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Feb 5 Intercultural Communication


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Feb 5 Intercultural Communication

  1. 1. Communication Techniques & Intercultural Communication
  2. 2. What are the differences between the the red and the green questions? <ul><li>Do you think your breathing is better, worse, or about the same as yesterday? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you feeling anxious about the results of the lab report? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a history of heart problems in your family? </li></ul><ul><li>You seem upset. What are you feeling right now? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what you think is going to happen. </li></ul><ul><li>How did you feel when you first learned of your diagnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>I think you’ve made considerable progress. What are your thoughts about how you’re doing? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Open and Closed Questions <ul><li>Closed Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Communication Techniques <ul><li>Asking open or closed questions </li></ul><ul><li>Silence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allow time for the client to explore his or her feelings and thoughts; it is used when there’s mutual understanding between the client and the professional; used in a later stage of an interview process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restatement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rephrasing without adding new info; gives the client a sense of validation and show understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on the feelings behind the client’s words; involves helping the clients to understand feelings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clarification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining more specific descriptions from the client. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For examples, see handout. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Role play: Communication Techniques <ul><li>Group 1: Illustrate the use of silence. See Exercise 10-12 on p. 216 </li></ul><ul><li>Group 2: Write a dialogue between a patient and dental hygienist to illustrate the idea of paraphrasing. </li></ul><ul><li>Group 3: Write a dialogue between a student and a student counselor to illustrate the idea of reflection. The student recently moved to Canada from Ethiopia. She is having difficulty adjusting to both social and academic life in college. </li></ul><ul><li>Group 4: Write a dialogue between a dental hygienist and a therapist to illustrate the idea of clarification. The hygienist is having difficulty adapting to the new work environment. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Culture Terminology <ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><li>Subculture </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul>
  7. 7. Research of Ethnic Identity <ul><li>Berry 1976 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acculturative Stress: ________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants: members of 10 first nations groups across Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: People who believed in integration or assimilation showed less acculturative stress than those who had separatist beliefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanation: __________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LaFromboise et al 1993, Phinney 1991 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who have a strong ethnic identity with their own cultural group tend to have higher self-esteem and cope better in a multicultural context, only if they also have a positive attitude to the mainstream culture. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Research on Multiculturalism <ul><li>Berry & Kalin study (1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the Canadian policy of multiculturalism increase tolerance and a general willingness to interact or communicate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings (compare the results in 1974 and 1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are there more people identifying themselves as Canadians? (Does multiculturalism promote unity or separation?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are Canadians becoming more tolerant? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do different cultural groups show in-group favoritism? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are all groups equally accepted? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Questions <ul><li>I am ____________________. </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly describe one of your past achievements. Describe why you succeeded. </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly describe one of your past failures. Why did you fail? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Which of the following statements do you agree with? <ul><li>If it feels good do it. </li></ul><ul><li>No one is an island. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness is one of the greatest virtues. </li></ul><ul><li>A person is born with responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t force your values on others. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t like to stand out too much. </li></ul><ul><li>Be yourself, don’t copy others. </li></ul><ul><li>Egotism is one of the greatest vices. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Individualist & Collectivist Selves <ul><li>Independent concept of self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity: ____________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What matters: ____________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disapprove of: ____________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interdependent concept of self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity: ____________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What matters: ____________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disapprove of: ____________________ </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. How does culture shape perception? <ul><li>Morris & Peng (1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants were Chinese and American students who were presented these two scenarios: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On October 31, 1991, Gang Lu, a Chinese graduate student studying physics in N. America, entered his department and shot his advisor and several students, and then himself. Having recently lost an award competition, and an appeal of that decision was handled by his advisor, he was unable to find a job. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On November 14, 1991, Thomas McIlvane, a postal worker of Irish descent, entered his office and shot his supervisors, several co-worker and then himself. Having recently lost his job, and an appeal of that decision was handled by his supervisor, he was unable to find a new job. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Culture and Perceptions <ul><ul><li>Students were asked to evaluate a number of possible causes of the tragedies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese students emphasized situational causes (American movies that glorify revenge; the failure of the adviser or supervisor to respond to the assailant”; while American students emphasized personal causes (he was mentally unbalanced; he had personality problems). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>____________________________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cultural Styles of Attribution <ul><li>Attribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>______________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-enhancing Biases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental attribution error: The tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional (internal) causes on other’s behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-serving bias: the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to internal causes but negative ones to external factors. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Are there any cultural differences in attribution? <ul><li>In the handout, “Self-Enhancement or Self-Improvement? It Depends on Culture”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do self-enhancing biases contribute to health? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the hypothesis that the use of self-enhancing biases contribute to health valid across both individualistic and collectivistic cultures? How do you know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What were the findings of Kitayama and colleagues’ study in 1995? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>According to the research by Regan and colleagues (1995), which culture (individualistic or collectivistic)are more likely to use self-enhancing techniques? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>According to Heine and Lehman (1995), why may self-enhancing biases be more useful for people in a more individualistic society? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Cultural Competence <ul><li>Cultural competence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of attitudes and behavior that enable people to work effectively in cross-cultural situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to develop cultural competence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>______________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Other Language tips <ul><li>Don’t assume that people are unintelligent just because their English is not good. </li></ul><ul><li>People who can’t speak English well may be able to write better. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow more time for people to process information. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Simplified Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you simplify the following sentences? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m wondering if you would mind if I move your purse over there? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I were to ask your opinion on smoking, what do you think you might say to me in reply? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is really up to you. Option A is less effective; but Option B may cost you an arm and a leg. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now actually I would like you if you could now stand up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m not sure why this booklet doesn’t have page numbers. But the page is somewhere in the middle. No, not that one, it is the one which has the blue diagram that looks like a tic-tac-toe board somewhere near the top of the page. </li></ul></ul>