Common Cause - Edinburgh

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  • From Schwartz: (1) Values are beliefs linked inextricably to affect. When values are activated, they become infused with feeling. People for whom independence is an important value become aroused if their independence is threatened, despair when they are helpless to protect it, and are happy when they can enjoy it. (2) Values refer to desirable goals that motivate action. People for whom social order, justice, and helpfulness are important values are motivated to pursue these goals. (3) Values transcend specific actions and situations . Obedience and honesty, for example, are values that may be relevant at work or in school, in sports, business, and politics, with family, friends, or strangers. This feature distinguishes values from narrower concepts like norms and attitudes that usually refer to specific actions, objects, or situations. (4) Values serve as standards or criteria . Values guide the selection or evaluation of actions, policies, people, and events. People decide what is good or bad, justified or illegitimate, worth doing or avoiding, based on possible consequences for their cherished values. But the impact of values in everyday decisions is rarely conscious. Values enter awareness when the actions or judgments one is considering have conflicting implications for different values one cherishes. (5) Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People’s values form an ordered system of value priorities that characterize them as individuals. Do they attribute more importance to achievement or justice, to novelty or tradition? This hierarchical feature also distinguishes values from norms and attitudes. (6) The relative importance of multiple values guides action . Any attitude or behavior typically has implications for more than one value. For example, attending church might express and promote tradition, conformity, and security values at the expense of hedonism and stimulation values. The tradeoff among relevant, competing values is what guides attitudes and behaviors (Schwartz, 1992, 1996). Values contribute to action to the extent that they are relevant in the context (hence likely to be activated) and important to the actor.
  • A useful mental models, values are more central, they transcend specific situations and actions, they’re closer to the core.
  • Exercise 1.
  • During the late 1970s while at Wisconsin University and from the 1980s at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Shalom Schwartz, a professor in social psychology built upon Milton Rokeach’s work. Using international survey data, from many more countries, Schwartz began adding values that occurred consistently across countries, to the point where he had identified 57. But that wasn’t all that Schwartz added to the literature on values, his main discovery was … that values relate to each other, that they don’t operate in isolation. Currently the Sznajderman Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, previously Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Use this slide while the exercise is going on. Move to the next slide, and acknowledge that they’re not radnomly orders, the positions are actually data points, based on samples from 68 countries (65,000 people). The closer the values the more aligned they are (i.e. if someone values one highly they’re very likely to value the other highly), the further away the less they’re aligned (i.e. if someone values one highly, they’re very likely to not value the other highly). The analysis is a multi-dimensional scaling analysis - Louis Guttman's smallest space analysis (SSA).
  • Schwartz found that you can group them into 10 group
  • Values in the top panel of Figure 4 (power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction) primarily regulate how one expresses personal interests and characteristics. Values in the bottom panel (benevolence, universalism, tradition, conformity, security) primarily regulate how one relates socially to others and affects their interests.
  • Schwartz shows that values are organized in systems, adjacent values are compatible, opposites are in conflict. These results have been validated in over 80 countries and 48 languages internationally. Schwartz’s original 1992 paper has been cited over 3,700 times and formed the basis for hundreds of subsequent studies, confirming and refining his initial theory. Schwartz’s model isn’t just empirical, it’s intuitive. Read from left to right… but remember, we value each of these things, just to varying degrees.
  • Values in the top panel of Figure 4 (power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction) primarily regulate how one expresses personal interests and characteristics. Values in the bottom panel (benevolence, universalism, tradition, conformity, security) primarily regulate how one relates socially to others and affects their interests.
  • Values in the top panel of Figure 4 (power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction) primarily regulate how one expresses personal interests and characteristics. Values in the bottom panel (benevolence, universalism, tradition, conformity, security) primarily regulate how one relates socially to others and affects their interests.
  • Values in the top panel of Figure 4 (power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction) primarily regulate how one expresses personal interests and characteristics. Values in the bottom panel (benevolence, universalism, tradition, conformity, security) primarily regulate how one relates socially to others and affects their interests.
  • Values in the top panel of Figure 4 (power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction) primarily regulate how one expresses personal interests and characteristics. Values in the bottom panel (benevolence, universalism, tradition, conformity, security) primarily regulate how one relates socially to others and affects their interests.
  • The language used to describe values is often also used to describe characteristics or outcomes. It’s important to distinguish between the two. While there may be a correlation between some motivations and related characteristics, this is by no means always the case. For example someone can be influential without being strongly motivated to be so; pleasurable things are not necessarily hedonistic (you can find pleasure pursuing any of your values); many people have achieved a lot while being motivated more by creativity and curiosity (self-direction) rather than achievement in and of itself. Interestingly, there is some evidence that artists motivated by their work – rather than by fame, rewards, or a desire to ‘prove themselves’ – ultimately tend to be the most successful.# In this and similar cases, achievement as a motivation seems to hinder achievement as an outcome. It’s also important to be clear about the definitions of each of these values, which is often more specific than the common usage of each word might imply. Power, for example, is defined as ‘control or dominance over other people or resources’. A powerful social movement, however, may be more likely to be motivated by social justice and equality (universalism values).
  • To pick out just a few examples from the literature, there are lots.
  • To pick out just a few examples from the literature, there are lots.
  • To pick out just a few examples from the literature, there are lots.
  • To pick out just a few examples from the literature, there are lots.
  • Values can be temporarily ‘engaged’, when brought to mind by certain communications or experiences – and this tends to affect our attitudes and behaviours. Our values therefore not only change at different points of our lives, but also day-to-day.
  • You suppress it’s opposites…
  • To pick out just a few examples from the literature, there are lots.
  • Not just correlational work, also causation.
  • Second dynamic.
  • You suppress it’s opposites…
  • And engage it’s neighbours
  • Notes from Kasser
  • They never mentioned the environment! Engaging benevolence (family) and self-direction (freedom) bled over into universalism (environment).
  • From Schwartz: (1) Values are beliefs linked inextricably to affect. When values are activated, they become infused with feeling. People for whom independence is an important value become aroused if their independence is threatened, despair when they are helpless to protect it, and are happy when they can enjoy it. (2) Values refer to desirable goals that motivate action. People for whom social order, justice, and helpfulness are important values are motivated to pursue these goals. (3) Values transcend specific actions and situations . Obedience and honesty, for example, are values that may be relevant at work or in school, in sports, business, and politics, with family, friends, or strangers. This feature distinguishes values from narrower concepts like norms and attitudes that usually refer to specific actions, objects, or situations. (4) Values serve as standards or criteria . Values guide the selection or evaluation of actions, policies, people, and events. People decide what is good or bad, justified or illegitimate, worth doing or avoiding, based on possible consequences for their cherished values. But the impact of values in everyday decisions is rarely conscious. Values enter awareness when the actions or judgments one is considering have conflicting implications for different values one cherishes. (5) Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People’s values form an ordered system of value priorities that characterize them as individuals. Do they attribute more importance to achievement or justice, to novelty or tradition? This hierarchical feature also distinguishes values from norms and attitudes. (6) The relative importance of multiple values guides action . Any attitude or behavior typically has implications for more than one value. For example, attending church might express and promote tradition, conformity, and security values at the expense of hedonism and stimulation values. The tradeoff among relevant, competing values is what guides attitudes and behaviors (Schwartz, 1992, 1996). Values contribute to action to the extent that they are relevant in the context (hence likely to be activated) and important to the actor.
  • Maybe some other, more applicable examples for organisation giving wkshp to? Make into an exercise?
  • Maybe some other, more applicable examples for organisation giving wkshp to? Make into an exercise?
  • Values in the top panel of Figure 4 (power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction) primarily regulate how one expresses personal interests and characteristics. Values in the bottom panel (benevolence, universalism, tradition, conformity, security) primarily regulate how one relates socially to others and affects their interests.
  • Empathy - “ If I ’ m sure I ’ m right about something, I don ’ t waste much time listening to other people ’ s arguments. ” Sheldon & Kasser (1995) Machiavellianism - “ Never tell anyone the real reason you did something unless it is useful to you. ” McHoskey (1999) Social dominance orientation - “ Some groups of people are simply inferior to other groups. ” Duriez et al. (2007) Racial & Ethnic Prejudice - “ We have to keep our race pure and fight mixture with other races ” Duriez et al. (2007); Roets et al. (2006) Pro-social and anti-social behavior - Cohen & Cohen (1996); McHoskey (1999); Kasser & Ryan (1993) Cooperative vs. Competitive Behavior - Choose to “ get ahead ” vs. “ cooperate ” with friends in game to win movie ticket. Sheldon et al. (2000)
  • Add notes.
  • Abstract: Cultural values may influence the extent to which nations care about the well-being of current and future generations of children. I used archival data to examine this possibility in a sample of 20 wealthy nations. As predicted, after controlling for national wealth, a general pattern was evident such that the more a nation prioritized Egalitarianism vs. Hierarchy values and Harmony vs. Mastery values: a) the higher was children’s well-being in the nation; b) the more generous were national laws regarding maternal leave; c) the less advertising was directed at children; and d) the less CO 2 the nation emitted. Potential causal pathways and future research directions are discussed.
  • From Schwartz: (1) Values are beliefs linked inextricably to affect. When values are activated, they become infused with feeling. People for whom independence is an important value become aroused if their independence is threatened, despair when they are helpless to protect it, and are happy when they can enjoy it. (2) Values refer to desirable goals that motivate action. People for whom social order, justice, and helpfulness are important values are motivated to pursue these goals. (3) Values transcend specific actions and situations . Obedience and honesty, for example, are values that may be relevant at work or in school, in sports, business, and politics, with family, friends, or strangers. This feature distinguishes values from narrower concepts like norms and attitudes that usually refer to specific actions, objects, or situations. (4) Values serve as standards or criteria . Values guide the selection or evaluation of actions, policies, people, and events. People decide what is good or bad, justified or illegitimate, worth doing or avoiding, based on possible consequences for their cherished values. But the impact of values in everyday decisions is rarely conscious. Values enter awareness when the actions or judgments one is considering have conflicting implications for different values one cherishes. (5) Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People’s values form an ordered system of value priorities that characterize them as individuals. Do they attribute more importance to achievement or justice, to novelty or tradition? This hierarchical feature also distinguishes values from norms and attitudes. (6) The relative importance of multiple values guides action . Any attitude or behavior typically has implications for more than one value. For example, attending church might express and promote tradition, conformity, and security values at the expense of hedonism and stimulation values. The tradeoff among relevant, competing values is what guides attitudes and behaviors (Schwartz, 1992, 1996). Values contribute to action to the extent that they are relevant in the context (hence likely to be activated) and important to the actor.
  • Repeated activation, strengthens!
  • Repeated activation, strengthens!
  • From Schwartz: (1) Values are beliefs linked inextricably to affect. When values are activated, they become infused with feeling. People for whom independence is an important value become aroused if their independence is threatened, despair when they are helpless to protect it, and are happy when they can enjoy it. (2) Values refer to desirable goals that motivate action. People for whom social order, justice, and helpfulness are important values are motivated to pursue these goals. (3) Values transcend specific actions and situations . Obedience and honesty, for example, are values that may be relevant at work or in school, in sports, business, and politics, with family, friends, or strangers. This feature distinguishes values from narrower concepts like norms and attitudes that usually refer to specific actions, objects, or situations. (4) Values serve as standards or criteria . Values guide the selection or evaluation of actions, policies, people, and events. People decide what is good or bad, justified or illegitimate, worth doing or avoiding, based on possible consequences for their cherished values. But the impact of values in everyday decisions is rarely conscious. Values enter awareness when the actions or judgments one is considering have conflicting implications for different values one cherishes. (5) Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People’s values form an ordered system of value priorities that characterize them as individuals. Do they attribute more importance to achievement or justice, to novelty or tradition? This hierarchical feature also distinguishes values from norms and attitudes. (6) The relative importance of multiple values guides action . Any attitude or behavior typically has implications for more than one value. For example, attending church might express and promote tradition, conformity, and security values at the expense of hedonism and stimulation values. The tradeoff among relevant, competing values is what guides attitudes and behaviors (Schwartz, 1992, 1996). Values contribute to action to the extent that they are relevant in the context (hence likely to be activated) and important to the actor.
  • Common Cause - Edinburgh

    1. 1. Richard Hawkins Director, PIRC Tim Kasser Professor of Psychology, Knox College Martin Kirk Head of UK Campaigns, Oxfam-GB Common Cause A Guide to Values and Frames for Campaigners, Community Organisers, Civil Servants, Fundraisers, Educators, Social Entrepreneurs, Activists, Funders, Politicians, and Everyone in Between
    2. 2. Values Are the guiding principles of life Transcend specific actions and situations Serve as standards or criteria Are abstract and rarely conscious
    3. 3. It’s obviously more complex than this. But it’s a useful simplified model. Social norms Habits Physical constraints Financial constraints etc.
    4. 4. Opinions are the ripples on the surface of the public's consciousness, shallow and easily changed. Attitudes are the currents below the surface, deeper and stronger. Values are the deep tides of the public mood, slow to change, but powerful. ”   Sir Robert Worcester Founder of MORI “
    5. 5.
    6. 6. VALUES CONNECT ISSUES
    7. 7. How do you broaden, deepen & maintain public engagement on issues that transcend self-interest? Values and frames help us answer the BIG question:
    8. 8. 1. How values work 2. Why values matter 3. How values develop 4. The implications
    9. 9. Schwartz 1992+ 58 values. A spiritual life, A varied life, A world of beauty, A world at peace, Accepting my portion in life, Ambition, An exciting life, Authority, Broadmindedness, Capable, Choosing own goals, Cleanliness, Creativity, Curiousity, Daring, Detachment, Devout, Enjoying life, Equality , Family security, Forgiving, Freedom, Health, Helpfulness, Honesty, Honouring of parents and elders, Humble, Independence, Influence, Inner harmony, Intelligence, Loyalty, Mature love, Meaning in life, Moderation, National security, Obedience, Pleasure, Politeness, Preserving my public image, Protecting the environment, Reciprocation of favours, Respect for tradition, Responsibility, Self-discipline, Self-indulgence, Self-respect, Sense of belonging, Social justice, Social order, Social power, Social recognition, Success, True friendship, Unity with nature, Wealth, Wisdom.
    10. 21. <ul><li>Values are universal </li></ul><ul><li>Values aren’t characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Values can be engaged </li></ul><ul><li>The see-saw effect </li></ul><ul><li>The bleed-over effect </li></ul>
    11. 22. <ul><li>Values are universal </li></ul><ul><li>Values aren’t characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Values can be engaged </li></ul><ul><li>The see-saw effect </li></ul><ul><li>The bleed-over effect </li></ul>
    12. 24. <ul><li>Values are universal </li></ul><ul><li>Values aren’t characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Values can be engaged </li></ul><ul><li>The see-saw effect </li></ul><ul><li>The bleed-over effect </li></ul>
    13. 26. <ul><li>Values are universal </li></ul><ul><li>Values aren’t characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Values can be engaged </li></ul><ul><li>The see-saw effect </li></ul><ul><li>The bleed-over effect </li></ul>
    14. 27. Values in E/SE People Chilton et al. (2011) <ul><li>From 700 UK adults, selected 30 in top 10% on SE values </li></ul><ul><li>Participants wrote about reasons for either: </li></ul><ul><li>- I/ST values (acceptance, affiliation, broadminded) </li></ul><ul><li>- E/SE values (popularity, image, wealth) </li></ul>
    15. 28. Values in E/SE People Chilton et al. (2011) <ul><li>Then interviewed about: </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Local – Loss of UK countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Global – Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Local – UK child poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Global – Child mortality in developing nations </li></ul>
    16. 29. ST vs. SE talk I/ST Primed E/SE Primed
    17. 30. Someone vs. No one should Act I/ST Primed E/SE Primed
    18. 31. Act for global vs. self interests I/ST Primed E/SE Primed
    19. 32. Values in E/SE People Chilton et al. (2011) <ul><li>E/SE primed people spoke about topics in E/SE ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Child mortality – P 010 – “it’s a part of life over there … it’s the way of life, that’s what happens so it’s nothing to get too upset about.” </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change – P 007 – “Mm, what would motivate me? I suppose money if there was a financial incentive to be more proactive…I do tend to switch things off but that’s more a case of me saving money in electricity than thinking oh that’s gonna help the world.” </li></ul>
    20. 33. Values in E/SE People Chilton et al. (2011) <ul><li>I/ST primed people spoke about topics in I/ST ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Child mortality – P 021 – “I think they should stop I mean bonuses and the bankers and it’s publicised on the news for goodness sake, it’s back to the haves and the have nots” </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change – P 026 – “I do think that the earth and the environment is precious and valuable...I think it should be at the top of the political agenda…I think that the world that we pass on to the next generation, you know, is, is, is our responsibility.” </li></ul>
    21. 34. <ul><li>Values are universal </li></ul><ul><li>Values aren’t characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Values can be engaged </li></ul><ul><li>The see-saw effect </li></ul><ul><li>The bleed-over effect </li></ul>
    22. 35. Seesaw Engaging one set of values suppresses and discourages conflicting values, and associated attitudes and behaviours.
    23. 38. Volunteering Maio et al. (2009) <ul><li>Subjects sorted adjectives, items of furniture and either: </li></ul><ul><li>- Benevolence -related words (forgiving, helpful, honest) </li></ul><ul><li>- Achievement -related words (ambitious, capable, successful) </li></ul><ul><li>- Food related words (control) </li></ul>
    24. 39. Time volunteered
    25. 40. Money Vohs et al. (2006) <ul><li>Unscramble words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral words: “ cold it outside is ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money words: “ high a salary paying ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Then measured various helping behaviours... </li></ul>
    26. 41. Time spent helping Money Neutral
    27. 42. Amount Donated Money Neutral
    28. 43. <ul><li>Values are universal </li></ul><ul><li>Values aren’t characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Values can be engaged </li></ul><ul><li>The see-saw effect </li></ul><ul><li>The bleed-over effect </li></ul>
    29. 44. Bleedover Engaging one set of values supports and encourages compatible values, and associated attitudes and behaviours.
    30. 47. Ecological Footprint Sheldon, Nichols & Kasser (2011) <ul><li>U.S. University students primed with identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missouri Student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic American </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic American </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asked to recommend ideal Ecological Footprint for Americans in 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 items </li></ul></ul>
    31. 48. Recommended footprints
    32. 49. Values Are the guiding principles of life Transcend specific actions and situations Serve as standards or criteria Are abstract and rarely conscious Are dynamically related to each other Are ordered by importance Can be temporarily engaged
    33. 50. 1. How values work 2. Why values matter 3. How values develop 4. The implications
    34. 51. Behaviours
    35. 52. Attitudes
    36. 54. Extrinsic / Intrinsic Social attitudes & behaviours . Empathy Sheldon & Kasser (1995) Machiavellian (manipulative) McHoskey (1999) Social Dominance Orientation Duriez et al. (2007) Racial and ethnic prejudice Ibid; Roets et al. (2006) Anti-social behaviour Cohen & Cohen (1996); McHoskey (1999); Kasser & Ryan (1993) Cooperation / competition Sheldon et al. (2000)
    37. 55. Extrinsic / Intrinsic Ecological attitudes & behaviours . Value protecting the environment, unity with nature and having a world of beauty Schwartz (1992) Concern about effects of environmental damage on other people, animals, and future generations Schultz et al. (2005) Frequency of riding bikes, recycling, reuse, etc. Gatersleben et al (2008); Kasser (2005); Richins & Dawson (1992); Amount of organic purchases in laboratory grocery store Matthey & Kasser (2011)
    38. 56. Extrinsic / Intrinsic Personal Well-being . Life Satisfaction Richins & Dawson (1992) Self-actualization & Vitality Kasser & Ryan (1993, 1996) Depression & Anxiety Ibid; Schor (2004) Positive vs. negative emotions Sheldon & Kasser (1995) Personality Disorders Cohen & Cohen (1996) Smoking & Alcohol use Kasser & Ryan (2001); Williams et al. (2000)
    39. 57. <ul><li>National values </li></ul><ul><li>Kasser (2011) </li></ul><ul><li>20 wealthy nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens’ values for achievement, power, status, money vs. loyalty, helpfulness, social justice, a world of beauty . </li></ul><ul><li>After controlling for GDP, a general pattern was evident between values and: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child well-being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal leave policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of advertising to children </li></ul></ul>
    40. 58. Values Are the guiding principles of life Transcend specific actions and situations Serve as standards or criteria Are abstract and rarely conscious Are dynamically related to each other Are ordered by importance Can be temporarily engaged Influence our attitudes and behaviours
    41. 59. 1. How values work 2. Why values matter 3. How values develop 4. The implications
    42. 60. 1. Repeated engagement leads to stronger values.
    43. 61. Influences on values From Schwartz, Kasser, and others… . FAMILY Studies across three generations of families show there are significant similarities, despite generational changes. PEERS Children who care about extrinsic values have similarly-oriented friends and report more peer pressure to care about money and image EDUCATION More education generally promotes openness of thinking, creativity, and independence, i.e., self-direction values. BUT – pursuing law & business degrees increases extrinsic values.
    44. 62. Influences on values From Schwartz, Kasser, and others… . MEDIA People are more materialistic the more TV they watch. After the introduction of Fox News in certain US states, voting patterns significantly shifted towards the Republicans. Introduction of TV in rural India was attributed with significant moves towards women’s empowerment and related values, but in Fiji led to the first recorded cases of eating disorders. POLICY FEEDBACK Policies and institutions change our perceptions of what is possible, desirable and normal. After the reunification of E&W Germany, East German attitudes towards social welfare policy became like W German attitudes . ECONOMIC SYSTEMS In more neo-liberal, de-regulated, competitive capitalist economies, people prioritize extrinsic values more highly.
    45. 63. 2. Threat leads people to orient towards stronger E/SE values.
    46. 64. Influences on values From Schwartz, Kasser, and others… . PARENTING Children raised by more cold, controlling mothers and children whose parents divorce prioritize more E/SE values. ECONOMIC INSECURITY People who grow up in poverty and who are reminded of economic insecurity prioritize more E/SE values. SOCIAL EXCLUSION People who are randomly assigned to be excluded from a group act more greedily afterwards. DEATH People given brief reminders of their own death become defensive and endorse E/SE values more strongly.
    47. 65. Values Are the guiding principles of life Transcend specific actions and situations Serve as standards or criteria Are abstract and rarely conscious Are dynamically related to each other Are ordered by importance Can be temporarily engaged Influence our attitudes and behaviours Can change
    48. 66. <ul><li>In conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Values impact on the issues we care about. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic values are socially & environmentally beneficial. </li></ul><ul><li>Values are shaped by our lived experience. </li></ul><ul><li>We can, and should, collectively shape our society to solve the issues we care about. </li></ul>
    49. 67. Thanks. valuesandframes.org @valuesandframes [email_address]
    50. 68. <ul><li>Recommended reading </li></ul>Drive Dan Pink Finding Frames Darnton & Kirk 2009 Reith Lectures Michael Sandell The High Price of Materialism Tim Kasser Living Values Community Works 21 st Century Enlightenment RSA Ill Fares the Land Tony Judt

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