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Citizenship and Activism       Duncan Green    Brandeis Proseminar        March 2012         Lecture 4
Theories of citizenship   Four interwoven themes   Rights, duties, participation and identity   Different combos of the...
Liberal theories of citizenship   Born out of reaction to tyranny and the    overweening state.   ‘the great end’ of men...
Communitarians   Common Good > Individual Rights     – The East London mattress   Identity (and citizenship) springs fro...
Republicanism   Also suspicious of liberal individualism   But social bonds created through    participation and members...
Where the three schools collide oncitizenship and activism   Relative weight of formal democracy    and protest   Invite...
The dynamics of citizenship   Cycles of Contention     – repression, partial victories leading to       reform, and demob...
Citizens and states   In Europe citizenship created by    encroachment of state (taxes,    conscription) – ‘caging’ (Mann...
The conflict-cooperation cycle                  Social                 Conflict  Events and                 Reforms run ou...
When do citizens’ movements achievelasting change?   Gaventa and McGee (2010)     – Civil society alone is not enough    ...
Tarrow’s view of the future, as state-citizen interaction builds institutions‘The power [of contentious politics] willat f...
How Change Happens: somearchetypes   Active Citizenship     – People in the Streets     – Grassroots Leadership   Elite-...
Archetypes (continued)   Cross class interaction     – Democracy works     – Drivers of Change: Cross-sectoral alliances ...
South Africa’s Treatment ActionCampaign   Watch the video (10 minutes) and    discuss     – What kinds of change strategi...
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How Change Happens lecture IV: The Role of Activism

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How Change Happens lecture IV: The Role of Activism

  1. 1. Citizenship and Activism Duncan Green Brandeis Proseminar March 2012 Lecture 4
  2. 2. Theories of citizenship Four interwoven themes Rights, duties, participation and identity Different combos of these give rise to three schools of thought – Liberal models that give priority to individual rights – Communitarian models that place the emphasis on duties and identity – Republican models that stress participation
  3. 3. Liberal theories of citizenship Born out of reaction to tyranny and the overweening state. ‘the great end’ of men entering society is ‘the enjoyment of their properties in peace and safety’. (Locke) Ignores: – Struggle for rights (granted rather than won) – Other (non class) forms of exclusion – Communal identities (v individualistic)
  4. 4. Communitarians Common Good > Individual Rights – The East London mattress Identity (and citizenship) springs from membership of a community, raising problems with rights of minority communities or dissidents Ambivalent on role of state Struggles with post-modern social fragmentation and multiple parallel (and overlapping) communities
  5. 5. Republicanism Also suspicious of liberal individualism But social bonds created through participation and membership (Puttnam), not deeper sense of community Little to say on conflictive aspects of citizenship
  6. 6. Where the three schools collide oncitizenship and activism Relative weight of formal democracy and protest Invited v conquered spaces Is formal democracy irrelevant? I’m with Churchill
  7. 7. The dynamics of citizenship Cycles of Contention – repression, partial victories leading to reform, and demobilisation Tarrow: protest requires – patterns of political opportunities and constraints – inherited cultural symbols – dense social networks Which is why global citizenship will always be weak cf national level
  8. 8. Citizens and states In Europe citizenship created by encroachment of state (taxes, conscription) – ‘caging’ (Mann) Social contract (tax, law, elections) Citizens movements often a source of innovation for the state and challenge the ‘plasticity of power’ At local level ‘Cycles of Accountability’ (Fox) – ‘thickening of civil society and state reformism’
  9. 9. The conflict-cooperation cycle Social Conflict Events and Reforms run out Moments of steam or new problems arise Reforms and Cooperation
  10. 10. When do citizens’ movements achievelasting change? Gaventa and McGee (2010) – Civil society alone is not enough – formal political process – And alliances between civil society and reformers inside state • Juggling trade offs between influence and cooption (insider/outsider) Often division between state and civil society is artificial (Porto Alegre) - state/ society complexes’
  11. 11. Tarrow’s view of the future, as state-citizen interaction builds institutions‘The power [of contentious politics] willat first be ferocious, uncontrolled andwidely diffused, but ultimately ephemeraland institutionalised. It will disperse ‘likea floodtide which loosens up much of thesoil but leaves alluvial deposits in itswake’’
  12. 12. How Change Happens: somearchetypes Active Citizenship – People in the Streets – Grassroots Leadership Elite-driven – Enlightened Leaders – Technocrats make evidence-based policy
  13. 13. Archetypes (continued) Cross class interaction – Democracy works – Drivers of Change: Cross-sectoral alliances around common agenda + conflict leads to ‘transitions to accountability’ Pathways – Incremental progress – Power of Example – Sudden breakthroughs (Arab Spring) – Evolutionary change (venture capitalism)
  14. 14. South Africa’s Treatment ActionCampaign Watch the video (10 minutes) and discuss – What kinds of change strategies did TAC use? – Why do you think they chose those strategies (what other approaches could they have taken)?

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