Examination Procedures Preclinic


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Examination Procedures Preclinic

  1. 1. Examination Procedures PreClinical Skills Reference Wilkins Ch 13
  2. 2. Mouth Mirrors <ul><li>Has 3 parts  handle, shank, & working end </li></ul><ul><li>Surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Plane (flat) may produce a double image </li></ul><ul><li>Concave- Magnifying </li></ul><ul><li>Front surface-eliminates “ghost image” </li></ul><ul><li>Handles </li></ul><ul><li>Thicker handles  comfortable grasp, greater control </li></ul><ul><li>Wider handles are useful for mobility determination </li></ul>
  3. 3. Purpose/Use <ul><li>Indirect vision </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect illumination </li></ul><ul><li>Transillumination </li></ul><ul><li>Retraction </li></ul><ul><li>Grasp of Mirror </li></ul><ul><li>Modified pen grasp with finger rest on a tooth surface wherever possible to provide stability and control. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Retraction <ul><li>Use a water based lubricant on dry or cracked lips & corners of mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust the mirror position so that the angles of mouth are protected from undue pressure of the shank of the mirror </li></ul><ul><li>Insert & remove carefully to avoid hitting the teeth because this can be very disturbing to the client </li></ul>
  5. 5. Maintain Clear Vision <ul><li>Warm mirror with water, rub along buccal mucosa to coat mirror with thin transparent film of saliva, & request the client to breather through their nose to prevent condensation of moisture on the mirror </li></ul><ul><li>Use detergents or other means for keeping a CLEAR surface while working in the client’s mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Discard scratched mirrors </li></ul>
  6. 6. Application of Air <ul><li>Purpose-clear saliva & debris and/or dry the tooth surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Improve & facilitate examination procedures  dry supragingival calculus to facilitate exploring & scaling; small deposits may be light in color & not visible until they are dried. Dried calculus appears chalky & presents contrast to tooth color. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Purpose for AIR <ul><li>Improve visibility of the treatment area during instrumentation  dry area for finger rest to provide stability during instrumentation; minimize appointment time; evaluate complete removal of supragingival calculus after instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare teeth and/or gingiva for certain procedures  ex. Are to dry surfaces for application of caries-preventing agents; make impressions for study casts; apply topical anesthetic </li></ul>
  9. 9. Procedure for Use <ul><li>Palm grasp about the handle of the syringe; place thumb on release lever or on button on handle </li></ul><ul><li>Test the air flow so that the strength of flow can be controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Make controlled, relatively short, gentle applications of air </li></ul><ul><li>Supplement air drying with use of saliva ejector & folded gauze sponge placed in vestibule </li></ul>
  10. 10. Precautions <ul><li>Avoid sharp blasts of air on sensitive cervical areas of teeth or open carious lesions; such areas may be dried by blotting with a gauze or cotton roll to avoid causing discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid applying air directly into a pocket; subgingival biofilm may be forced into the tissues & may create a bacteremia </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid forceful application of air which can direct saliva & debris out of the oral cavity, contaminating the working area, clinician & create aerosols. </li></ul><ul><li>Air directed toward the posterior region of the client’s mouth may cause coughing/gagging </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid startling the client, forewarn when air is be applied </li></ul>
  11. 11. Probes
  12. 12. Guide <ul><li>A pocket is a diseased gingival sulcus; the use of a probe is the only accurate, dependable method to locate, assess and measure sulci & pockets </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontal disease (gum disease) is one of the most pervasive dental diseases in older adults. It involves the loss of connective tissue attachment with subsequent destruction of tooth-supporting bone, leading to loss of teeth. At present there are no reliable clinical indicators of periodontal disease activity and the best available diagnostic aid, conventional periodontal probing, is only a retrospective analysis of attachment already lost. Subtraction radiography (x-rays) may be of value in detecting small changes in alveolar bone mineralization but does not evaluate periodontal ligament attachment. In addition, changes in bone have been shown to lag behind connective tissue loss by several months </li></ul>
  13. 14. Unlike the previous two mentioned, the Naber's probe is curved, and it is used for measuring into the furcation area between the roots of a tooth.
  14. 16. The Treatment of Gum Disease (Periodontitis) <ul><li>The treatment of gum disease varies depending on the degree of involvement with the disease. The following is an overview of the treatment of gum disease: </li></ul><ul><li>a. What is normal? b. What is the appearance of gum disease? c. Non-surgical therapy. d. Surgical therapy. </li></ul>
  15. 17. What is Normal? (Healthy!) <ul><li>Normal healthy gums are usually described as &quot;coral pink&quot; in color and usually fit to a nice sharp point as they approach the point where the teeth come together and contact. </li></ul><ul><li>The healthy gums have a &quot;pebble grain&quot; appearance which is called &quot;stippling&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>When gums become disease, they: </li></ul><ul><li>1. change in color from coral pink to a more reddish color </li></ul><ul><li>2. change in form from a nice sharp, tapered form into a rounded,swollen, less tapered form </li></ul><ul><li>3. lose their appearance of stippling and become shiny as well as reddened   </li></ul>
  16. 18. The Cause of Gum Disease <ul><li>When the gums are infected, they detach from the teeth and form the probing depths that are deeper than 3 millimeters. </li></ul><ul><li>The following case types will show probing being done and you will see the silver periodontal probe. Healthy gums look healthy and probing into the &quot;sulcus&quot; only goes to a depth of 1-3 millimeters. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease gums show changes in color, form and texture, and also show a probing depth deeper than 3 millimeters. </li></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>Healthy Gums You can see the &quot;coral pink&quot; color, the form where the gums fit into a nice sharp tapered point between the teeth and where the &quot;stippling&quot; exists. </li></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>Periodontal Probe This print shows the probe outside of the gum &quot;sulcus&quot; in order to show just how deep it would have gone (2-3 mm) in this healthy &quot;sulcus&quot; </li></ul>
  19. 24. What is the Appearance of Gum Disease? <ul><li>Periodontitis (gum disease) looks different in different patient's mouths. </li></ul><ul><li>However, changes in color, form and texture are good visual clues to look for when you are looking for the presence of gum disease. </li></ul><ul><li>These next photos will show how a deep pocket may actually appear. </li></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>A Diseased Area (All diseased areas don't look the same) The gum tissue is slightly redder than normal and there are slight changes in the gum tissue form. There is some yellow pus on the gum margin where the periodontal probe will be inserted in the next photo. </li></ul>
  21. 26. <ul><li>Probe in the Pocket This print shows the probe in the pocket to a depth of 8 mm. </li></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><li>Probe Outside of the Pocket You can see how deep the probe did actually go into this disease pocket. This is approximately 8 millimeters and shows how much gum and bone destruction has occurred </li></ul>
  23. 28. <ul><li>Probing a 5 mm. Pocket (pre-treatment) Here you can see the silver periodontal probe which goes 5 mm. into the pocket.There is much bleeding and infection present. </li></ul>
  24. 29. ATER debridement …The gum tissues are pink in color and there has been some tissue shrinkage. The gums are healthier with a probing depth of 3 mm.
  25. 37. That's 192 measurements in a mouth with every tooth present!
  26. 39. Guide to Probing <ul><li>Pocket is measured from the base of the pocket (top of attached periodontal tissue) to the gingival margin </li></ul><ul><li>Pocket or sulcus is continuous around the entire tooth & the entire pocket/sulcus must be measured. “SPOT” probing is inadequate. </li></ul><ul><li>The depth varies around an individuals tooth; probing depth rarely measures the same all around the tooth or even around 1 side of a tooth </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal surfaces must be approached by entering from both the facial & lingual aspects of the tooth </li></ul>
  27. 41. <ul><li>Anatomic features of the tooth-surface wall of the pocket influence the direction of probing </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are concave surfaces, anomalies, shape of the cervical third, and position of furcations </li></ul><ul><li>During the movement of the probe, calculus & tooth surface irregularities can be felt & evaluated </li></ul>
  28. 42. <ul><li>The general objective of probing are accuracy & consistency so that recordings are dependable for comparison with future probings as well as with colleagues in practice together; at the same time client discomfort & trauma to the tissues must be minimal </li></ul>
  29. 43. Probing is influenced by factors such as: <ul><li>Severity & extent of periodontal disease </li></ul><ul><li>Normal healthy tissue; the probe is at the base of the sulcus or crevice, at the coronal end of the junctional epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Gingivitis & early periodontitis. The probe tip is within the junctional epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced periodontitis. The probe tip penetrates through the junctional epithelium to reach attached connective tissue fibres </li></ul>
  30. 44. Probing Procedures <ul><li>Insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Grasp probe with modified pen grasp </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the finger rest on a neighboring tooth, preferably in the same dental arch </li></ul><ul><li>Hold side of instrument tip flat against the tooth near the gingival margin </li></ul><ul><li>The cervical third of a primary tooth is more convex </li></ul>
  31. 45. <ul><li>Gently slide the tip under the gingival margin </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy of firm fibrotic tissue-insertion is more difficult because of the close adaptation of the tissue to the tooth surface; underlying gingival fibres are strong & tight </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy, soft tissue-gingival margin is loose & flabby because of the destruction of underlying gingival fibres. Probe inserts readily & bleeding can be expected on gentle probing </li></ul>
  32. 46. Advance probe to base of pocket… <ul><li>Hold the probe tip flat against the tooth surface </li></ul><ul><li>Slide the probe along the tooth surface vertically down to the base of the sulcus or pocket </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain contact of the side of the tip of the probe with the tooth </li></ul><ul><li>Gingival pocket-side of probe is on enamel </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontal pocket-side of probe is on the cemental or dentinal surface when inserted to a level below the CEJ </li></ul><ul><li>As the probe is passed down the side of the tooth, roughness may be felt </li></ul><ul><li>When obstruction by calculus deposit is encountered, lift the probe away from the tooth & follow the edge of the calculus until the probe can move vertically into the pocket again </li></ul>
  33. 47. FIG 13-3 IN WILKINS <ul><li>The base of the sulcus or pocket feels soft & elastic </li></ul><ul><li>Slight pressure, the tension of the attached periodontal tissue at the base of the pocket can be felt </li></ul><ul><li>Position the probe for reading-bring the probe to position as nearly parallel with the long axis of the tooth as possible for reading the depth </li></ul><ul><li>Interference of the contact area does not permit placing the probe parallel for the measurement directly beneath th contact area. </li></ul><ul><li>Hold the side of the shank of the probe against the conotact to minimize the angle. FIG 13-3 in WILKINS </li></ul>
  34. 48. READ THE PROBE <ul><li>MEASUREMENT for a probing depth is made from the gingival margin to the attached periodontal tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Count the millimetres that show on the probe above the gingival margin & subtract the number from the total number of mm marked on the probe being used </li></ul><ul><li>When the gingival margin appears at the level between the probe marks, use the higher mark for the final reading </li></ul><ul><li>Dry the area being probed to improve visibility for specific reading </li></ul>
  35. 49. HOMEWORK <ul><li>Read Wilkins </li></ul><ul><li>Make notes on Clinical Attachment Level, Mucogingival Examination, Periodontal Charting </li></ul><ul><li>Read Chapter 14-20 </li></ul><ul><li>Make notes on Plaque Indices, biofilms, calculus & plaque </li></ul><ul><li>Read Chapter 26 and make notes on Interdental care </li></ul>