1 | P a g e DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORKS AND METHODS Owen M Muzi (000793120)
COURSE: COMP1648 - DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORKS AND METHODS
NAME: Owen Muzi M.
STUDENT NO.: BSC 13010
DUE DATE: 10th
2 | P a g e DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORKS AND METHODS Owen M Muzi (000793120)
DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORKS AND METHODS
After examining the station at C.B.C understanding that the development of the information
system was unsuccessful because end user needs were not being met .The problem domain
were not understood before technical requirements were discussed.
Due to the above issue I strongly recommend the use of agile methods, DSDM Atern in
particular. The reason for choosing DSDM Atern is because DSDM Atern is the host
framework to help us solve the issues being faced at CBC.
DSDM (Dynamic system Development method) is an agile project delivery framework. DSDM
provides discipline to the RAD (RAPID APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT) method. DSDM being
an agile framework will mean when developing the projects at CBC all will be involved. End
users and staff at CBC, programmers and stakeholders will give their expectation as the
development of the project is going on. DSDM is an iterative and incremental approach to
use agile development and continuous use involvement. DSDM Atern is a rebranded name
for DSDM. The name Atern was a shortening for arcticic tern a collaborative bird. This
method encourages a lot of collaborative, continues collaborative users, stakeholder,
DSDM Atern focuses on helping people to work effectively together to achieve the business
gaols.CBC has a people problem and more project act fail because of the people problem.
DSDM is independent of tools and techniques meaning that it can be used in any business.
DSDM Atern is the best to use at CBC because it is an extension of rapid application
development and it looks at information system projects with tight schedules and budgets.
DSDM Atern addresses the most common failure of information system projects, including
exceeding budgets, not reaching deadlines and lack of user take part and top leadership
DSDM Atern would be an appropriate method to use within CBC as you have noted above
(the mentioned complaints).To use DSDM Atern approach, the CBC team need to have
certain mindset and attitude. DSDM has eight (8) principles that can help with the change of
mindset and attitude. These are;
1. Focus on the business need:
This principle focuses on issues like
Clearly define the scope of the system.
Understand the true priorities of the business.
Establish a sound business case.
Seek continuous business sponsorship and commitment.
Guarantee the minimum usable subset of features.
2. Finish the project on time;
The use of time box.
Looks at the business priorities first.
Meeting the deadlines no matter what.
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3. Demonstrate control;
Looks at issues to do with accountability.
Use the correct level of formality for following and reporting.
Make sure plans and progress are visible to all.
Progress must be measured by looking at the products delivered.
Be proactive and manageable.
The project must be evaluated continuingly based on the business objectives
and business priorities.
4. Communicate often and clearly;
To be more effective and efficient, communication to all stakeholders is required.
This can be achieved by;
Running stand up session with the team daily.
Using facilitated workshops.
Documenting clearly and timely.
Encouraging informal, face to face communication at all levels.
5. Develop iteratively;
This principle works on assumption that it is always better to deliver something good
enough earlier than to deliver everything perfectly in the end.
Here we look at issues to do with:
Make a good foundation by doing enough design up front.
Iterative approach to be used in the building of all products.
use customer feedback to build into iteration
Be creative and evolve.
User involvement is the main key in developing of a good project (business objective)
engaging of right stakeholders a t the right time continuously in the project
Team members should be able to make decisions without fearing any one or
There should be are team language and culture.
7. Never compromise quality issue like:
Set the level of quality at the every beginning of the project.
Quality should be a variable at any point.
Constant review helps in maintain quality.
Test continuously and early.
8. Build the project incrementally from the strong foundation.
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Business benefits must be delivered as soon as possible.
Continually ask for feedback to confirm that the correct solution is being built.
With each increment re-assess formally the priorities and viability.
Drawbacks that I perceive with CBC using the DSDM Atern method are:
After philosophy must be accepted before starting to work. If not, this is a big
risk for CBC.
users are needed most of the to give feedback so if user are not available for the
feedback, the user involvement will miss due to the lack of involvement of the
user this system will be at risk and the system may not meet the user needs.
DSDM Atern has five stages of the project that CBC should follow, namely;
1) The feasibility study
2) The business study
3) Functional model iteration
4) System design and build iteration
My recommendation to the chief executive of CBC is the use of DSDM Atern because it
empowers all the team members and brings motivation to members of staff; this is due to
the involvement of users during development.
high level requirements
B1. Requirements are defined at two different levels from a business point of view.
1. Business requirements (high level requirements)
2. Functional requirements (detailed requirements).
Business requirements are high level requirements that management follows: e.g
1. The need to establish an online shopping website for C.B.C.
2. The website should list the products that C.B.C deals in.
B2. Requirement that are not appropriate for high level requirements. Before I identify the
requirements that are not appropriate level requirements I need to give the definition of
high level requirements.
High level requirement are business requirement that shows management and a board of
directors what is the scope the schedule and the expected budget. the goal is at a high level
they should not be detailed requirements.
Below are the requirements that are not appropriate high level requirements:
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1. Ensure that each sector can see only products related to their industry on the
2. Monitor customer orders for marketing purposes and statistical analyses
3. Customer should be able to set up automatic reordering (can we integrate with their
4. Log telesales stuff activity to ensure that they are effectively used.
5. Improve the quality of data used to analyse sales.
6. A facility to compare revenue generated by different sectors
7. Data integrity and security is paramount.
8. Be transparent about data collection related to sales and customers.
9. Telesales staff and web orders should both enter data into the same system
10. The system must be able to give me an over view of sale over different sectors
11. Produce detailed weekly monthly and annual sales reports and the option telephone
12. The system should allow for clients to rate and give feed back on products which will
be displayed when a product is views
13. The website must have a search facility to find products
14. Could we also have a mobile app for ordering and tracking?
15. Can we send messages to customers informing them of order information such as
shopping and delivery?
Reasons for listing the requirement above as not be appropriate high level requirements.
high level requirement are envisioning early requirement in the project to assist the team to
come to a common under standing as to the scope of what the team is trying to accomplish
in short these are business goal no need of a lot of details at this initial point .i have
selected the above requirements as inappropriate set of high level requirement because
most these just by definition they do not met been high level requirements.
Are technical requirement for the developers these needs technical knowledge to implement
and understand. (4) (8) (7) these are data requirement how the data will be collected used
(14) (11) (10) (9) (5) these are detailed requirements these are detailed not initial
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(1). A new system is need a system that customers are users will use easily. a system that
will display products free with a click.
(2). the system should be able to market to the right customers. The system will have an
online shopping so customers should know the products. And products that they can
manage to buy.
(3) Customer should select products the system calculated cost of all the products plus
(4) Telesales customers should be served the same as customer using the website .they
should select the product from catalogue on call telesales staffs who will calculate the cost
log in to the customer ID number for tracking.
(5) The customers should be able to make payments safely and secure without difficulties.
The system should protect the money for the customer and for the company so that there is
no lose. system developers (the team) should make sure that the system will secure the
money for both customers and company.
(6) After payment customer wants to track orders and shopping. How are the products
moving how far how long will they reach? This is very important because the customer
wants the product should reach the customer safely without products on time. the product
get missing if customer that uses telesales must be able to track easy.
(7) Stock control system should be integrated to assist with restocking reorder level should
automatic restocking so that there is a smooth flow of business.
From the justifications above we can see that high level requirement clearly defines the
The appropriate high level requirements.
1. The system should be brand new and should not reflect the former systems of either
C.B .C or S.A.L (website)
2. The system should not do automatic marking that aligns with a customer spending
3. Placing order should be hassle free with one-click ordering option
4. Telesales staff should see the exact same information as a person logging in to the
5. Make payment should be safe and secure
6. Improve the facility to track orders and shopping
7. Ordering and tracking should be quick and easy
8. Ordering and tracking order must be easy whether or the website through the telesales
9. The integrated reorder lever should automatically trigger purchase order to chemical
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10. A catalogue detailing the cleaning products available is produced for each of the
11. Stock control system for restocking quickly cleaning products.
B) Analysis of high level requirements and MoSCoW prioritisation.
MoSCoW is a set of rules used in management, business analysis and software development
to reach a common goal with stakeholders on nesecery requirements and the importance of
delivering each requirement. MoSCow categories are as follows;
High level requirement help to answer fundamental business question to improve
productivity and scaling agile development. An Atern project will always deliver a viable
solution as long as Moscow rules are followed. Quality is fixed in an Atern project because
acceptance criteria are agreed before development commences (high level requirements)
and are arranged in order of priority following the Moscow rules.
Below one requirement arranged the in order of priority. reason for the decision of
prioriting the requirement like this unlike a traditional approach after fixes time cost and
quality at the early phases of a project using Moscow rules we start with requirement on top
of prorate list and drop or defer lower priority features if necessary so that time cost and
quality are not compromised.
(1) For me on the top list the system should be brand new the first requirement is if
produce a new system that will integrate CBC and SAL.
(2) The new system should be able to market. the products to right customer looking at
their spending market of products is very important feature that we need without
compromising once the products are known to the public we are home and dry even
if these other feature are not there customer can come personally to the CBC shops
and buy the products they need.
(3) Producing a catalogue detailing the cleaning products available is very important as it
is apart of marketing. A catalogue is need for those who use the telesales.
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(4) Placing orders should be hassle free with one-click ordering options .after know the
products customers should select the products they need see the cost all product
selected if they can manage to pay for them this feature is important too.
(5) Customers should be able to make payment in a safe and secure way. This feature
complete the circle of transaction the payment for the products must be made other
wise the system will not make sense. In business circles.
Using the Moscow rules the feature above are in the must have category. if the 5
feature are not the system can do a complete transaction without the other features.
(6) Improve the facility to track orders and shopping. This is important to customer so that
their hearts are at peace because they one tracking the orders at every moment. tracking
should be quick and easy for customers to use this feature. This feature is a should have
going by Moscow rules.
(7) Stock control feature is important to help in the smooth flow of business.
(8) Could have a mobile app for ordering and tracking of orders. These features will help in
the smooth flow of business from the customers and the company’s point of view. These are
the could have features. These features are nice to have but if time cost quality can not all
they can be deferred.
C) Legal, social, ethical and professional issues.
The new system will be a web base just like many successful e-commerce sites.
Customers need to lean before they login, they need to login the need to sign up. customer
Details should be submitted by customer to the organisation. Customers give their detail
knowing the organisation will use the detail correctly.
It is because of the reason above that the organisation needs a data controller
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A data controller is a personnel or member of stuff that looks at thing to with control of data
to prevent its loss ,misuse or disclosure .the type of control is called data with issues like :
Confidentiality is very important CBC because (customer data subjects)will trust the
organisation with their details N.R.C bank details e.t.c if confidentiality which is the
assurance of data privacy is not there or if a data controller to take care of confidentiality is
not there we are putting the customer at risk. Their data may be misused by third parts.
Integrity is the assurance that data are accurate, not alteration should be done to the data it
is very important to maintain the integrity of data for the e-commerce site to be a success.
Today there has been a growth in computer crime. Hacking going unauthorised alleges to
computer systems with intent .the data controller will be there to protect the data for the
data subjects. this means that stored data should not been modified without authorization ,a
message sent should be received without been altered. it is the responsibility of the data
controller to detect and prevent the unauthorized creation ,modification or deletion of data
Availability is the assurance that access to data the website or e-commerce services is timely
available, reliable and restricted to authorized users. Customer will be able to browse the
online catalogue and select products/quantities .so the on-line catalogue should be
available, reliable and restricted to authorized uses case. Customer will be able to browse
the online catalogue and select products /quantities. So then the online catalogue should be
available, timely and reliable but reliable and timely also. Once the product selection is
complete the final cost of the order will be shown. It important to restrict the selection and
ordering to authorize users use should not have difficult with login should be timely and
B. a data controller will help C.B.e other come same legal ethical and professional issuer
faced with by make sure that there is data security.
To maintain data security the data controller should make sure data is obtained and
processed fairly and lawfully .example C.B.C should collect the data from customers without
lairing to them. After collecting data from customer it should be used for the purpose it was
collected for and it should be protected from unauthorized individuals. an incident in which
sensitive ,protected, or confidential data is copied transmitted viewed, stolen or used by an
unauthorized individual is called data breach (leak) and this can cost a lot of money for the
company if sued.
Data should also be held and processed only for specific lawful purposes. Meaning what
C.B.C say to the customer the data is for the specific purpose not any other. If employees
used it other wise it is a criminal case. Adequate data is need for the purpose data has to be
adequate to it to fulfil its specific purpose. Example is the data is not adequate the address
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is missing how and where are the goods ordered going to go it should be relevant not
excessive for the purpose excessive data is always a cost storage for irrelevant data is a cost
and should not be allowed.
The data controller make sure data is accurate and updated. For an online shopping website
accurate and updated data is very much needed example is C.B.C makes a mistake of using
out of data there will be a lot of transaction clone improperly customer not receiving goods
C.B.C not receiving money debiting and crediting of wrong people e.c.t.
Data should have a Retention period the data controller should keep the data not longer
than necessary for stated purposes.
Data should be processed with respect to the rights of the customer (data subjects)
Data subject are protected by legal issues. these issues are of term categorized in to
intellect that property rights ,privacy free speech versus cercorship and consumer and were
chat protection against fraud (HIMMA and tavani 2008)
So as the employee of C.B.C authorized to use the data should used respecting the rights of
the data subject .breach of any right in result in the law suit.
The data controllers should ensure security to make sure there is no loss damage disclosure
unlawful use of data technically and organisational measures must be taken hackers should
not have access to data collected through the C.B.C system.
Transferring of data or goods should be done it a seavre way data should not be
Transferred to any campany or individual unless adequate protective is guaranteed and
ecryption must be used.transfering of good from C.Be to customer or either way pared force
or DHL should be used.
C2. BCS code of conduct is the document that sets out the professional standards
required by the British computer society BCS in short.
BCS is a professional body responsible for setting rules and professional standards to direct
the behaviour of its members in professional matters.
Members of BCS should be aware of the BCS code of conduct. it governs the conduct of
individual and applies to all members.
There are four (4) BCS code of conduct section namely:
2. professional competence and integrity
3. duty to relevant authority.
4. duty to the profession.
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System developer contacted to CBC shoud work at benefitinig public interest.the coutractor
should have due regard for public heath privacy and wellbeing of others and the
environment. Due regard for the legitimate rights of third parties and the contractor should
conduct itself professionally without discrimination.
For example the system developer contractor should not use racial statements on the online
website all races should feel free to use the online website to buy. the contractor does not
represent his/her her views. But all views should be in the intrest of the public.
Professional competence and integritythis has to do with accepting work the person or
campany is competence. The company should not claim any level of competence that the
company do not possess.
A practical example the system developer contracted to C.B.C should know that it is a crime
to claim that they can make a system for C.B.C from start to finish. if the company can not
develop the system that can provide a quick service, customer should views goods order
query e.t.c. if the company contracted can not system that can do all these ensure also
legislation is undestood and comply with all legislation that govern the operation of such
business and development of such system.
Duty to relevant authority the contracted company should carry out their work with
professionarim and with due care and dilligonce in accordance with relevant authority for
example where there is conflict between full and committed compliance with the relevant
authoritys instruction and the independent and considered exercise of the company
profession judgment the company should indicate the likely risks and consequence in this
case the relevant authority is C.B.C (the client).
The contractor should not insrepvesent or withhold information a the performance of
product system or serves or take advantage of the lack of relevant knowledge or expo
erierience data proession the contractor should help to uphold the reputation of the
profession and not take any action which could inring the profession into disrepute
encourage and support fellow member in their professional development.
To uphold the professional members of B.C.S should ecourage and support fellow member
of professionlal development share knowledge and understanding of I.T and support
inclusion of every sector of society.
Make a system work ltd should do the best work and report to B.C.S if any thing should be