Photo: Paul Thompson Margaret Mead: ‘ Never doubt that a group of concerned citizens can change the world – indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.’
Photo: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Parliament_House%2C_Dec_05.JPG In the early 1960s, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) had a national income per capita twice that of South Korea. Both countries had hungry, illiterate populations; both received substantial US aid; both were devastated by conflict. Since then, Korea has become one of the great development success stories of recent times, transforming the lives of its people, while the DRC has slid further into economic decline and civil war. The German philosopher Georg Hegel described the state as a ‘work of art’. As works of conscious design, the greatest constitutions and states stand comparison with the finest achievements of civilisation in visual arts, music, philosophy, or poetry. They are the collective manifestation of the human imagination, and often surpass individual achievements in the extent to which they have transformed people’s lives.
Context describes the environment within which changes take place. This can be the most important determinant of the nature and direction of change. Context includes: Institutions : the organizations and rules (both formal and informal) that establish the ‘rules of the game’ governing the behaviour of agents. These include Agents : Organizations and individuals actively involved in promoting or blocking change. Examples include: Events which trigger wider change, such as wars, pandemics, civil conflict, natural disasters or economic collapse. Elections and election campaigns are often catalysts for social and political change. At a local level events such as marches and repression can be key catalysts to popular organization
Photo: Renato Guimaraes/Oxfam n.b. People in photo are not actually Chiquitanos
Photo: Renato Guimaraes/Oxfam
Photo: Rajendra Shaw/Oxfam
Photo: Rajendra Shaw/Oxfam
Photo: PA Photos
Photo: PA Photos
How Change Happens lecture II: active citizens, effective states and change
Day 2: First let’s recap. In pairs,discuss: Where we got too yesterday Any questions/comments/suggestions What topic you have chosen for your case study – Then let’s go round the room
Active Citizens, Effective States and Change Duncan Green Brandeis Proseminar March 2012 Lecture 2
Main messages Rights and dignity are a crucial part of development and well-being Achieving these requires involvement in power and politics Ability to exercise rights requires access to essential services, information and knowledge Active citizenship, including civil society organization, is essential to development Effective states play a central role in development The interaction between Active Citizens and Effective States is crucial, complicated and doesn’t always follow the script!
And rights are about power - PictureDevelopment is about rights
Development is about rights Rights are long-term guarantees that allow right- holders to put demands on duty bearers Capabilities = rights + ability to exercise them Involves crucial shift from treating poor people as ‘beneficiaries’ to seeing them as active agents Rights = lawyers and scholars; development = economists and engineers
And rights are about power Power over: the power of the strong over the weak Power to: the capability to decide actions and carry them out Power with: collective power, through organisation, solidarity, and joint action Power within: personal self-confidence
First build the people… Education, healthcare, water, sanitation and housing are basic building blocks of a decent life Education: need improvements in both quality and quantity (esp. for girls) Health: maternal mortality as example of gender and wealth-based inequalities Control over fertility is both a rights and health issue The state must be central to provision
Then ensure access to knowledge andinformation Steady improvements in access to knowledge, e.g. radio, mobiles, internet Technology holds enormous potential But current incentives bias R&D against the needs of the poor And intellectual property rules act as a barrier to technology transfer (pharmaceuticals, biopiracy)
And the right to organise Increasing range and complexity of civil society organizations Role of CSOs as catalysts and watchdogs Intrinsic and instrumental benefits of CSO involvement Civil society activism waxes and wanes Civil society is very involved in decentralization processes
States are at the heart of development(and growing in importance) Nation states play a core role in providing essential services, rule of law, economic stability and upgrading Successful ‘developmental states’ (Chalmers Johnson): – Govern for the future – Promote growth – Start with equity – Integrate with the global economy, but discriminate – Guarantee health and education for all But the politics of developmental states are tricky – Embedded autonomy (Peter Evans) – Strong ‘national bourgeoisie’ and elite alignment Globalization and orthodoxy make building effective states harder
And Ineffective States are one of thebiggest problems in development Fragile and Conflict Afflicted States (FRACAS) Clientilism and patronage are the opposite of ‘embedded autonomy’ What leads to a new ‘political settlement’? – Leadership (Botswana) – Shocks (Rwanda) – Strong civil society (Ghana) – Can be gradual, led by progressive elite fractions (Taiwan)
How do Active Citizens and Effective States fit intoour model of change?
How change happens: the Chiquitanos 3 July 2007: Chiquitanos win title to 1m hectares of traditional lands in Eastern Bolivia Lived in near-feudal conditions up to 1980s Activism began on margins of football league Marches to La Paz forged links with highland Indians and built ethnic identity Chiquitanos elected as mayors and senators Evo Morales’ 2006 election, the turning point
How change happens:winning ‘pond rights’ in India
How change happens:winning ‘pond rights’ in India Fishing ponds crucial to 45,000 families in Bundelkhand Technology change (new fish varieties and stocking) prompted a new wave of seizures by landlords Protests got support from state government for fishing cooperatives – basis for mobilisation Dirty tricks and some violence were a turning point NGOs brokered relations with police and politicians 100 ponds now under fishers’ control
Dilemma: are Effective Statescompatible with Active Citizens?
How do Active Citizens interact withStates? Democracies: – Produce more predictable long run growth rates – Produce greater short term stability – Handle shocks much better – Deliver more equality But legitimacy is an issue even in non-democratic states And change is seldom completely peaceful - cycles of conflict and cooperation are the norm (Fox, Gaventa)
And how do Effective States interactwith citizens? Nation builders are often undemocratic, but autocrats often fail and societies may be becoming less tolerant of ‘benevolent dictators’ Taxation is key to the state-citizen compact Are ‘democratic developmental states’ feasible in early stages of development (‘inclusive embeddedness’ Edigheji) Or is it only in later stages – Brazil? South Korea? Botswana?
My (tentative and uncomfortable)conclusion There are probably trade-offs in early stage development between achieving the kind of developmental state best suited to achieving fast economic take-off and the ‘democratic developmental state’ that can achieve wider development – freedoms ‘to do and to be’ But those trade-offs are likely to change over time, hopefully in a positive direction – growth and freedom will become more aligned
HOW DO YOU GET ALLTHAT INTO A 3 MINUTEVIDEO?.........
Buzz in Pairs Any questions, comments on what you’ve just heard? Anything you disagreed with or felt worried about?
Groupwork In pairs, take it in turns to present your case study Apply HCH analysis to it (context, institutions, agents, events + pathways) Identify any gaps in your understanding of the case study/questions for further research Be prepared to report back on – the ideas and questions that emerged – What HCH added to your thinking about your case study