extermination Camps <ul><li>In 1942 seven camps were built: Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Jasenovac, Majdanek, Maly Trostinets, Solibor and Treblinka </li></ul>
  14. 15. Gas Chambers <ul><li>Most sent to these places would be immediately taken to gas chambers </li></ul>
  15. 16. Medical Experiments <ul><li>Nazi physicians like Joseph Mengele used these camps as places to carry out experiments on people </li></ul>
  16. 18. Liberation of camps <ul><li>As Allied forces march towards Germany, Nazis start to abandon and dismantle some camps </li></ul><ul><li>Others are still operating when allied soldiers arrive </li></ul>
  17. 19. Belsen-Bergen <ul><li>Liberated on April 25, 1945 by British 11 th Armoured Division </li></ul><ul><li>Found 60000 people here, and 13000 unburied corpses </li></ul><ul><li>Another 10000 would die from typhus or malnutrition over the next few weeks </li></ul>
  18. 20. Auschwitz <ul><li>January 27, 1945, Soviet forces reach Auschwitz, finding 7600 survivors abandoned there </li></ul><ul><li>This was the largest camp, responsible for killing about 1.6 million people </li></ul>
  19. 25. Nuremburg Trials <ul><li>From 1945 to 1949, Allies (US, Britain, France and Soviet Union) set up a series of trials in Nuremberg, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Various captured German leaders and soldiers were tried for war crimes and crimes against humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Great influence on international law </li></ul>
  20. 26. Holocaust deniers <ul><li>Various people, mostly Nazi supporters have claimed that the Holocaust was a hoax, or that the numbers of killed were exaggerated, as part of a Jewish plot </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, Islamic fundamentalists and Islamic leaders, like the President of Iran, have been claiming this. The Iranian President called the Holocaust “a myth” </li></ul>
  21. 27. Evidence for the Holocaust <ul><li>Written documents – hundreds of thousands of letters, memos, blueprints, orders, memoirs, confessions, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Eyewitness testimony – accounts from survivors, Nazi guards and commanders, local townspeople </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs – from German and Allied footage, official and unofficial </li></ul><ul><li>The camps themselves – many still remain </li></ul><ul><li>Population demographics,if six million Jews were not killed, what happened to them all? </li></ul>