Jan 26 Small Group Communication


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Jan 26 Small Group Communication

  1. 1. Small Group Communication in Health Care
  2. 2. Small Group Communication <ul><li>A group of people who are dependent on each other to share information through a set of rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: ___________________ </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Group Communication <ul><li>Think about a group you have participated in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the goals of the group? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the goals clearly defined and realistic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why did you join the group? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your group focus on achieving a common goal? Does your group focus on developing good relationships among group members? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How big is the group? Is the group cohesive? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some of the explicit or implicit rules of the groups? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a leader in the group? If so, is the leader effective? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe your role in the group. For example: Did you contribute a lot? Did you ask a lot of questions? Did you provide a lot of encouragement for others? Did you often attack others’ opinions? Did you follow the rules of the group? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe other members in the group. What are they like? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Content and Process Groups <ul><li>Content Process </li></ul><ul><li>Task group: content focus </li></ul><ul><li>Process group: focus on relationship among group members. </li></ul><ul><li>Midrange group: focus on both content and relationship </li></ul>
  5. 5. Content or Process? <ul><li>Content Process </li></ul><ul><li>1 10 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunday school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-war group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholics anonymous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dental hygienist’s conference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community meeting at a retirement home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-help group for veterans with PTSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cat lovers club </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income-tax training class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English conversation circle </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Components of Small Groups <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Leader Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Member Behavior </li></ul>
  7. 7. Goals <ul><li>Provide rationale and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and Group goals </li></ul><ul><li>Incompatible goals lack of cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: ____________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clear and realistic </li></ul>
  8. 8. Norms <ul><li>Rules of behavior shared by a group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overt versus covert: ___________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_____________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling versus restrictive: ___________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Cohesiveness (or We-ness) <ul><li>Benefits of High cohesiveness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting cohesiveness: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members share similar attitudes and behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative rather than competitive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic leader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group activities that are within members’ capabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group atmosphere: respectful and enjoy one another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller group size </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Groupthink: Too much cohesiveness in decision-making <ul><li>The tendency of members of highly cohesive groups to seek consensus so strongly that they ignore information inconsistent with their views and often make disastrous decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Two factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of cohesiveness ______________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived infallibility ___________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Leader Behavior <ul><li>Leadership: the process in which one person attempts to influence others in order to attain some mutual goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Linear versus transactional </li></ul>
  12. 12. Leader Behavior <ul><li>Great Person Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_____________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kirkpatrik & Locke 1991 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self confidence, creativity, and leadership motivation (the desire to take charge and control over others) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zaccaro, 1991 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility - the ability to recognize what actions or approaches are required in a given situation to act accordingly. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Leadership style <ul><li>Autocratic style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>controlling, making all decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VS </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allowing participation and decision-making by members </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Leadership styles <ul><li>Peterson, 1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types of directive leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process directiveness: _____________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome directiveness: ____________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants were asked to play the role of an elite decision-making group facing an international crisis. The leaders of the groups were instructed to behave with either high or low process directiveness; and high or low directiveness. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Leadership styles <ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition 1: Low process + low outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition 2: High process + low outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition 3: Low process + High outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition 4: High process + High outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants in condition 2 and 4 rated their leaders to be more effective. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process directiveness is beneficial. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Leader Behavior <ul><li>In group therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning-attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive functioning (set limits, monitors rules, attends to various procedures to groups) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Member Behavior <ul><li>Group task roles </li></ul><ul><li>Group building and maintenance roles </li></ul><ul><li>Individual roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See handout </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Therapeutic factors <ul><li>Instillation of hope </li></ul><ul><li>Universality </li></ul><ul><li>Imparting information </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Development of socializing techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Imitative behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness (belonging, acceptance) </li></ul><ul><li>Catharsis </li></ul><ul><li>Existential factors (recognition that life is not fair, pain cannot be escaped: terminally ill patient) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Phases of Small Group Communication <ul><li>Describe what goes on in the following phases (the relationships among members, the depth and nature of the communication, the leader’s role) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesive and Cohesive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul></ul>