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Management and Research of Conifer-Hardwood Mixed Forests at the University of Tokyo Hokkaido Forest, Northern Japan


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Hokkaido, a northern island of Japan, is situated in an area of mixed forest with coniferous and hardwood species between the cool-temperate and the sub-boreal zone. Single-tree selection system has been widely employed since the early 20th century as a major option to manage multi-aged and mixed forests. The University of Tokyo (UT) has owned and managed 23 thousand hectare of forests in the central part of Hokkaido since 1899. The stand-based silvicultural management system has been implemented at the UT Hokkaido Forest for over 50 years to maximize multiple public and economic functions of forest ecosystems. After a brief introduction of forest and forestry in Japan and Hokkaido, I will present recent practices and research activities at the UT Hokkaido Forest for managing conifer-hardwood mixed forests in northern Japan.

Source: Owari, T.: Management and research of conifer-hardwood mixed forests at the University of Tokyo Hokkaido Forest, northern Japan. ICAAM Seminar, University of Evora, Portugal, 13 Jul. 2012

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Management and Research of Conifer-Hardwood Mixed Forests at the University of Tokyo Hokkaido Forest, Northern Japan

  1. 1. Management and Research of Conifer-Hardwood Mixed Forests at the Universityof Tokyo Hokkaido Forest, Northern JapanDr. Toshiaki OwariThe University of Tokyo, Japan
  2. 2. Topics Forest and forestry in Japan The University of Tokyo (UT) Hokkaido Forest Management and research of conifer-hardwood mixedforests at the UT Hokkaido Forest2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 2
  3. 3. “Forest” and “Forestry” in Japanese? Forest① Ki② Hayashi③ Mori Forestry① Nōgyō② Ringyō③ Gyogyō2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 3
  4. 4. 2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 4
  5. 5. Surface Area by Use in Japan2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 5
  6. 6. 2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 6
  7. 7. 2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 7
  8. 8. Forest Resources in Japan2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 8
  9. 9. Rank in the World Planted Forests in 20112012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 9Source: Colodette et al. (2012)
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  13. 13. Comparison of Japanese Forestsbetween 1952 and 2007Year Area(1000 ha)Growingstock(mil. m3)Growing stockper hectare(m3/ha)1952 24,745 1,722.87 702007 25,097 4,431.74 177Source: Forestry Agency2012/07/13 ICAAM Seminar (Owari T)13
  14. 14. Industrial Wood Supply in Japan2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 14
  15. 15. Harvesting Cost Sweden: 1,500 JPY m-3 Finland: 1,400 JPY m-3 Austria:3,100~3,600 JPY m-3 Japan: 7,000 JPY m-3Source: Forestry Agency (2005)2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 15
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  17. 17. The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011Source: Forestry Agency2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 17
  18. 18. Topics Forest and forestry in Japan The University of Tokyo (UT) Hokkaido Forest Management and research of conifer-hardwood mixedforests at the UT Hokkaido Forest2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 18
  19. 19. The Univ. of Tokyo Hokkaido Forest2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 19 Located in Furano, Hokkaido 43°10´- 20´ N, 142°20´-40´ E Between the cool-temperate andthe sub-boreal zone 22,717 ha of forestland Established in 1899
  20. 20. ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) Mixed forest with coniferousand broad-leaved species Abies sachalinensis Picea jezoensis Quercus crispula Kalopanax pictus Fraxinus mandshurica Betura maximowicziana Tilia japonica The average standingvolume is 211 m3 ha-1 The cutting volume was23,000 m3 in 20112012/07/13 20The Univ. of Tokyo Hokkaido Forest
  21. 21. 2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 21
  22. 22. ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 2012/07/13 22
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  24. 24. HeadwaterICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 2012/07/13 24
  25. 25. ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 2012/07/13 25
  26. 26. ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 2012/07/13 26
  27. 27. ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 2012/07/13 27
  28. 28. 2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 28
  29. 29. High-value Timber ProductionICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 2012/07/13 29
  30. 30. NurseryICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 2012/07/13 30
  31. 31. 2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 31
  32. 32. ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 2012/07/13 32
  33. 33. Topics Forest and forestry in Japan The University of Tokyo (UT) Hokkaido Forest Management and research of conifer-hardwood mixedforests at the UT Hokkaido Forest2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 33
  34. 34. Stand-based Silvicultural ManagementSystem… … has been used since 1958 “Management should be adaptive tothe conditions of each stand tomaximize the multiple public andeconomic functions of the forestecosystems (Takahashi, 2001)” … uses a method of single-treeselection cutting Cutting cycle: 15 or 20 years Rate of removals: 10–17% of thegrowing stock2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 34Nobukiyo Takahashi(1914–2002)
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  36. 36. Changes in Growing Stock2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 362003004005001965 1975 1985 1995 2005Selection stand(5137)Unmanaged stand(5146)453466424 408476311289314(331)**408301340353324363402334371421460yearm3/ha1969 C:BNum. 87:13Vol. 66:341975 C:BNum. 67:33Vol. 66:342007 C:BNum. 66:34Vol. 35:652008 C:BNum. 54:46Vol. 68:32Cutting rate: 7%Damagedby wind Cutting rate: 8%Cutting rate: 17%(345)*
  37. 37. Spatially-explicit Classification … serves as the basis for spatialmanagement planning on whereto be cut (Owari et al., 2007) … identifies selection forestswhere natural regeneration isexpectable so that selectionlogging is applicable (Takahashi,2001) In-depth ground surveys areessential for spatial classification(Owari et al., 2009)2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 37
  38. 38. 2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 38
  39. 39. 2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 39The Classification Tree Model of Spatially-explicit Classification DecisionsSource: Owari et al. (in press)
  40. 40. Tree Marking for Harvest … is an essential technique insingle-tree selection system(Owari et al., 2010) … involves the careful selection oftrees for harvest according toforest management objectives(OMNR, 2004) … affects the growth, quality andregeneration of a stand2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 40
  41. 41. Tree Marking in a Selection Forest2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 41Note: Dark Green: Conifer, Light Green: Broad-leaves, Red: Harvest treesBefore Harvest After Harvest
  42. 42. 2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 42Analysis of Tree Marking Decisions usingMultiple Logistic Regression AnalysisSource: Owari et al. (2010)
  43. 43. Tree Marking with GPS2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 43Fig. Harvest intensitySource: Owari et al. (2011)
  44. 44. 21st 2nd 3rd 4thn=906 n=1676 n=1185 n=1409MeanTreedensity(trees/ha)2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T)Fig. Change in species composition in terms of tree densityLong-term Effects of Selection SystemApplications on Stand StructureSource:Tatsumi et al.(2010)44
  45. 45. Abies sachlinensis Picea jezoensisHardwood spp.545854581st2nd3rd4th1st2nd3rd4th1st2nd3rd4thTreedensity(tree/ha)2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T)Fig. Diameter distributionLong-term Effects on Stand Structure45Source: Tatsumi et al. (2010)
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  47. 47. ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 2012/07/13 47
  48. 48. 2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 48Spatial Distribution of Abies JuvenilesSource: Owari (2012)
  49. 49. VariableThis study(5,111 ha)Hosaka et al. (2008)*(207 ha)Dwarf bamboo coverage -Overstory Abies BA + +Slope + +HLI: heat load index +Elevation -Curvature +Solar radiation +TWI: topographic wetness index ns2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 49Note: „ns‟ indicates that the variable was not selected in the final model.Tab. Results of the GLMM analysisRelationships between Site Conditionsand Regeneration AbundanceSource: Owari (2012)
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  55. 55. Future Research Topics Growth and yield models of conifer-hardwood mixed forests Economic analysis of multi-aged mixed forest management Ecosystem services of conifer-hardwood mixed forests Promotion of natural regeneration in managed forests Conversion from regular to irregular stand structure2012/07/13ICAAM Seminar (Owari T) 55
  56. 56. Obrigado!(Corresponding address: Seminar (Owari T) 56