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How Change Happens lecture VI: tools for change


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Brandeis University Proseminar presentation by Oxfam's Duncan Green from March 2012. (6/6)

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How Change Happens lecture VI: tools for change

  1. 1. Your Assignment: Some Tools for Exploring Power and Change Duncan Green Brandeis Proseminar March 2012 Lecture 6
  2. 2. General Points Multiple ways of understanding change Power lens a good place to start Are you trying to understand ‘from the outside’? - either past or potential future change Or are you a would-be change agent trying to design an influencing strategy? – Tools different in each case
  3. 3. What is Power? Power as force field Ways of looking at power – Visibility – Spaces – Four powers
  5. 5. Four Components of Change Context – Technology, environment, demographics, globalization Institutions – Culture, ethnicity, religion, attitudes and beliefs – Civil service, judiciary, electoral democracy, essential services, Agents – Social movements, elites, leaders, private sector, media Events – Wars, disasters, confrontations
  6. 6. Dynamics and Pathways toreconstruct (or suggest scenarios) Cumulative and Chaotic Sequential Events, tipping points and Path Dependence lightbulb moments Demonstration Accumulation of Effects forces
  7. 7. The conflict-cooperation cycle Social Conflict Events and Reforms run out Moments of steam or new problems arise Reforms y Cooperation
  9. 9. Power Analysis for Advocacy:Phase One Define Change Goal What laws, policies, practices, relationships need to change? What are obstacles to change? (e.g. attitudes and beliefs, political groups, financial/commercial interests, lack of a feasible practical proposal) What are the political opportunities for change (e.g. legislative timetables, elections, international negotiations & summits)
  10. 10. Power Analysis: Phase Two Who are decision-makers and institutions that determine the change? At what level are decisions made (international, national, state, politician or official) Who has formal and informal power on a reform process? Among these groups and individuals, which are – most easily influenced by OXFAM/partners? – The lost causes? – the ‘shifters - the undecided or persuadable? Who influences the people in this key group, who are often the principle target for our campaign?
  11. 11. Power Analysis is permanent Power Analysis Change Implement and Hypothesis Evaluate Select Change Strategies
  12. 12. Some Possible Change Strategies Active Citizenship – Rights education – Supporting People in the Streets – Grassroots Leadership Training – Public campaigning eg via media Elites – Direct engagement with politicians – Research-driven engagement with technocrats
  13. 13. Change strategies (continued) Windows of opportunity – Election campaigns – Responding to shocks – Seizing opportunities eg court cases, scandals
  14. 14. Tactics: Think about Alliances – how broad? Conflict v cooperation – how confrontational? Problem/Solution/Villain How to build broad coalition around easy wins Prescriptive or flexible? Convening/brokering or responding to opportunities v a specific objective