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Chap 4 Self Concept Dec 18

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Chap 4 Self Concept Dec 18

  1. 1. Self-concept in the Relationship Between Dental Hygienists and Clients
  2. 2. Self-concept <ul><li>An organized network of ideas and feelings we have about ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Come from experiences and interactions with other people </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul>
  3. 3. Development of Self <ul><li>Peplau’s four steps of development </li></ul><ul><li>First step </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisals are made by significant others about the self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluative statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the evaluator’s expectation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Good Baby!” or “Bad!” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Second Step <ul><li>Appraisals are repeated, become a pattern, and become incorporated into the self </li></ul>
  5. 5. Third step <ul><li>Behavior emerges to match the appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>“John good!” “I ate it all up!” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Forth Step <ul><li>The Self continues to develop, and is open for reappraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Reappraisal </li></ul>
  7. 7. Functions of Self-Concept <ul><li>Help to explain behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a decision making framework </li></ul><ul><li>Shape expectations for future (possible selves) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide bridges for a person to become one’s own unique self </li></ul>
  8. 8. Application: Characteristics of a Healthy Self-Concept <ul><li>Satisfaction with Body Image </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct Sense of Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion al Stability; Realistic Life Goals, </li></ul><ul><li>High Self-Esteem ; Congruence between Real and Ideal Self </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual Well-Being </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction with role performance </li></ul>
  9. 9. Functions of Body Image <ul><li>Senses </li></ul><ul><li>An instrument for action </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Mental picture of the body </li></ul>
  10. 10. Strategies for communicating with clients with alterations in body image <ul><li>Provide information and opportunities for the client to ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing adaptive functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the client to share experience with others </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance social support </li></ul>
  11. 11. Applications <ul><li>Can you illustrate how to use some of the above strategies to communicate with the following patients? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A 65 year old woman who suffered a stroke and half of her body became paralyzed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a 14 year old girl who just got braces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a veteran who lost his leg during the war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a man who has a serious burn and half of the body has contracted </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Personal Identity <ul><li>It includes all our psychological beliefs and attitudes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirituality </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Perception <ul><ul><li>Transformation of sensory data into personal image of reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A bottom-up and top-down process </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Perceptual Illusion
  15. 15. Perceptual Illusion
  16. 16. Perceptual Illusion
  17. 17. Perceptual biases & Self-Concept <ul><li>Selective Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilling Prophecy </li></ul>
  18. 18. Communicating with Clients with Perceptual Biases <ul><li>Perceptual checks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe precisely the behavior of concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer two alternative explanations for problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request feedback </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Case Example <ul><li>Client: I see that you didn’t eat today. (clarify the problem) Nurse: Why? Is it because you don’t feel well, or is it because you don’t like the food? Client: I want to eat some solid food, I’m sick of having slop everyday. (alternative explanation) Nurse: oh, so that’s the problem you have. Can you tell me more about your what you like to eat? (request feedback) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Perceptual Checks Roleplay <ul><li>Illustrate the 3-step process of perceptual checks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A client has lots of cavities and doesn’t like to use floss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A client just got his braces off. He is supposed to wear a mouthguard at night, but he doesn’t. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Cognition <ul><li>The mind processes perceptual information and incorporates with other information in the mind to form a coherent whole </li></ul><ul><li>logic, stored in long-term or short-term memory </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cognitive Distortions <ul><li>“ All or nothing” </li></ul><ul><li>Overgeneralization </li></ul><ul><li>Mind-reading or fortune-telling </li></ul><ul><li>Personalizing </li></ul><ul><li>Acting on “should” or “ought to” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Awfulizing” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Self-Talk <ul><li>A thought process that leads to a feeling or judgment, which subsequently attaches to one’s concept of self. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of negative self-talk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I stuttered in the interview” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I had a terrible interview” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I probably won’t get the job” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I will probably never be able to get a job” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I’m no good” </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Communicating with Clients with Cognitive Distortions <ul><li>Develop awareness of self-talk </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging the client’s distortions </li></ul><ul><li>Social support </li></ul>
  25. 25. Recognizing Cognitive Distortions <ul><li>I shouldn’t feel anxious about giving this presentation in class. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m boring and people don’t like to talk to me. </li></ul><ul><li>I shouldn’t get upset when people don’t approve of me. </li></ul><ul><li>If I hadn’t been raised in a dysfunctional family, I would be a different person. </li></ul><ul><li>If I don’t get high grades, my family will think less of me. </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t experience true satisfaction unless I do things perfectly. </li></ul><ul><li>How would you challenge the above distortions? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give me an examples for the distortions we discussed above? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of your cognitive distortions and how do they affect your behavior? </li></ul>

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