Psych Chap 1 Dec 12

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Psych Chap 1 Dec 12

  1. 1. Introduction to Psychology Instructor: Louise Lee Email: [email_address]
  2. 2. Psychology Theories <ul><li>What is psychology? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific studies of mental processes and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals of psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control / prescribe </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Two Schools of Psychology <ul><li>Psychoanalysis (Freud, Erikson) </li></ul><ul><li>VS </li></ul><ul><li>Humanism (Rogers, Maslow) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Freud’s theory of the human mind <ul><li>Id </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure principle (sex, aggression) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality principle (reason) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral principle (social norms & values) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Freud’s theory of motivation <ul><li>The unconscious: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feelings, wishes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>desires, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repressed memories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior is motivated </li></ul><ul><li>by the unconscious </li></ul>
  6. 6. Freud’s psychosexual development Genital Stage ~ over 12 Latency Stage ~ 6-12 Phallic Stage ~ 4-6 Anal Stage ~ 2-4 Oral Stage ~ 0 – 2 Stages of Development Age
  7. 7. Oral Stage <ul><ul><ul><li>0-2 years old </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sucking, chewing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frustration distrustful, pessimistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overindulgence gullible, too optimistic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Anal Stage <ul><ul><ul><li>2-4 years old </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anus, bladder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toilet training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict: Retain and release bodily waste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frustration anal retentive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over-indulgence anal explosive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Phallic Stage <ul><ul><li>4-6 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the genitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict: masturbate vs guilt and shame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boy’s conflict: Oedipal Complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution: Castration anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girl’s conflict: Electra Complex, penis envy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustration Incapable of love, insecure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-indulgence vain, proud </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Latency Stage & Genital Stage <ul><li>Latency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6-12 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual desires lie dormant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Above 12 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refocus on genitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop intimate relationships </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Frustration & Overindulgence <ul><li>Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Over-indulgence </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation: an individual gets stuck at a particular stage of development </li></ul><ul><li>Mental health issues </li></ul>
  12. 12. Transference & Countertransference <ul><li>Transference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project irrational feelings and attitudes from the past onto people in the present. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Countertransference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious attitudes that a therapist or a nurse develops towards a client in response to a client’s behavior. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Quick Review <ul><li>What principles do the id, ego, and superego operate with? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens if a person has a very strong superego? </li></ul><ul><li>Which part of the body dominates the oral stage? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the conflict in the anal stage? How do the id and ego plays out in that conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens if an individual fails to resolve the conflict at a particular stage? </li></ul><ul><li>Give your own example of transference and countertransference. Can you also think of an example in the practice of dental hygiene? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Erikson’s psychosocial development Integrity versus Despair (old age) Generality versus Stagnation (adulthood) Intimacy versus Isolation (young adulthood) Identity versus Role Confusion (adolescent) Initiative versus Guilt (4-6) Autonomy versus Doubt (2-4) Trust versus Mistrust (0-2) Erikson’s Stages
  15. 15. Freud and Erikson <ul><li>Compare and contrast Freud’s and Erikson’s theories. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Freud’s psycho sexual and Erikson’s psycho social theory Erikson Freud Initiative versus guilt Phallic Stage Autonomy versus doubt Anal Stage Trust versus mistrust Oral Stage
  17. 17. Humanistic Theories of Development <ul><li>Maslow and Rogers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on human values, self-actualization, love, care. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human beings are basically good </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Self-Esteem Love and Belonging Safety and Security Physiological Needs
  19. 19. Nursing diagnosis categories Ineffective role performance Powerlessness, low self-esteem Social isolation, lack of social support Health / Home Management Problems Physical Health Problems, i.e, impaired ventilation
  20. 20. Applying Maslow’s Theory in the Healthcare Context <ul><li>Maslow’s theory can be applied to: </li></ul><ul><li>identify a patient’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>prioritize healthcare interventions </li></ul>
  21. 21. Case Examples <ul><li>Case 1. Mr. Tuttle is 50 years old. He was admitted to the intensive care unit with a heart attack He is an internationally known businessman, a vice president of a big company and well-liked by his employees. His blood pressure has been high for the past two years. He is very anxious and perspiring profusely. He has many of the predisposing factors for heart problems present in his history, family and lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>Case 2. Ms. Novack is 85 years old. She has moderate diabetes, but other than that she is healthy. However, she has been feeling depressed. Her spouse died recently. Her sons and daughters visit her only once or twice a year. The nurse visits her on a regular basis, but Ms. Novack refuses to take her medication. </li></ul><ul><li>Case 3: Mr. Phillips is 48 years old lawyer. He suffers from insomnia. He also takes anti-depressants regularly. He lives by himself in an expensive neighborhood. Because he is usually busy and under stress, he does not have friends or partners. He often wonders if he really likes his job. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Carl Rogers <ul><li>“ How can I provide the kind of relationship in which this person may use for personal growth?” </li></ul><ul><li>Client-centered Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genuine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathetic Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditional acceptance </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Quick Review <ul><li>What are the differences between the psychoanalysts and humanists? </li></ul><ul><li>What does Maslow mean by self-actualization? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you discuss how the three qualities of client-centered approach figure in relationship of a client and a dental hygienist? </li></ul>

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