Poultry and dairy products prex

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  • http://urbanext.illinois.edu/turkey/history.cfm
  • http://www.thenibble.com/reviews/main/meats/turkey-talk.asp#heritage http://www.globalgourmet.com/food/egg/egg1197/chapter2.html#axzz1Rag4uGSr http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/imports/animals/standards/ihs-turkey-meat.htm http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/lets_talk_turkey/index.asp http://www.globalgap.org/cms/upload/Resources/Publications/Facts_and_Figures/090319_TURKEY-Flyer-final.pdf http://kimbensen.com/node/1309 http://www.cookeryonline.com/Xmas/Turkey.html http://www.kidzone.ws/animals/turkey.htm Heads and wattle changes color Excited – white – blue Angry/threatened – red Courtship - red
  • Heritage Turkey A legacy bird. While there are no legal or set guidelines to define heritage animals, to be truly heritage the animal must have a specific set of genetic traits and be raised sustainably on pasture, where they can forage and carry out their natural behaviors. Almost all heritage turkeys are near extinction. Efforts are underway to reintroduce them to the public. preservation of artisanal foods, are helping promote and market the breeds. “standard breed.” A heritage bird must breed naturally, live seven to nine years, and grow slowly. Dark feathers – blend in the forest at night Domesticated turkeys – they are the breeds that are caged and fattened to have bigger breast; injected with flavor enhancers; white feathers Organic Turkey An organic turkey can be any breed, including a Broad Breasted White. Organic simply means that the bird has met the standards for USDA Organic certification, including an organic diet, surroundings including bedding and grazing areas that are pesticide and herbicide free, no hormones or antibiotics, and humane treatment. For many consumers, lack of pesticides and hormones in their food is the most important consideration, and why they purchase organic. Antibiotic-Free Turkey Similar to organic, these turkeys can be any breed. They have not met the more stringent standards for USDA Organic certification, but they have not received antibiotics. Free-Range Turkey These birds were not confined to a cage, but were allowed to roam and forage. Thus, their diets were augmented with grubs, worms, and grass, improving the flavor of the meat; the exercise supposedly improves the texture. Kosher :  Of course these turkeys are raised with strict rabbinical supervision and in accordance to Jewish dietary laws and customs.  They are fed an organic diet and then slaughtered in the proper fashion.
  • These are raised for yield;
  • http://decktheholidays.blogspot.com/2010/11/what-everyone-should-know-about-that.html Heritage turkeys are raised traditionally
  • contains turkey, goose, chicken, pheasant, partridge, pigeon squab, Aylesbury duck, Barbary duck, poussin, guinea fowl, mallard and quail along with herb and fruit stuffings.
  • http://www.recipetips.com/kitchen-tips/t--1287/buying-a-turkey.asp
  • safe handling and cooking instructions be put on all packages of raw poultry; this includes any poultry product not considered "ready to eat.”
  • The USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) inspects turkeys for quality. The USDA seal can be found on the package, ensuring that the turkey has passed inspection and is suitable for human consumption. Most turkeys sold in food stores are designated "Grade A", meaning that they are of the highest quality. Grade A turkeys have no surface damage such as broken skin, tears, bruises, or cuts and all pinfeathers have been removed. There are no broken bones and the bird is plump and has a pleasing shape. Turkeys that do not receive a Grade A seal are still safe to eat, but their appearance and overall quality may be less than ideal. The other grades given to turkey, as well as other kinds of poultry are Grade B and Grade C. Poultry is graded according to the following criteria: Conformation (proportion of meat to bone) Fat coverage Fleshing Absence of pinfeathers Absence of damage, including cuts, bruises, and broken bones
  • dictates the cooking method to use for maximum flavor and tenderness. Young poultry for all cooking methods: Broiler, fryer, roaster, capon, Cornish game hen, or the word "young.“ Mature poultry for moist-heat cooking: Hen, fowl, stewing or baking chicken, or the words "mature" or "old." The name suggests the cooking method
  • fully fleshed and meaty; have a good conformation, a normal shape; are free of disjointed or broken bones; have a well-developed and well-distributed layer of fat in the skin; are free of pinfeathers, exposed flesh, and discolorations; and, in the case of whole carcasses, have no missing parts.
  • USDA recommends that for optimum safety, stuffing a turkey is not recommended. For more even cooking, it is recommended you cook your stuffing outside the bird in a casserole. Don’t buy fresh stuffed turkey because If not handled properly, any harmful bacteria that may be in the stuffing can multiply very quickly. For quality, let the turkey stand for 20 minutes before carving to allow juices to set. The turkey will carve more easily.
  • Poultry and dairy products prex

    1. 1. Poultry and Dairy Products Acuña, Casera, Faustino, Parana, Pinat, Rodolfo
    2. 2. Poultry <ul><li>domestic fowls, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, or geese, raised for meat or eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy </li></ul><ul><li>of or relating to the production of milk and milk products </li></ul>
    3. 3. In our report: <ul><li>Chickens </li></ul><ul><li>Ducks </li></ul><ul><li>Turkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbit </li></ul>
    4. 4. CHICKEN
    5. 5. <ul><li>Chicken  is the fowl derived from chickens </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most common type of poultry in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken meat contains about two to three times as much polyunsaturated fat than most types of red meat </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken generally includes low fat in the meat itself, however, it is highly concentrated on its skin, which should be avoided when low intake of fat is necessary. </li></ul>
    6. 7. CHICKEN QUALITY
    7. 8. <ul><li>bones that are pinker in color indicate a fresher cut </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>the pinker the flesh, the fresher it is </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>stay away from chicken where the skin looks transparent or patchy colored </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>the chicken skin should feel soft and have some fat, it should be wet but not slimy </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>fresh chicken, whether whole or pieces, should have a fresh smell </li></ul>
    12. 13. CHICKEN CUTS
    13. 14. Whole Chickens <ul><li>Whole Chickens are marketed either fresh or frozen. </li></ul>
    14. 15. Halves <ul><li>The bird is split from front to back through the backbone  and keel to produce 2 halves of approximately equal weight </li></ul>
    15. 16. Breast Quarters <ul><li>Halves may be further cut into which include the wing.  A breast quarter, including portions of the back, is all white meat </li></ul>
    16. 17. Split Breast <ul><li>A breast quarter with the wing removed. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Split Breast without Back <ul><li>A breast quarter with wing and back portion removed. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Boneless, Skinless Breast <ul><li>Split breast that has been skinned and deboned. </li></ul>
    19. 20. 8-Piece Cut <ul><li>The whole bird is cut into 2 breast halves with ribs and back portion,  2 wings, 2 thighs with back portion and 2 drumsticks.  The parts may be packaged together and labeled as whole  cut-up chicken. These are usually sold without giblets . </li></ul>
    20. 21. Whole Chicken Wing <ul><li>The Whole Chicken Wing is an all white meat portion composed  of three sections; the drumette, mid-section and tip. </li></ul>
    21. 22. Wing Drummettes <ul><li>The first section between the shoulder and the elbow. </li></ul>
    22. 23. Wing Mid Section with Tip <ul><li>The flat centre section and the flipper (wing tip). </li></ul>
    23. 24. Wing Mid Section <ul><li>The section between the elbow and the tip, sometimes  called the wing flat or mid-joint. </li></ul>
    24. 25. Whole Chicken Leg <ul><li>The Whole Chicken Leg is the drumstick-thigh combination.  The whole leg differs from the leg quarter in that it does not  contain a portion of the back. </li></ul>
    25. 26. Boneless, Skinless Leg <ul><li>Whole chicken leg with skin and bone removed. </li></ul>
    26. 27. Thigh <ul><li>The thigh is the portion of the leg above the knee joint. </li></ul>
    27. 28. Boneless, Skinless Thigh <ul><li>Thigh with skin and bone removed. </li></ul>
    28. 29. Drumsticks <ul><li>Drumsticks include the lower portion of the leg quarter (the portion between the knee joint and the hock). </li></ul>
    29. 30. Giblets <ul><li>Includes heart, liver and neck. </li></ul>
    30. 31. COLOR DIFFERENCES <ul><li>DARK MEAT </li></ul><ul><li>Drumstick and thighs </li></ul><ul><li>Contain more fat and connective tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Takes longer to cook </li></ul><ul><li>LIGHT MEAT </li></ul><ul><li>Breast and wings </li></ul><ul><li>Has less fat and connective tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Cooks faster </li></ul>
    31. 32. STORING RAW CHICKEN
    32. 33. Refrigerated Storage <ul><li>1-3 days </li></ul><ul><li>Vapor-proof </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom rack </li></ul>
    33. 34. Frozen Storage <ul><li>12 months for uncooked whole chicken </li></ul><ul><li>9 months for uncooked chicken parts </li></ul><ul><li>3 to 4 months for uncooked chicken giblets </li></ul><ul><li>freezer temperature should be below -15 o C </li></ul>
    34. 35. PREPARATION AND COOKING
    35. 36. <ul><li>Thaw frozen chicken meat completely prior to cooking by placing in refrigerator or defrosting in a microwave oven. Do not thaw at room temperature as this will allow bacteria to multiply to potentially hazardous levels. </li></ul>
    36. 37. <ul><li>As raw meat juices may contain bacteria, prevent it spreading by using different utensils for preparing raw meat than those used for preparing other foods. </li></ul>
    37. 38. <ul><li>Marinating meat should be kept in the refrigerator. </li></ul>
    38. 39. <ul><li>Cook thoroughly. The high temperatures reached in roasting, baking, frying and boiling kill most food poisoning bacteria. </li></ul>
    39. 40. <ul><li>You can use a food thermometer to check the temperature at the centre of the thickest part of the meat. When it reaches 75 ºC, it is thoroughly cooked. </li></ul>
    40. 41. <ul><li>DRY HEAT COOKERY </li></ul><ul><li>For young, tender poultry </li></ul><ul><li>Leaving the skin on to enhance tenderness and flavor </li></ul><ul><li>MOIST HEAT COOKERY </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable to all classes and cuts of meat, especially dark cuts and mature classes </li></ul>
    41. 42. STORAGE OF COOKED CHICKEN <ul><li>Place leftovers in the refrigerator after steam has evaporated. </li></ul><ul><li>To cool large quantities quickly, divide into smaller portions and refrigerate. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-heat leftovers to at least 70ºC for a minimum of 2 minutes. </li></ul>
    42. 43. DUCK
    43. 44. <ul><li>Several species of the anatidae family </li></ul><ul><li>Both fresh and salt water </li></ul><ul><li>Considered white meat despite its darker color </li></ul><ul><li>Heart, kidneys and liver may be eaten </li></ul><ul><li>thick layer of healthy fats under its skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35.7% saturated fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50.5% monounsaturated fats (high in linoleic acid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13.7% polyunsaturated fats (contains Omega-6 and Omega-3) </li></ul></ul>
    44. 45. <ul><li>Pekin duck  ( Anas Domesticus ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large body, orange feet and beak, creamy white feathers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preferred breed for commercial meat production due to its rapid growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high level of egg production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ducklings are ready for market at 2 to 3 months old </li></ul></ul>Types
    45. 46. <ul><li>Muscovy duck “pato” ( Cairina moschata ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not true ducks and are actually genetically more similar to geese than ducks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bare face and the red caruncles positioned around the eyes and beak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10-11 weeks to achieve market weight </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. <ul><li>Native Pateros Duck “itik” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black and gray, or brown, or white with black/green feathers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smaller than imported breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good layers and non-sitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large eggs </li></ul></ul>
    47. 48. Types (age) <ul><li>Broiler Duckling  or  Fryer Duckling  - usually under 8 weeks of age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tender meated and has a soft bill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weigh from 3 to 6½ pounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roaster Duckling  - usually under 16 weeks of age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tender-meated and has a bill that is not completely hardened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weigh from 4 to 7½ pounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mature Duck  or  Old Duck  - usually over 6 months of age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>toughened flesh and a hardened bill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>these ducks are usually too old to lay eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meat is used in processed products. </li></ul></ul>
    48. 49. Cuts
    49. 50. Retail Cuts <ul><li>Whole duckling including giblets and neck </li></ul><ul><li>Bone-in parts [whole leg, breast quarter and breast] </li></ul><ul><li>Boneless breast, skin-on or skinless. </li></ul><ul><li>Giblets (liver, heart and gizzard) </li></ul><ul><li>Tongues and Feet </li></ul><ul><li>Processed products [smoked cooked breast, sausage, and hot dogs] </li></ul>
    50. 51. Liver <ul><li>Fresh or Vacuum Packed </li></ul>
    51. 52. Whole
    52. 54. Cut Up
    53. 55. Storage Storage Times for Duck and Goose Product Refrigerator 40 °F Freezer 0 °F Fresh Duck or Goose 1 to 2 days 6 months Fresh Giblets (liver, etc.) 1 to 2 days 6 months Cooked Duck or Goose; gumbo, stews or casseroles 3 to 4 days 2 to 3 months Leftover takeout or restaurant food 3 to 4 days 2 to 3 months Smoked duck breast or franks: Vacuum sealed 2 weeks (or 1 week after &quot;use-by date&quot;) 1 to 2 months Smoked duck breast or franks: After opening 7 days 1 to 2 months Frozen commercial dinners or entrees Keep frozen before cooking 3 to 4 months Canned duck or goose products in pantry (paté, soup, etc.) 2 to 5 years in pantry; 3 to 4 days after opening After opening, 2 to 3 months
    54. 56. Signs of Freshness <ul><li>odor-free </li></ul><ul><li>clean skin with no pinfeathers </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen duck should have a plump breast and wrapped in an airtight package </li></ul>
    55. 57. Duck Eggs
    56. 58. <ul><li>Larger than chicken eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Larger egg yolk </li></ul><ul><li>Less watery </li></ul><ul><li>contains about 130 calories (extra large chicken egg contains about 80) </li></ul><ul><li>about 86 are from fat, mostly monounsaturated </li></ul><ul><li>One duck egg contains 205 percent of the daily value for cholesterol </li></ul>
    57. 59. Fresh
    58. 60. Cooked <ul><li>Balut Vs. Penoy </li></ul>
    59. 61. Bottled
    60. 62. How to Cook
    61. 63. Cooking Ducks <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>allow about 1 to 1½ pounds of raw weight per person </li></ul><ul><li>Raw boneless meat yields about 3 servings per pound after cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate 3 to 4-ounces per person for fully cooked products </li></ul>
    62. 64. <ul><li>Pierce the skin and thick fat layer of the duck with a knife or skewer at one-inch (2.5 cm) intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Use a roasting rack </li></ul><ul><li>Place it breast side up </li></ul><ul><li>Pour 2-to-3 cups of boiling water over the duck and allow the water to collect in the bottom of the pan </li></ul><ul><li>Do not cover when cooking inside the oven </li></ul>
    63. 65. <ul><li>To test for doneness make sure a fork can be easily inserted, and that when the meat is pricked, juices run clear (not pink) </li></ul>Peking Duck
    64. 66. Foie Gras <ul><li>French for “fat liver” </li></ul><ul><li>foie gras entier  (whole foie gras) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made of one or two whole liver lobes; either cooked ( cuit ), semi-cooked ( mi-cuit ), or fresh ( frais ); </li></ul></ul><ul><li>foie gras , made of pieces of livers reassembled together; </li></ul><ul><li>bloc de foie gras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fully-cooked, molded block composed of 98% or more foie gras; if termed  avec morceaux  (&quot;with pieces&quot;), it must contain at least 50% foie gras pieces for goose, and 30% for duck. </li></ul></ul>
    65. 68. Salted Duck Eggs <ul><li>Pateros Method </li></ul><ul><li>mix clay (from ant hills or termite mounds), table salt and water in the ratio of 1:1:2 until the texture of the admixture becomes smooth and forms a thick texture </li></ul><ul><li>dip in the admixture </li></ul><ul><li>pack in 150-egg batches in newspaper-lined 10x12x18 inch wooden boxes </li></ul><ul><li>lightly wrap in newspapers to slow down the dehydration process </li></ul><ul><li>store indoors at room temperature over the next 12 to 14 days </li></ul><ul><li>hand-clean with water and a brush </li></ul><ul><li>boil in low heat for 30 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that there is at least 2 in. of water covering the eggs </li></ul>
    66. 70. TURKEY
    67. 71. Turkey <ul><li>Scientific name: Meleagris gallapavo </li></ul><ul><li>one of the most famous birds in North America </li></ul><ul><li>Domesticated turkeys weighs twice as much as the wild turkey </li></ul>
    68. 72. Turkey <ul><li>Poult – a baby turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Hen – female </li></ul><ul><li>Tom/Stag – male </li></ul><ul><li>Wattle – bare skin on the throat </li></ul>
    69. 73. Turkey <ul><li>Heritage – standard breed, specific set of genetic traits, raised in pasture; </li></ul><ul><li>Domesticated – breeds that are caged and eat feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Organic - the bird has met the standards for USDA Organic certification </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-biotic free – similar to organic turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Free range – not confined in a cage, allowed to roam </li></ul><ul><li>Kosher – raised according to rabbinical standards for the Jews </li></ul>
    70. 74. Domesticated turkeys
    71. 75. Heritage turkeys
    72. 77. Turkey cuts
    73. 78. Points to consider <ul><li>Wholesomeness </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Graded Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Look and Feel </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul>
    74. 79. Wholesomeness <ul><li>Inspected – processing plants’ premises, facilities, equipment and procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Properly labeled – inspection stamp must be on label </li></ul><ul><li>USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service </li></ul>
    75. 80. Quality Assurance <ul><li>Read the label </li></ul><ul><li>Quality standards reflect factors that affect the inherent properties of poultry, factors that determine its relative degree of excellence or value </li></ul>
    76. 82. Graded Turkey <ul><li>Grade A – the only grade seen in store </li></ul><ul><li>Grade B and C – maybe sold in retail </li></ul>
    77. 83. Look and Feel <ul><li>Inspecting and feeling fresh turkey can provide information not found on the label. </li></ul><ul><li>Check signs of freshness, and how it is stored in the freezer </li></ul>
    78. 84. Quantity <ul><li>1 pound – whole fresh/frozen turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Allow 1¼ to 1½ pounds – prestuffed turkey. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow ½ pound – bone-in turkey breast </li></ul>
    79. 85. Class <ul><li>class of poultry indicates the age of the bird </li></ul><ul><li>Age affects the tenderness of poultry meat </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry meat from young birds is more tender than poultry meat from older birds. </li></ul>
    80. 86. Signs of Freshness <ul><li>Grade A poultry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat, bones, fat, skin carcass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grade A boneless poultry products  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>free of bone, cartilage, tendons, bruises, and blood clots. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grade A poultry products that are frozen  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must be free of freezing defects such as dehydration or excess moisture. </li></ul></ul>
    81. 87. Roasted Turkey
    82. 88. Eggs
    83. 89. Eggs are laid by females of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. The egg is one of the few foods to naturally contain vitamin D. Popular choices for egg consumption are chicken, duck, roe, and caviar, but by a wide margin the egg most often humanly consumed is the chicken egg.
    84. 90. Varieties <ul><li>Bird eggs are a common food and one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking. They are important in many branches of the modern food industry. The most commonly used bird eggs are those from the chicken. Duck and goose eggs, and smaller eggs, such as quail eggs, are occasionally used as a gourmet ingredient, as are the largest bird eggs, from ostriches. </li></ul>
    85. 91. grading by quality and size (USDA) <ul><li>Grade AA- whites are thick and firm; yolks are high, round, and practically free from defects; and clean, unbroken shells. Grade AA and Grade A eggs are best for frying and poaching, where appearance is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Grade A- have characteristics of Grade AA eggs except the whites are &quot;reasonably&quot; firm. This is the quality most often sold in stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Grade B- whites may be thinner and yolks may be wider and flatter than eggs of higher grades. The shells must be unbroken, but may show slight stains. This quality is seldom found in retail stores because they are usually used to make liquid, frozen, and dried egg products, as well as other egg-containing products. </li></ul>
    86. 92. Egg Sizes <ul><li>Eggs come in the following sizes based on their minimum weight per dozen: jumbo, extra large, large, medium, small and peewee. </li></ul>Size Ave. Price (pc) Medium 5.25 Large 5.50 XL 5.75 Jumbo 6 Salted 10 Quail 1.5 Native 6
    87. 93. OSTRICH CHICKEN QUAIL
    88. 94. Quail Eggs <ul><li>Quail eggs are considered a delicacy in many countries, including Western Europe and North America. In some other countries, quail eggs are considered less exotic. In the Philippines, kwek-kwek is a popular street food delicacy, which consists of soft-boiled quail eggs dipped in orange-colored batter before being skewered and deep-fried. </li></ul>
    89. 95. A century egg or hundred-year-old egg is preserved by coating an egg in a mixture of clay, wood ash, salt, lime, and rice hulls for several weeks to several months, depending on the method of processing. After the process is completed, the yolk becomes a dark green, cream-like substance with a strong odor of sulfur and ammonia, while the white becomes a dark brown, transparent jelly with a comparatively mild, distinct flavor.
    90. 96. Quality <ul><li>The factors determining exterior quality include the soundness, cleanliness, shape and texture of the shell. </li></ul><ul><li>Interior quality is judged by &quot;candling”. –size of the air cell (smaller in high-quality eggs), proportion and density of the white, and whether or not the yolk is firm and free of defects. </li></ul><ul><li>In high-quality eggs, both the white and yolk stand higher, and the white spreads less than in lower-grade eggs. </li></ul>
    91. 97. <ul><li>1. Fill a deep bowl or pan with enough cold tap water to cover an egg. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Place the egg in the water. </li></ul><ul><li>3. If the egg lies on its side on the bottom, the air cell within is small and it's very fresh. </li></ul><ul><li> 4. If the egg stands up and bobs on the bottom, the air cell is larger and it isn't quite as fresh. </li></ul><ul><li>5. If the egg floats on the surface, it should be discarded </li></ul>
    92. 98. Storing Eggs <ul><li>Eggs must always be refrigerated. When stored at room temperature, they lose more quality in one day than in a week in the refrigerator. Eggs should be stored in the carton in which they came; transferring them to the egg container in the refrigerator door exposes them to odors and damage. They should always be stored large-end-up and should never be placed near odoriferous foods (such as onions) because they easily absorb odors. The best flavor and cooking quality will be realized in eggs used within a week. </li></ul>
    93. 99. Hard boiled
    94. 100. soft boiled
    95. 101. balut, kwek-kwek
    96. 102. century egg, quail egg
    97. 103. deviled eggs, embutido
    98. 104. sushi quail eggs, salted egg
    99. 105. egg omelette, poached egg
    100. 106. sunny side up, pickled egg
    101. 107. baked goods
    102. 108. Sources <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egg_%28food%29 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.foodterms.com/encyclopedia/eggs/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://medlibrary.org/medwiki/Balut_%28egg%29 </li></ul><ul><li>http://southernfood.about.com/library/howto/hteggsfresh.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ehow.com/how_3444_determine-egg-fresh.html </li></ul>
    103. 109. DAIRY PRODUCTS
    104. 110. Milk <ul><li>the lacteal secretion obtained by the complete milking of one or more mammalian animals </li></ul><ul><li>Contains protein, fat, fatty acids (saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated), calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, Phosphorus, lactose, Vitamin A, B complex, D, Folate, and water </li></ul>
    105. 111. <ul><li>Raw Milk - milk that is not pasteurized or homogenized </li></ul><ul><li>Pasteurized milk - milk which has been heat-treated to kill pathogens which cause disease </li></ul>
    106. 112. <ul><li>* pasteurization -process of heating a food, usually liquid, to a specific temperature for a definite length of time, and then cooling it immediately </li></ul><ul><li>* homogenization -intensive blending of mutually related substances or groups of mutually related substances to form a constant of different insoluble phases (sometimes with addition of surfactants) to obtain a suspension or emulsion. </li></ul>
    107. 113. Varieties of Milk <ul><li>Whole milk </li></ul><ul><li>- contains not less than 3.25% milkfat and 8.25% milk solids (protein, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamins and minerals) </li></ul><ul><li>- contains 150 calories and 8 grams (g) of fat per 8-fluid oz. serving </li></ul>
    108. 114. <ul><li>Natural whole milk is milk with nothing added or removed. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole standardized milk is whole milk standardized to a minimum fat content of 3.5%. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole homogenized milk is identical in fat and nutrient content to whole standardized milk, however it has undergone a specific process known as “homogenization” which breaks up the fat globules in the milk. This spreads the fat evenly throughout the milk and prevents a creamy layer forming at the top. </li></ul>
    109. 115. <ul><li>Low-fat milk </li></ul><ul><li>- whole milk in which the milkfat level has been reduced from 3.25% to 1% (hence its popular name, &quot;1% milk&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>-contains 100 calories and 2.5 g of fat per 8-fluid oz. serving. </li></ul>
    110. 116. <ul><li>Skimmed milk </li></ul><ul><li>-Whole milk in which the milkfat level has been reduced from 3.5% to essentially none (the PMO allows milkfat residuals of up to .5%) </li></ul><ul><li>-Also known as “Fat-Free milk” </li></ul>
    111. 117. <ul><li>-contains slightly more calcium than whole milk and lower levels of fat soluble vitamins, particularly vitamin A, as this is lost when the fat is removed </li></ul><ul><li>- Fat-free milk contains 80 calories and 0 g of fat per 8-fluid oz </li></ul>
    112. 118. <ul><li>Organic Milk </li></ul><ul><li>-comes from cows that have been grazed on pasture that has no chemical fertilizers, pesticides or agrochemicals used on it. </li></ul><ul><li>-the milk is treated in exactly the same way as regular pasteurized milk </li></ul>
    113. 119. <ul><li>Flavored milk </li></ul><ul><li>-milk to which a flavoring &quot;such as cocoa or cocoa powder, strawberry or vanilla extract&quot; and a sweetener have been added. </li></ul><ul><li>-some manufacturers of flavored milk also add stabilizers or thickening agents to improve taste and texture </li></ul><ul><li>-most flavored milk products are produced using reduced fat milk varieties and usually have a fat content of around 1%. </li></ul>
    114. 120. <ul><li>Evaporated Milk </li></ul><ul><li>- made by heating homogenized whole milk under vacuum to remove about 60% of its water, fortifying it with Vitamin D, standardizing its nutritive components to required levels, canning and stabilizing </li></ul>
    115. 121. <ul><li>-It is heat-treated (at 115.5-118.5 degrees C for 15 minutes) to sterilize it for prolonged storage </li></ul><ul><li>-Evaporated milk requires no refrigeration until its can is opened </li></ul><ul><li>- must contain not less than 7.5% milkfat and 25% milk solids </li></ul>
    116. 122. <ul><li>Condensed Milk </li></ul><ul><li>- whole or fat-free milk with about 60% of its water removed and to which a nutritive sweetener (usually sucrose) has been added </li></ul><ul><li>- The sweetener - amounting to 40-45% by volume - acts as a preservative </li></ul><ul><li>- must contain not less than 8% milkfat and not less than 28% milk solids </li></ul>
    117. 123. <ul><li>Powdered Milk </li></ul><ul><li>-produced by evaporating the water from the milk using heat </li></ul><ul><li>-The milk is homogenized, heat treated and pre-concentrated before drying </li></ul>
    118. 124. <ul><li>Whole milk powder contains all the nutrients of whole milk in a concentrated form with the exception of vitamin C, thiamin and vitamin B12. Skimmed milk powder contains hardly any fat and therefore no fat soluble vitamins. However, the protein, calcium and riboflavin content remain unaffected. </li></ul><ul><li>-Skimmed milk powder can be mixed easily with water; however whole milk isn’t easily reconstituted due to its higher fat content. </li></ul>
    119. 125. <ul><li>Cream </li></ul><ul><li>composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization </li></ul>
    120. 126. <ul><li>Cream varieties: </li></ul><ul><li>Half and half (10.5–18% fat) </li></ul><ul><li>Light Cream ( 18–30% fat) </li></ul><ul><li>Medium Cream (25% fat) </li></ul><ul><li>Whipping Cream (30–36% fat) </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Whipping Cream (36% or more) </li></ul><ul><li>Double cream (48–60% fat) </li></ul>
    121. 127. <ul><li>Sour cream , common in many countries including the U.S. and Australia, is cream (12 to 16% or more milk fat) that has been subjected to a bacterial culture that produces lactic acid (0.5%+), which sours and thickens it. </li></ul><ul><li>Crème fraîche (28% milk fat)- slightly soured with bacterial culture, but not as sour or as thick as sour cream. </li></ul>
    122. 128. <ul><li>Butter </li></ul><ul><li>-made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk </li></ul><ul><li>-generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying </li></ul><ul><li>-consists of butterfat, water and milk proteins. </li></ul>
    123. 129. <ul><li>-a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream </li></ul><ul><li>-the milk proteins are the emulsifiers </li></ul><ul><li>-either salted or unsalted </li></ul><ul><li>-salt acts as preservative </li></ul><ul><li>-consists mostly of saturated fat and is a significant source of cholesterol- </li></ul>
    124. 130. <ul><li>Clarified Butter- butter with almost all of its water and milk solids removed, leaving almost-pure butterfat </li></ul><ul><li>Ghee -clarified butter which is brought to higher temperatures of around 120 °C (250 °F) once the water has cooked off, allowing the milk solids to brown. </li></ul><ul><li>Whey butter –made from whey cream (by-product of cheese-making); have a lower fat content and taste more salty, tangy and &quot;cheesy” </li></ul>
    125. 131. <ul><li>Yogurt </li></ul><ul><li>-a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk </li></ul><ul><li>-Fermentation of lactose by bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang </li></ul>
    126. 132. <ul><li>Ice Cream </li></ul><ul><li>-frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors </li></ul>
    127. 133. <ul><li>Gelato- Italian ice cream with lower fat content (typically containing 4–8% butterfat versus 14% for ice cream) but with a higher sugar content </li></ul><ul><li>Ice milk- less than 10% milk fat and lower sweetening content, once marketed as &quot;ice milk&quot; but now sold as low-fat ice cream </li></ul><ul><li>Mellorine- non-dairy, with vegetable fat substituted for milk fat </li></ul><ul><li>Sherbet- 1–2% milk fat and sweeter than ice cream </li></ul>
    128. 134. Buying and Handling Dairy Products <ul><li>A fresh dairy product will not have any hint of a rank, sour odor. Even so-called sour cream smells fresh, and any sign of discoloration or mold is an indication of spoilage </li></ul><ul><li>Since most of the consumed milk products are packed and processed, it is best to buy the most recent stock. </li></ul>
    129. 135. <ul><li>Pasteurizing milk does not ensure that it is free from microorganism. Some of the remaining harmless bacteria can grow and multiply, although very slowly, at refrigerator temperatures, eventually causing the products to spoil. </li></ul><ul><li>For optimum quality and food safety, milk and cream should be used by the best before date. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimally, milk should be kept at 45 degrees or below from the time it leaves the processing plant until it is put into the dairy case </li></ul>
    130. 136. <ul><li>Anywhere from ‘a few days to a couple of weeks' leeway is allowed so that with proper storage the consumer can assume the product will remain wholesome for a time in the home. How long not only is determined by storage conditions and usage but also varies widely from product to product and brand to brand. </li></ul>
    131. 137. <ul><li>Once opened the best before date no longer applies and the storage life depends on how the milk has been stored and handled by the consumer. Milk and cream that have spoiled should be discarded. </li></ul><ul><li>All opened milk products are perishable, including canned and UHT milk and should be refrigerated . Once canned milk is opened, it should be refrigerated. Use canned milk within 7 days of opening. </li></ul>
    132. 138. <ul><li>Though freezing will not affect the nutrients, it is not recommended because some protein will coagulate and flake; while these small particles do not mean that the milk is spoiled, it may not be as satisfactory to use. </li></ul><ul><li>Freezing cream is not recommended because it affects the quality of the product. In most cases, freezing causes changes to the fat which can lead to poor texture. </li></ul>
    133. 139. <ul><li>An unopened container of dry powdered milk can be stored in a cool, dry place for 6 months to a year. After the container has been opened, always reclose it tightly and use powdered milk within 2 months </li></ul><ul><li>Natural yogurt and yogurt that is pasteurized before the cultures are added usually remain fresh for a shorter period than yogurts that have been stabilized with gelatin or other additives or pasteurized after fementation </li></ul>
    134. 140. <ul><li>Yogurts on the market bear an expiration date from 21 to 50 days after production, with at least another week or two of freshness beyond that. </li></ul><ul><li>Store ice cream on the shelves of the freezer, not in the door. Ice cream is best stored at -11°F (-24°C). </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid thawing and refreezing! Large ice crystals will form and the smooth, creamy texture will be destroyed. </li></ul>
    135. 141. Cheese <ul><li>the fresh or ripened product attained after coagulation and whey separation of milk, cream or partially skimmed milk, buttermilk or a combination of these products </li></ul>
    136. 142. <ul><li>produced by coagulation of the milk protein casein </li></ul><ul><li>consists of proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep </li></ul><ul><li>milk is acidified and addition of the enzyme rennet causes coagulation </li></ul><ul><li>For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice </li></ul>
    137. 143. Types (Some of the Popular) <ul><li>Swiss Cheese </li></ul><ul><li>-Also known as the Emmental </li></ul><ul><li>-general name for numerous tpyes of cheese that were initially prepared in Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>-made from cow’s milk </li></ul><ul><li>-known for being glossy, light or pale yellow, and having large holes (eyes) in it which is a result of carbon dioxide released during the process of maturation </li></ul>
    138. 144. <ul><li>Blue Cheese </li></ul><ul><li>-common categorization of cow's milk and/or goat's milk cheeses with a blue or blue-green mold </li></ul><ul><li>-The blue mold in these cheeses is due to mold spores from Penicillium roqueforti or Penicillium glaucum to name a few </li></ul><ul><li>-either injected with the mold or the mold is mixed right in with the curds, to ensure an even distribution of the mold. </li></ul>
    139. 145. <ul><li>-initially produced in caves, where there was a natural presence of mold </li></ul><ul><li>-there flavour is usually strong, and have a tangy taste that differentiate these type of cheeses from others </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Gorgonzola, Roquefort, Stilton, Danablu, Cabrales , Benedictine Bleu </li></ul>
    140. 146. <ul><li>Mascarpone </li></ul><ul><li>-an Italian cheese manufactured from milk which has been altered with cream </li></ul><ul><li>-fat content of mascarpone cheese is extremely high </li></ul><ul><li>-end result is cheese that is very rich, buttery, and easily spread; the precise texture varies from very soft, to more stiff and creamy like whipped cream </li></ul><ul><li>-used in both desserts and savory foods. </li></ul>
    141. 147. <ul><li>Fontina </li></ul><ul><li>-is originally from Valle d’Aosta in Italy, and is made from cow’s milk </li></ul><ul><li>-somewhat creamy and has a pale yellow interior with very small holes and a semi soft texture </li></ul><ul><li>-has a dark brown rind which gets darker the longer it is being aged </li></ul>
    142. 148. <ul><li>Feta Cheese </li></ul><ul><li>-one of the oldest cheeses in the world, and is said to be a genuine product from Greece </li></ul><ul><li>-a soft cheese, and is made from sheep milk or a mixture of sheep and goat milk (recently with cow’s milk) </li></ul><ul><li>-white in color, has a delightful flavor, a bit sour to taste and rich in aroma, and is shaped in squares </li></ul>
    143. 149. <ul><li>-In Greek cooking feta cheese is often used mostly for gratins and pastries. Feta can also be crumbled over salads, such as their very classic Greek salad. </li></ul>
    144. 150. <ul><li>Cream Cheese </li></ul><ul><li>-a fresh type of cheese due to the fact that it is not aged </li></ul><ul><li>-subtle, fresh, and sweet, but has lightly tangy taste </li></ul><ul><li>- usually white in color </li></ul><ul><li>-Some Cream Cheeses includes Ricotta, Curd, Cottage, Neufchatel </li></ul>
    145. 151. <ul><li>Cheddar Chees e </li></ul><ul><li>-originated from an English village called Cheddar </li></ul><ul><li>-a firm cheese which originates from cow’s milk </li></ul><ul><li>-originally light in color but is added with dye (usually annatto seeds) to enhance its hue (orange tinge) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Mild Cheddar, Chedam (Cheddar and Edam), Cheshire(slightly acidic), Cotto (skimmed milk), Red Leicester (lemony), Steppen (low-fat) </li></ul>
    146. 152. <ul><li>Brie </li></ul><ul><li>-outer edible white coating and a mild-strong creamy inside </li></ul><ul><li>-Originally from Île de France </li></ul><ul><li>Camembert </li></ul><ul><li>-a soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese </li></ul><ul><li>-Similar to Brie </li></ul><ul><li>-Originally from Normandy, France </li></ul>
    147. 153. <ul><li>Monterey Jack </li></ul><ul><li>-a variation of the Cheddar </li></ul><ul><li>Brick </li></ul><ul><li>-a mild, but also pungent, sweet tasting cheese </li></ul><ul><li>-a semi-soft, slices well without crumbling. </li></ul><ul><li>-has a reddish-brown rind and its inside is yellow-white in color with many small holes </li></ul>
    148. 154. <ul><li>Edam </li></ul><ul><li>- Creamy yellow or medium yellow-orange cheese with a surface coating of red wax </li></ul><ul><li>Mozarella </li></ul><ul><li>-creamy white cheese made from whole or partly skimmed milk with a firm texture. </li></ul>
    149. 155. <ul><li>Gouda </li></ul><ul><li>-a orange cheese made from cow's milk </li></ul><ul><li>-accounts for more than 60% of the cheese produced in Holland </li></ul><ul><li>Parmesan </li></ul><ul><li>- creamy white cheese with a hard granular texture and sharp piquant taste </li></ul><ul><li>Provolone </li></ul><ul><li>-a light creamy interior with a light brown or golden yellow surface </li></ul>
    150. 156. <ul><li>Gruyere </li></ul><ul><li>-A variation of Swiss Cheese without the use of bleached milk </li></ul><ul><li>Limburger </li></ul><ul><li>-a creamy white interior and a reddish yellow surface </li></ul><ul><li>-highly pungent and has a very strong flavor </li></ul>
    151. 157. References <ul><li>http://www.milkfacts.info/Nutrition%20Facts/Nutrient%20Content.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.iloveindia.com/nutrition/milk/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raw_milk </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pasteurized </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homogenization_(chemistry) </li></ul>
    152. 158. <ul><li>http://www.wisegeek.com/topics/pasteurized-milk.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.milk.co.uk/page.aspx?intPageID=43 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.havemilk.com/article.asp?id=6797 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nytimes.com/1982/03/10/garden/freshness-of-milk-products.html </li></ul>
    153. 159. <ul><li>http://www.homefamily.net/index.php?/categories/foodnutrition/keeping_milk_and_cream_fresh/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cream </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butter </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dairygoodness.ca/ice-cream/how-to-store-ice-cream </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_cream </li></ul>
    154. 160. <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelato </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.typesofcheese.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bellybytes.com/foodfacts/popular_cheeses.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/28996/popular_cheese_varieties_and_their.html?cat=22 </li></ul>
    155. 161. RABBIT
    156. 162. Rabbits <ul><li>Males – buck </li></ul><ul><li>Females – doe </li></ul><ul><li>Young – kit or kitten </li></ul><ul><li>Raised as pets or for commercial or consumption use. </li></ul>
    157. 163. Rabbit
    158. 164. Rabbit Facts: <ul><li>Rabbit meat is a source of high quality protein.  </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbit meat is leaner than beef, pork, and chicken meat.  </li></ul><ul><li>Breeds such as the New Zealand and Californian are most frequently utilized for meat in commercial rabbitries. </li></ul>
    159. 165. Rabbit Facts: <ul><li>Any type of rabbit exhibiting &quot;commercial&quot; body type can be slaughtered for meat.  </li></ul>
    160. 166. Classification of Rabbit Breeds <ul><li>Fryers - between 70 to 90 days of age, and weighing between 3 to 5 lb (1 to 2 kg) live weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Roasters - from 90 days to 6 months of age weighing between 5 to 8 lb (2 to 3.5 kg) live weight.  </li></ul>
    161. 167. Classification of Rabbit Breeds <ul><li>Stewers - from 6 months on weighing over 8 lbs. </li></ul>
    162. 168. Rabbit Meat Cuts
    163. 169. Rabbit Meat Cuts
    164. 170. Rabbit Meat Cuts Saddle Legs Shoulders
    165. 171. Sign of Freshness <ul><li>Choose a rabbit with glistening and slightly pink-tinged flesh, with a good red, unmarked liver and visible kidneys surrounded by fat that is quite white.
 </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbit is sold fresh or frozen, whole or cut into 4 or 6 pieces, depending on its size. It is almost always skinned and gutted. If it is fresh and whole, the flexibility of its paws is a sign of freshness. </li></ul>
    166. 172. Cooking <ul><li>Rabbit meat dries out easily. It is best cooked with a liquid. </li></ul>

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