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Tiger Worm Toilets
Friday 31/07/2015
WASH Webinar 01
AGENDA
Introductions & general housekeeping (5 mins)
Background on how it all started (5 mins)
Presentation – David Watako...
TECHNICAL OVERVIEW AND GROUNDRULES
You can either send in your questions beforehand
OR
As you watch, please write your que...
How it all started...
Claire Furlong
The problem
The sanitation coverage in Monrovia is very low 18% JMP 2012.
Most of the people live in the slum areas with n...
Prof. David & mougabe
How it works in theory and lessons from the field
The Worm Concept
The tiger toilet is a flushing system that uses worms to transform faecal matter
into vermicompost. A tig...
The Worm Concept
The worms in the biodigester are African Night Crawler (Eudrilus Eugeniae), an
earthworm native to tropic...
The process
1
• Understanding the process
2
• Meeting with Beneficiaries
3
• Design and construction (BoQ and Recruitment)...
DESIGN
BOQ
Item Description Qty Unit (USD) Unit cost (USD) Total
1 Cement 750kg 9 63
2 Sand 1m3 30 30
3 Crushed rocks 1/4" 0.3m3 ...
Steps of Construction
1-Assessment
Available space for construction
of the Bio digester and the
installation of the commod...
Steps of Construction
Bio digester Foundation
Size: 1.5m*1.3m
Concrete ratio 1:2:3
Bio digester
Size: 1.m*1.m*1M
Concrete ...
Steps of Construction
Top slab
Size: 1.5m*1.3m*0.05
Concrete ratio 1:2:3
Porous slab
Size: 1.2m*1m*0.05M
Concrete ratio 1:3
Steps of Construction
Effluent collector connection
Installation of the filtration layers
-Sand:15cm
-Charcoal 5cm
Steps of Construction
Installation of the filtration layers
-Gravel 10cm
Positioning Onion bag
Steps of Construction
Tiger worm (Eishenia. foetida)
 Eudrilus engeniae
Steps of Construction
2KG of E.eugeniae
Steps of Construction
Adding coconut fibre
Adding worms
Steps of Construction
Inside view: Regular commode
Inside view: squat type
Steps of Construction
Finished systems
Capacity building
Transferring knowledge
ADDED VALUES
Empower women
Contribute to livelihoods
Monitoring Effluent
Testing Turbidity
Testing Electrical conductivity/total dissolved solids
Monitoring BD functionality & Effluent quality
Parameter
Flushing system (comment on where the waste is being doped and an...
To do
Cleaning around the Toilet (outside): Always keeps the BD surrounding clean, clean 1/week if necessary. Elevate the ...
 ..
 .
Dysfunction alert and
troubleshoots(community)
Diagnostic Action
No effluent coming out Call the technician to do...
LESSON LEARNED
CHALLENGES
Beneficiaries participation
Space for gardening
Effluent disposal during flooding
Cultural barri...
Learning points
Worms
How they work?
How much can they eat?
What do they do?
How fast do they grow?
What types of worms ca...
THANKYOU!
For More information contact:
David Watako dwatako@oxfam.org.uk
Mougabe Koslengar mkoslengar@unicef.org
Andy Bas...
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Tiger Worm Toilets (Oxfam Public Health Engineering webinar)

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Ever scratched your head trying to find safe excreta disposal solutions for pour flush latrines in congested urban slums, remote locations, high water tables, rocky ground and no-network areas? Well, this webinar could have the answers you've been looking for.

The worm based sanitation project in Monrovia was designed by Oxfam and inspired by the Biofil (from Ghana) and Tiger Toilet systems. This novel system aims to tackle the challenges of excreta disposal where de-sludging is not possible and was designed for pour flush latrines (where waste is disposed of directly into an above ground concrete chamber). The worms live in a bedding material (coconut fibre which has been soaked for 24 hours in water) and eat the waste flushed into the chamber. Excreta are deposited on this bedding material whilst the liquid is filtered through a media of gravel, charcoal and sand. The effluent produced is collected in an external sump, which is then emptied by the householder.

After 3 years there is virtually no waste to remove from the chamber as the worms eat and excrete nominal amounts. This approach of course requires community engagement, understanding and pro-activeness before, during and after the installation of the system.

For both the presentation and the audio, visit our YouTube channel: https://youtu.be/j04tGVNP6Xg

Published in: Government & Nonprofit

Tiger Worm Toilets (Oxfam Public Health Engineering webinar)

  1. 1. Tiger Worm Toilets Friday 31/07/2015 WASH Webinar 01
  2. 2. AGENDA Introductions & general housekeeping (5 mins) Background on how it all started (5 mins) Presentation – David Watako (WASH Specialist, Oxfam Liberia) & Mougabe Koslengar (WASH Specialist, UNICEF Burkina Faso) (20 mins) Q&A open discussion – Moderator Jola Miziniak(20 mins) Wrap up on tiger worms & whats new in excreta management - Andy Bastable (10 mins)
  3. 3. TECHNICAL OVERVIEW AND GROUNDRULES You can either send in your questions beforehand OR As you watch, please write your questions and observations in the chat box to help us when we come to the Discussion. OR You can press the button to raise your hand during the discussion. Please wait for us to say your name before you press talk to speak
  4. 4. How it all started... Claire Furlong
  5. 5. The problem The sanitation coverage in Monrovia is very low 18% JMP 2012. Most of the people live in the slum areas with not enough resources and spacing to build a toilet. The geographical and hydrogeology of some places contribute greatly to the difficulties faced by communities in constructing toilets. Septic tank system is widely accepted in Monrovia but not everyone can afford it due to its very high cost; the alternative is usually to build a cesspool. Inability to afford the septic tank and to build their own toilets due to the lack of spacing and funds etc,implies that open defecation, flying toilets, and hanging toilets along the riverbanks remains the common coping mechanisms for excreta disposal in the slum areas. This is the number one contributor to health problems in the slum communities of Monrovia. The stakes are even higher with the recent EVD outbreak.
  6. 6. Prof. David & mougabe How it works in theory and lessons from the field
  7. 7. The Worm Concept The tiger toilet is a flushing system that uses worms to transform faecal matter into vermicompost. A tiger toilet consists of a pour flush latrine connected to a concrete chamber (biodigester) The biodigester contains worms, which live in a bedding material and feed off the feaces, breaking it down. Effluent from this layer filters through a layer of sand, gravel and charcoal . The effluent produced is connected to either an infiltration gallery or collected in an external sump (emptied by the householder and could even be used as fertiliser). The action of the tiger worms significantly reduces the build-up of solids in the system, although there is a gradual build up of vermicompost, requiring periodic emptying of the biodigester
  8. 8. The Worm Concept The worms in the biodigester are African Night Crawler (Eudrilus Eugeniae), an earthworm native to tropical West Africa, which is typically used in vermicomposting systems. Vermicompost is produced through the worms’ ingestion, digestion and absorption (Viljoen, et al 1992) of organic waste and the subsequent excretions (the digester is a mesophilic systems (Chaudhuri, et al 2009). The process reduces the volume of feaces between 70 to 80 percent. Eudrilus Eugeniae can survive feeding solely on feaces and does not require other inputs (unlike worms found in composting toilets that require a proportion of organic matter Reference). Tiger worms reach maximum weight (0.45 g to 1.26 g [Vijaya, 2012), length (10-12cm) and segments in 15 to 20 weeks (Rodriguez &Lapeire, 1992).
  9. 9. The process 1 • Understanding the process 2 • Meeting with Beneficiaries 3 • Design and construction (BoQ and Recruitment) 5 • Monitoring (testing and documentation)
  10. 10. DESIGN
  11. 11. BOQ Item Description Qty Unit (USD) Unit cost (USD) Total 1 Cement 750kg 9 63 2 Sand 1m3 30 30 3 Crushed rocks 1/4" 0.3m3 30 9 4 Poor flush squate/commode 1pc 60 60 6 Mesh Wire (large roll) 4m2 5 20 7 Onion bags 1.2 m² 0.5 0.6 8 Fishing line 2rl 1 2 9 Plumbing putty 0.25can 5 1.25 10 PVC glue 0.5can 5 2.5 11 4" PVC pipe 0.5pc of 6m 18 9 12 4" PVC elbow 2pc 3 6 13 Floor tiles (12"X12"ceremic) 1ctn (11 pc) 15 15 14 Steel rods (1/4") 0.2pc of 12m 10 2 15 Coconut shred 0.5wb 10 5 16 2" PVC Elbow 2pc 3 6 17 PVC Pipe 2" 0.5pc of 6m 8 4 19 White cement 0.350kg 20 6 21 4" PVC coupling 1pc 3 3 22 4" PVC Tee 1pc 4 4 23 2" PVC Tee 1pc 3 3 24 Reducer PVC 4''X2'' 1pc 3 3 25 Nail 2" 1.5pck 2 3 26 Timber (2 x 4x 14) 26m 6 12 27 6" cement block 80pc 0.56 44.8 28 Empty drum (plastic) 1pc 30 30 29 Charcoal 1wb 4 4 30 worms 2.4kg 7 16.8 Sub-Total 364.95 Workmanship @ 25% x material cost 1toilet 91.2375 91.2375 Grand Total 456.1875
  12. 12. Steps of Construction 1-Assessment Available space for construction of the Bio digester and the installation of the commode toilet Available space for garden Existing structures condition (Floor level and plumbing connection)
  13. 13. Steps of Construction Bio digester Foundation Size: 1.5m*1.3m Concrete ratio 1:2:3 Bio digester Size: 1.m*1.m*1M Concrete ratio 1:2:3
  14. 14. Steps of Construction Top slab Size: 1.5m*1.3m*0.05 Concrete ratio 1:2:3 Porous slab Size: 1.2m*1m*0.05M Concrete ratio 1:3
  15. 15. Steps of Construction Effluent collector connection Installation of the filtration layers -Sand:15cm -Charcoal 5cm
  16. 16. Steps of Construction Installation of the filtration layers -Gravel 10cm Positioning Onion bag
  17. 17. Steps of Construction Tiger worm (Eishenia. foetida)  Eudrilus engeniae
  18. 18. Steps of Construction 2KG of E.eugeniae
  19. 19. Steps of Construction Adding coconut fibre Adding worms
  20. 20. Steps of Construction Inside view: Regular commode Inside view: squat type
  21. 21. Steps of Construction Finished systems
  22. 22. Capacity building Transferring knowledge
  23. 23. ADDED VALUES Empower women Contribute to livelihoods
  24. 24. Monitoring Effluent Testing Turbidity Testing Electrical conductivity/total dissolved solids
  25. 25. Monitoring BD functionality & Effluent quality Parameter Flushing system (comment on where the waste is being doped and any leakage on the system etc) Worm (how healthy are they, note their movements scrolling etc..) Faecal material: Estimate the Waste accumulation (g) Faecal material: Estimate the Waste degradation (g) Filtration system (any water standing on the top of the filtration layer, quantity of water in the transition chamber, drainage to the effluent collector etc) Temperature (°C) norms: 60-80° F(15,5°C-26,6°C) TU (NTU) pH BOD/COD (mg/l)<200mg/l/400mg/l Colour/odour E.coli (FCU/100ml) 5000/100ml Use of the effluent
  26. 26. To do Cleaning around the Toilet (outside): Always keeps the BD surrounding clean, clean 1/week if necessary. Elevate the BD surrounding to avoid flooding. Cleaning for the Toilet (inside): Use clean water to wash the bowl, keep always spray the inside toilet with insecticide/fresher Material to use for posterior cleaning: Always use the soft tissue or water (do not use hard paper or plastic). Never drop bottles, plastics and any inorganic matter in the toilets Effluent removal (frequency) 1/weeks Effluent disposal: use the effluent to water gardens, banana trees etc Gardening techniques: use off ditches (roll type) does not directly waste the effluent on the corps. Rodent/Flies/odour control Use of insecticide to fumigate around the BD (outside) and spray the inside toilet all of the time. Always keep the surrounding of the BD clean clear Waste removal: Remove the digested waste (black soil) after you notice that the bio digester is getting fill up. Use a shovel or any material to take the black soil out. Change the coconut coir and add some worms if you have removed some with the black soil (usually the worm move to the filtration layer when you manipulating) Waste disposal (ditto as effluent) Coconut and Worm replacement: add some after waste removal General Control check: Observation inside the BD (frequency): 1 every 3 months (observe the waste commutation, worms heath condition and number). Call the technician if you notify water standing in the bio digester or lot off fresh and less /no worms) Call technicians if: physical Damage on the BD or effluent, commode not flushing, O&M hints
  27. 27.  ..  . Dysfunction alert and troubleshoots(community) Diagnostic Action No effluent coming out Call the technician to do general checking Invasion by ants Fumigate the outside of the Toilets with deltametrin 1%(ants powder) Water standing in the BD Remove the waste and replace the filtration layers (to be done by the technician) Flooding (effluent collector) Raise the protection wall Odour/flies -Call the technician to do general checking and place properly the cover slab if required. -Spray the inside toilet (insecticide and fresher) Toilet not flushing -Call the technician to check the flushing system No digestion (observed during the general control chek) Call technician (cheek the worms and add worms if required Effluent collector leaking Replace the drum/ revert to infiltration trench To call technician, Use: +231(0)886243145/+231 (0) 5901750
  28. 28. LESSON LEARNED CHALLENGES Beneficiaries participation Space for gardening Effluent disposal during flooding Cultural barriers/Ebola and disinfection MITIGATION MoU, 25% participation Collective garden Drain the effluent through the soil.
  29. 29. Learning points Worms How they work? How much can they eat? What do they do? How fast do they grow? What types of worms can you use?  What we know  E. Eugenia, is locally available and is very similar to E.Fetida  2Kg of E.Eugenia/m2 (theory)  Feeding rate(kg feed/kg worms: ?????(0.8- 2Kg theory)  Decaying process slow (not visible before 15 days)  Temperature (less 30Degre) and Humidity (80%) are very important to worms  Effluent collection:1 /week  Bedding – coconut fibre, onion bag  Effluent quality – better than septic tank (  Configuration – bedding, drainage, sump
  30. 30. THANKYOU! For More information contact: David Watako dwatako@oxfam.org.uk Mougabe Koslengar mkoslengar@unicef.org Andy Bastable abastable@oxfam.org.uk Claire Furlong c.furlong@iboro.ac.uk

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