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Humanitarian Action for Children 2013


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UNICEF’s Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 highlights the situation of children and women across countries and territories; draws attention to the support needed to help these children survive and thrive; and shows the results UNICEF and partners are working toward.

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Humanitarian Action for Children 2013

  1. 1. UNICEFHumanitarian Actionfor Children 2013Overview Documentunite forchildren
  2. 2. COVER PHOTO: JORDAN, 2012Children wash clothes, in Za’atari, a tented camp forSyrian refugees, on the outskirts of Mafraq, capital of thenorthern Mafraq Governorate. UNICEF assistance in thecamp includes the provision of safe drinking water and theinstallation of permanent latrines, bathing facilities, washbasins, as well as mobile units containing these amenities.© UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0867/Kate Brooks© United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)January 2013Permission to reproduce any part of this publication is required.Permission will be freely granted to educational or non-profitorganizations. Others will be required to pay a small fee.Please contact:Division of Communication, UNICEF3 United Nations PlazaNew York, NY 10017, USATel: + 1 (212) 326-7434Email: <>This report and additional online content are available at<>.ISBN: 978-92-806-4678-8
  3. 3. UNICEFHumanitarian Actionfor Children 2013Overview Documentunite forchildren
  4. 4. AcknowledgementsThe Humanitarian Action for Children was made possible with the advice and contribution of many people from UNICEF country and regionaloffices and Headquarters. Information was received from the following offices: Afghanistan, Angola, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic,Chad, Colombia, Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia,Georgia, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Pakistan,Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, State of Palestine, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Turkey, Yemen and Zimbabwe as well asregional offices for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States; East Asia and the Pacific; Eastern andSouthern Africa; Latin America and the Caribbean; Middle East and North Africa; South Asia; and West and Central Africa. Thanks also to allother colleagues and country offices that contributed, including through regional chapters.PROJECT MANAGEMENT, EDITORIAL AND RESEARCHAkhil Iyer, Deputy Director, Office of Emergency Programmes; Rafael Hermoso, Project Manager, Office of Emergency Programmes; NaomiIchikawa, Manager, Office of Emergency Programmes; Zuhal Ayoub, Researcher; Mari Denby, Reporting; Catherine Langevin-Falcon, Chief,Publications Section, Division of Communication; Samantha Mort, Senior Advisor Communications, Office of the Executive Director(Foreword); Hirut Gebre-Egziabher, Communication Specialist; Yasmine Hage and Lisa Kenney, fact-checking; Charlotte Maitre, Editor; KristinMoehlmann, Anna Grojec, copy-editing; Ellen Tolmie, Sr. Photography Editor; Lucy Braun, Communication Specialist.Thanks to the following UNICEF divisions: Office of Emergency Programmes, Programme Division, Public-Sector Alliances andResource Mobilization Office, Private Fundraising and Partnerships. Particular thanks also to Ted Chaiban, Director, Office ofEmergency Programmes; Darla Silva, Executive Manager, Office of the Executive Director; Nicholas Alipui, Director, ProgrammeDivision; June Kunugi, Director a.i., Public Sector Alliances and Resource Mobilization; Leila Pakkala, Director, Private Fundraising andPartnerships; Khaled Mansour, Director, Division of Communication; Dermot Carty, Deputy Director, Office of EmergencyProgrammes; Christian Salazar, Deputy Director, Programme Division; Anna Azaryeva, Genevieve Boutin, Babita Bisht, Erin Boyd,Andrew Colin Parker, Silvia Danailov, Terry Davis, Lisa Doughten, Brendan Doyle, Faika Farzana, Francois Ducharme, Tsedeye Girma,Brenda Haiplik, James Hedges, Pernille Ironside, Sarah Karmin, Christine Knudsen, Sandra Lattouf, Gwyn Lewis, Michel Le Pechoux,Mendy Marsh, Reuben McCarthy, Nalinee Nippita, George Paltakis, Heather Papowitz, Stephane Pichette, Martin Porter, JalpaRatna, James Rogan, Guillaume Sauval, Oren Schlein, Saudamini Siegrist, Junko Toda, Jesus Trelles, and Julie Verhaar. Thanks alsoto UNICEF Regional Offices: Shameza Abdulla, Selassie Atadika, Laura Bill, Gianluca Buono, Antonello Castaldi, Luc Chauvin, MarkChoonoo, Seydou Dia, Andrea James, Grant Leaity, Tania McBride, Robert McCarthy, Heidi Peugeot, Asim Rehman, Magalie Salazar,Carmen van Heese, Bastien Vigneau, Toby Wicks, Lana Wreikat as well as all technical advisers.DESIGN AND PRE-PRESS PRODUCTIONJames Elrington, Design Specialist, Private Fundraising and PartnershipsMAPSJihad Abdalla, Emergency OfficerWEBSITE PRODUCTIONKeith Musselmann, Senior Project Manager; Dennis Yuen, Web Design and DevelopmentOUTREACHPeter Smerdon, Chief, Media Relations; Kent Page, Communication Specialist; Patrick McCormick, Communication Manager;Christopher Tidey, Communication SpecialistPRINTINGBrian Myers, Division of Finance and AdministrationTRANSLATIONFrench edition: French Committee for UNICEF. Spanish edition: Spanish Committee for UNICEFIncome and results through 31 October 2012Further information on UNICEF’s humanitarian action can be obtained from:Ted Chaiban June Kunugi Dermot CartyDirector Director a.i. Deputy DirectorOffice of Emergency Public Sector Alliances and Resource Office of Emergency ProgrammesProgrammes (EMOPS), UNICEF New York Mobilization (PARMO), UNICEF New York (EMOPS), UNICEF GenevaTel: +1 212 326-7163 Tel: +1 212 326 7009 Tel: + 41 22 909 5601 Fax: +1 212 326-7037 Fax: +1 212 326 7165 Fax: + 41 22 909 5902 Email: Email: Email:
  5. 5. Contents5 Executive Director’s foreword8 2013 funding requirements11 Summary12 The humanitarian situation15 The response16 Overall funding trends22 2013 planned response25 Global support UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 3
  6. 6. Haiti Maurita Liberia ColombiaCountries included in theHumanitarian Action for Children 2013 © UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1269/Salah MalkawiThe boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map donot imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined.* Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties.** ‘State of Palestine’ was designated for use in all official United Nations documents as of 19 December 2012. It reflects General Assembly JORDAN, 2012 resolution 67/19. UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake observes children in their newly opened school, in Za’atari, a camp for Syrian refugees, on the outskirts of Mafraq, capital of the northern Mafraq Governorate.4 | UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 – <>
  7. 7. Democratic People’s Kyrgyzstan Republic of Korea Georgia Tajikistan Syrian Arab Republic Jammu and State of Palestine** Afghanistan Kashmir* Syrian refugees in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Pakistan Lebanon and Turkey MyanmarMauritania Mali Niger Sudan Chad Eritrea Yemen Burkina Faso Djibouti Philippines Côte South Ethiopia Central African SudanLiberia d’Ivoire Republic Somalia Democratic Kenya Republic of the Congo Angola Zimbabwe Madagascar Lesotho Executive Director’s Foreword Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 At first glance, Fatima looked to be about 4 or 5 single mother and 10 surviving siblings. months old. In fact, she had just passed her first Four have died. In Yemen, almost 1 million birthday. She was among the 126,000 children children are acutely malnourished; over a with severe acute malnutrition treated at one quarter of a million suffer from severe acute of 425 nutrition rehabilitation centres set up by malnutrition and live, daily, in the shadow Chad’s Ministry of Health in 2012 as part of a of death. Sahel-wide scale-up. Hundreds of thousands have been reached with life-saving assistance. At the sprawling Za’atari refugee camp near the Sadly, many others have not. border between Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic, 12-year-old Tabark had resumed With each passing day, 14-month-old Rabab classes at the new emergency school. Her Mohammed Saleh’s smile was becoming a dream is to become an Arabic teacher. Over little wider; her body growing a little stronger. 47,000 refugee children in neighbouring She was at the therapeutic feeding centre of countries and 23,000 children inside the Syrian Al-Sabaeen Hospital in Sana’a, Yemen being Arab Republic have benefited from emergency treated for malnutrition. Rabab lives with her education programmes, while initiatives to UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 5
  8. 8. protect their psychological wellbeing have supported development of the Transformative reached 32,000 children inside the Syrian Arab Agenda within the Inter-Agency Standing Republic and 42,000 in neighbouring countries. Committee. For too many children, though, education and protection become casualties of crisis. As we strive to deliver better results for those in desperate need, we are also mindful of the These are just some of the hundreds of importance of measuring those results and courageous children I have met during field trips identifying bottlenecks to greater progress. in the last 12 months. These results are made possible through Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 generous contributions from donors who highlights the challenges children such as continue to support UNICEF’s humanitarian Fatima, Rabab and Tabark face in humanitarian action even in times of fiscal austerity. situations around the world. It identifies the Predictable and flexible funding supports support required to help these children programmes like the ones described above survive and thrive. Most importantly, it shows and enables us to act quickly wherever and the results our partners and we have achieved, whenever crises occur. and must strive to achieve, for children in need. We can deliver results for children in challenging For example, in 2012 in partnership with national environments and complicated emergencies. governments, civil society organizations and Fatima can recover from severe acute other United Nations agencies, UNICEF was malnutrition; Rabab’s health will improve; Tabark projected to treat 850,000 of the estimated can continue her schooling. Together, we can 1.1 million children under 5 with severe acute give all children in humanitarian situations the malnutrition across the Sahel, even as the tools not only to recover but to realize their conflict in Mali deteriorated and prompted a potential, nurture their talents and contribute to refugee crisis in surrounding countries. the growth of their nations. Increasingly, we try to do so with a ‘resilience reflex’, in ways that build the capacity of health centres and strengthen communities and families for the future. Meanwhile, in Pakistan, 109,000 children and women affected by flooding and insecurity were able to access Anthony Lake protection, rehabilitative and recreation UNICEF Executive Director services, as well as life-skills education, through Protective Learning and Community Emergency Services (PLaCES). Humanitarian response is no less important in those parts of the world that do not command media attention. In the Blue Nile and South Kordofan states of Sudan, conflict has driven over 210,000 people, over half of whom are children, across the borders into neighbouring South Sudan and Ethiopia, while an estimated 695,000 people have been internally displaced or severely affected. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where 2.4 million people are displaced, the number of severely malnourished children tops 1 million. Globally, we continue to improve our ability to respond to humanitarian emergencies. We have established new standard operating procedures to guide UNICEF’s efforts in the event of large-scale emergencies, as well as processes to better meet our cluster and sector coordination responsibilities in the broader humanitarian system. And we have6 | UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 – <>
  9. 9. © UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1318/Asad Zaidi PAKISTAN, 2012 Fahimada, 8, carries a small container of water through flood water back to her tent shelter, in Ranjhapur Village in Jacobabad District in Sindh Province. She collected the water from a nearby handpump. UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 7
  10. 10. UNICEF humanitarian action funding requirements for 2013 REGION/COUNTRY FUNDING REQUIREMENTS FOR 2013 (US$) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States Regional Office 2,500,000 Georgia 2,310,000 Kyrgyzstan 1,540,000 Tajikistan 1,872,500 TOTAL 8,222,500 EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC REGIONAL East Asia and the Pacific Regional Office 4,252,000 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 22,790,000 Myanmar 6,158,000 Philippines 23,609,000 TOTAL 56,809,000 EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office 20,888,150 Angola 5,300,000 Eritrea 12,200,000 Ethiopia 49,487,000 Kenya 39,860,035 Lesotho 7,563,949 Madagascar 14,980,000 Somalia 140,961,023 South Sudan 88,427,962 Zimbabwe 4,590,000 TOTAL 384,258,119 LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN The Americas and Caribbean Regional Office 1,600,000 Colombia 5,000,000 Haiti 11,650,000 TOTAL 18,250,0008 | UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 – <>
  11. 11. REGION/COUNTRY FUNDING REQUIREMENTS FOR 2013 (US$)MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICAMiddle East and North Africa Regional Office 15,500,000Djibouti 7,980,000State of Palestine 17,280,000Sudan 71,335,681Syrian Arab Republic 61,400,000Syrian refugees (Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt) 140,700,000Yemen 81,333,795TOTAL 395,529,476SOUTH ASIARegional Office for South Asia 4,910,000Afghanistan 27,045,000Pakistan 64,950,000TOTAL 96,905,000WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICAWest and Central Africa Regional Office 30,250,000Burkina Faso 22,226,485Central African Republic 11,516,945Chad 60,895,591Côte d’Ivoire 16,470,000Democratic Republic of the Congo 134,560,000Liberia 16,016,500Mali 81,999,263Mauritania 18,885,937Niger 33,790,767TOTAL 426,611,488GLOBAL SUPPORT 7,501,019GRAND TOTAL 1,394,086,602 UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 9
  12. 12. BURKINA FASO, 2012 Ramatou Tankouanou holds her malnourished daughter,© UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0356/Oliver Asselin 7-month-old Saamatou Bangou, during a growth-monitoring session at the health centre in Sector 1, a division of Fada N’gourma, capital of Est Region. 10 | UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 – <>
  13. 13. SummaryUNICEF’s Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 highlights the humanitarian situationfaced by millions of children and women and the support required to help their families,communities and national institutions meet their basic needs, promote their well-beingand provide them with protection.UNICEF is appealing for almost US$1.4 billion to successive economic, climatic, political andassist millions of children, women and men by other security shocks, severely compromisingproviding them with nutritional support, health the ability of caregivers to feed and protect theircare, water, sanitation, learning spaces and children, and fulfil their basic needs.materials, protection services, shelter andinformation. This support is not only to provide In order to prevent, address or overcome somelifesaving emergency interventions, but also of the consequences of these natural andto strengthen national preparedness systems human-made disasters in 2012, UNICEF initiallyand build resilience at community, subregional appealed for US$1,284,358,000. During theand national levels, so that avoidable illnesses course of the year, as new crises occurred andand deaths are prevented and those affected ongoing situations deteriorated or improved,are able to recover. In partnership with national the overall requirements were revised, and bygovernments, civil society organizations and the end of October had increased by 14 perother United Nations agencies, UNICEF works in cent to US$1,472,172,823. As of 31 October,some of the most challenging environments in US$664,475,807, or 45 per cent of the requiredthe world to deliver results for millions of funds, had been mobilized. In addition, UNICEFchildren and women threatened by natural received US$19,573,247 from the Centraldisasters or complex emergencies. Despite Emergency Response Fund (CERF) and otherchallenges and constraints, sustained advocacy, funding sources to address the unforeseenpolitical and financial commitment, and needs for countries that were not part of thecollaboration in 2012 resulted in achievements Humanitarian Action for Children 2012,that need to be built upon and continued appeal, bringing the total of funding mobilizedinto 2013. to US$684,049,044.The past year saw the combined and cumulativeeffects of armed conflict, civil and politicalunrest, erratic and severe weather patterns, For more information on individualseismic activity, disease outbreaks and the country and regional appeals, andglobal economic crisis lead to the death, illness, for updates, go todeprivation, displacement and distress of a <>.significant number of children, women and menacross the globe.The same factors caused the destruction orfurther degradation of homes, hospitals,schools, roads and other public and socialinfrastructure, services and networks,preventing millions of children from receivingtreatment for illness, drinking safe water, goingto school or even playing. Some children wereseparated from their primary caregivers, whileothers fled, unaccompanied, to saferlocations. Meanwhile many others wererecruited by armed groups as soldiers andlabourers. Whether affected by disasters orconflict, they suffered psychological and socialdistress in addition to physical suffering andharm. All too often, these new disasters andconflicts occurred in areas already battered by UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 11
  14. 14. The humanitarian situation A range of natural disasters and conflicts continued to impact children’s vulnerability in many countries in 2012, from nutrition crises across Africa, to the complex emergency in the Syrian Arab Republic, to chronic humanitarian situations across the globe. Storms, floods and persistent droughts 2.8 million people, including internally displaced exacerbated food insecurity in some areas, persons and host populations, and caused a causing loss of life, livelihoods and property and regional refugee crisis, creating additional threatening children’s right to education and burdens for vulnerable communities in Burkina protection. Targeted or indiscriminate violence – Faso, Mauritania and Niger already affected by a including sexual violence, abuse and food and nutrition crisis resulting from exploitation – not only led to new or continued recurrent drought and food insecurity in mass displacements within and across borders, the Sahel. but also left millions of others stranded in insecure and isolated locations, with little or no Continued and intensified conflicts also affected access to food, basic social services or and displaced millions in Afghanistan, the humanitarian assistance. The outbreak or Central African Republic, Colombia, the continued spread of infectious diseases affected Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, all countries facing disasters, both natural and Somalia, the State of Palestine, Sudan and human-made. Yemen, leading to internal displacement or the outflow of new refugees into neighbouring The internal armed conflict in the Syrian Arab countries. Inter-communal violence erupted in Republic is in its second year and has affected Myanmar and South Sudan, leading to internal 2.5 million people, displacing 1.2 million displacements. Peace talks and new peace internally and nearly 400,000 more across deals forged in 2012 are yet to translate into real borders into Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey and change for people in Colombia, Myanmar and Egypt. Countless homes, schools, hospitals and the Philippines. other essential infrastructure such as water and sanitation (WASH) systems have been either In many places, communities had to cope with destroyed or severely damaged. multiple or repeated shocks, such as continued displacement and humanitarian needs in Côte Meanwhile, food and nutrition crises again d’Ivoire and Liberia; a third straight year of impacted millions of children. In the Horn of significant flooding in Pakistan; and disease Africa and across the Sahel belt of West and outbreaks atop nutrition crises and conflict in the Central Africa, an estimated 1.1 million children Sahel. At the same time, multiple natural under 5 were at risk of severe acute malnutrition, disasters such as floods, landslides and and in Southern Africa, more than 6 million earthquakes, coupled with extremely cold people were affected in Angola, Lesotho, Malawi temperatures, affected several communities in and Zimbabwe. Food insecurity is chronic in the region of Abkhazia in Georgia and in many parts of Africa, allowing shocks to tilt Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, increasing the number vulnerable populations into crisis, and reinforcing of food-insecure households and their level of the importance of strengthening community vulnerability in areas already disadvantaged by resilience. The concerted response to food isolation, low governance capacity and poor insecurity in the Horn of Africa reduced the basic social service systems. number of people in need of food assistance from 3.75 million to 2.1 million in Kenya and by And as 2012 closed, humanitarian situations 50 per cent in Somalia, though persistent failures intensified in many parts of the world. In the in rainfall patterns have slightly increased the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the number number of people needing food aid in Ethiopia. of people internally displaced by fighting Undernutrition also remained a part of daily life in continued to rise. Communities in the State other parts of the world, including the Democratic of Palestine were again recovering following People’s Republic of Korea. violence in the Gaza Strip in November. And the Mindanao region of the Philippines was now And again in 2012, food crises were magnified responding to additional needs following by conflict. Armed conflict coupled with food Typhoon Bopha in early December. insecurity in northern Mali affected more than12 | UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 – <>
  15. 15. Results for Children In partnership with national governments, civil society which UNICEF contributes. The organization has been a key organizations and other United Nations agencies, UNICEF contributor to this area through the Inter-Agency Standing has long worked to deliver results for children and women in Committee’s Transformative Agenda – the ongoing effort of humanitarian situations. Each year, the challenges faced by humanitarian partners to advance humanitarian reform. children in these contexts, and the support required to help them survive and thrive, have been presented in UNICEF’s UNICEF and its partners will continue to strengthen systems Humanitarian Action for Children funding document. to be more results-based, to articulate humanitarian appeals based on needs, standards and targets, and to show what This year, the Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 results have been achieved for children and women. document goes a step further and also reflects recent increased efforts to make UNICEF’s humanitarian action more strategic and results-based. Individual country chapters present achievements1 from past contributions2 against set targets and, where relevant, within cluster- or sector-wide results. Funding requirements are also presented against clear targets to the extent possible, based on international PHOTO: SOUTH SUDAN, 2012 standards and UNICEF’s Core Commitments for Children in Two boys who have been displaced by inter-ethnic violence Humanitarian Action. play with a football, outside a UNICEF-supported child-friendly space that is housed in a tent, in Pibor Town, The work to make UNICEF’s appeals and reporting more Pibor County, Jonglei State. The space provides recreational results-based is in line with similar efforts to strengthen activities for over 200 children, serves as a temporary monitoring throughout the broader humanitarian system to learning centre and also offers psychosocial support.© UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0148/Brian Sokol UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 13
  16. 16. PHILIPPINES, 2012 People affected by Typhoon Bopha receive family hygiene kits and jerrycans at an aid distribution site in the flood-ravaged town of New Bataan, in Compostela Valley Province in Davao Region in south-eastern Mindanao. UNICEF and partners are distributing family hygiene kits and other relief supplies.© UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1706/Josh Estey 14 | UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 – <>
  17. 17. The responseUNICEF worked with partners in support of host This was increasingly evident between the UNICEF response in 2012governments and civil society to provide results WASH and nutrition sectors in the Sahel; included the followingfor children and women through the delivery of between WASH and health sectors in the results:3programmes in nutrition; health; water, sanitation response to cholera, including in Haiti; betweenand hygiene (WASH); child protection; education; WASH and education in providing toilets inand HIV and AIDS. In many countries, UNICEF schools; and in the provision of health,was also responsible for leading or co-leading WASH and education services to child protection centres. NUTRITION clusters and areas of responsibility for nutrition;WASH; education; child protection; and 2 million children weregender-based violence. But humanitarian responses also faced significant treated for severe and moderate malnutrition constraints. Scarce resources meant prioritizingProminent among the results through October some sectors and services over others,2012 was the treatment of malnutrition (2 million compromising the ability to address child rightschildren treated), including more than 700,000 comprehensively. Sanitation services, hygieneseverely malnourished who were reached as part promotion, improved education, health-care HEALTH of a Sahel-wide scale-up. Achievements also services and the launching of information campaigns to prevent HIV and AIDS or landmine 38.3 million children wereincluded the provision of vaccinations immunized(38.3 million immunized), micronutrients and injuries were severely compromised, with lacksafe drinking water (12.4 million people provided of funding given as the main, but not the only,with access to safe water for drinking, cooking constraint. People’s ability to access humanitarianand bathing); and basic child protection services assistance was also hampered or denied,(reaching 2.4 million children with a variety of prevented at times by insecurity and at times by WATER, SANITATIONservices). Some 3 million children were provided the physical challenges of poor infrastructure. & HYGIENE with access to improved education, including Some of these challenges were also 12.4 million people werethrough temporary spaces, and 1 million people compounded by insufficient national and provided with access towere provided with access to HIV and AIDS international commitment and political will. Weak safe water for drinking,testing, counselling and referral for treatment. implementation capacity and a lack of resources cooking and bathing for local and international partners alsoChildren and women were reached through compromised the ability to scale up effectivelyinnovative approaches, such as the continued and adequately in some cases.expansion of community-based interventions and CHILD PROTECTION improved coordination and collaboration among 2.4 million children werepartners and sectors. Increased efforts to provided with childmobilize and train community members in protection servicesdetecting and referring malnutrition and childprotection cases enabled more children to betreated and more child protection cases to beaddressed. Where crises affected severalcountries, or spilled over into neighbouring EDUCATION states, cross-border strategies and subregional 3 million children weremechanisms were increasingly used, such as the provided with access toapproach to the three major cross-border cholera improved education,outbreaks in West and Central Africa. Additional including throughresults were possible through the use of temporary spacespre-positioned stocks, which enabled somecountry offices to respond to emergencies in atimely manner, while in others, Colombia andMadagascar, for example, some of the HIV and AIDS emergency needs were met by the re-allocation 1 million were providedof funds from regular programme resources. with access to testing,Closer partnerships and improved cohesion in counselling and referralprogramme planning, implementation and for treatmentmonitoring between sectors, coordination groupsand organizations led to increased efficiency andto better and more timely delivery of services. UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 15
  18. 18. Overall funding trends In 2012, humanitarian funding followed patterns similar to those of prior years, with the majority of income concentrated in a few high-profile emergencies, some encompassing several countries. In 2012, UNICEF’s funding requirements for Again, much of the humanitarian contributions humanitarian action totalled almost US$1.5 went to addressing the food and nutrition crises billion. This included the requirements presented in Africa. Nearly 40 per cent of 2012 humanitarian in the 43 country, regional and headquarters funding was contributed to the Sahel crisis (US$146 offices outlined in Humanitarian Action for million across nine countries and the regional office) Children 2012, in addition to one inter-agency and the Horn of Africa response (US$125 million), flash appeal. with the remaining 60 per cent directed towards UNICEF’s other emergency operations. As of 31 October, UNICEF had mobilized US$664 million against total appeal requirements from The initial Humanitarian Action for Children various donor governments, private institutions 2012 had a budget of almost US$1.3 billion that and individuals. An additional US$19 million out- was later revised to almost US$1.5 billion. As side these appeals from CERF and other funding shown in Figure 1.5, only Niger and the State sources4 brought the provisional humanitarian of Palestine were fully funded in 2012. Most income to US$684 million. Although overall, the countries experienced funding shortfalls, with proportion of funds received compared to the half of offices receiving less than 40 per cent amount requested was, at 45 per cent, relatively of requirements. UNICEF country offices in low, the proportion varied significantly from Madagascar and Sri Lanka and regional offices country to country, with some receiving more for East Asia and the Pacific and Latin America than the requested amount, half receiving less and the Caribbean each received less than 10 per than 40 per cent and some receiving less than cent of their humanitarian funding requirements. 10 per cent. Funding varied not only between In some cases, where funds were available, as in countries, but also between sectors, forcing Afghanistan, their late receipt severely curtailed many components of a comprehensive implementation time. And where limited funding response to the needs of children and women was overcome to reach children and women, the to go unfunded. assistance was not always sustainable. For example, in education and child protection, most FigureEmergency Funding Trend, 1999 – 2012 1999–2012 1.1: Emergency funding trend, 1,200 1,129 1,023 1,000 963 800 735 663 684 601 600 529 443 391 400 235 240 197 199 200 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012* All Emergency Trends Thematic (unearmarked) Funds Non-Thematic (earmarked) Funds * 2012 provisional data as of 31 October 2012. Previous years data reflect full-year funding.16 | UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 – <>
  19. 19. SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC, 2012 A girl, carrying jerrycans of water, walks past a pile of debris, on a street in Aleppo, capital of the north-western Aleppo Governorate. The city, which has been a site of prolonged fighting during the conflict, is experiencing frequent interruptions in its water supply.© UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1293/Alessio Romenz UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 17
  20. 20. of the children reached were reached through US$117.3 million. CERF was the second largest temporary learning structures and child-friendly source, providing US$116.2 million of spaces, while efforts to support durable humanitarian funding, and the European structures and systems were limited by lack Commission was the third largest, providing of resources. US$104.4 million. As of the end of October, the top 10 donors of humanitarian funding (shown All of these results were made possible by in the chart below) accounted for approximately generous support from public and private sector 79 per cent of the contributions received by donors, whose contributions enabled UNICEF to UNICEF for emergency operations. address the critical needs of children and vulnerable populations affected by humanitarian crises throughout the world. The largest 2012 thematic humanitarian funds proportion of humanitarian funding was received directly from government donors (53 per cent), In order to respond quickly and most effectively while government funding via pooled funding to humanitarian crises, UNICEF seeks flexible, mechanisms such as the Central Emergency unearmarked resources to allocate to the areas of Response Fund (CERF), Common Humanitarian highest priority. Only 9 per cent of donor Funds (CHFs) and Emergency Response Funds contributions for humanitarian action, or US$63 (ERFs) provided 23 per cent of the total million of the US$684 million received by the end humanitarian contributions. National Committees of October 2012, was provided in the form of for UNICEF provided 9 per cent of the funding – ‘thematic’, or unearmarked, funding. and their joint effort in social media helped focus Because it allows UNICEF the flexibility to attention on the looming crisis in the Sahel early respond where needs are greatest, thematic in the year – while inter-governmental humanitarian funding is particularly crucial for organizations such as the European Commission large-scale emergencies that require sustained provided 15 per cent. Local fundraising through funding over a long period of time and/or that UNICEF field offices accounted for the remaining cover several countries – such as the Sahel and percentage (less than 0.5 per cent of the total Horn of Africa responses – or that are funding received). consistently underfunded ‘silent emergencies’. Flexible resources also allow UNICEF to apply As of the end of October 2012, the Government innovative solutions to complex situations and of Japan was the largest source of UNICEF’s integrate early recovery. Thematic funding further humanitarian funding, with a total contribution of supports UNICEF in meeting its commitments to Figure 1.2: Top 10 sources of humanitarian funds, 2012 Government 117.3 of Japan Central Emergency 116.2 Response Fund European Commission 104.4 Government of United States 74.1 Government of Canada 39.5 UNDP – Multi-Donor 33.8 Trust Funds Government of United Kingdom 28.2 Government 25.9 of Sweden Government 14.4 of Australia Government 9.0 of Denmark 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Millions of US dollars Provisional income through 31 October 2012. Funding figures represent total contribution amounts, including applicable recovery costs, as issued to country offices. They do not reflect adjustments, which may be made in accordance with International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) conditions. Funding received for emergencies outside the HAC 2012 (mainly through the Central Emergency Response Fund) were for Angola, Burundi, Comoros, Congo, Ghana, Myanmar, Nepal, Paraguay, Peru, Sierra Leone and Uganda.18 | UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 – <>
  21. 21. Figure 1.3: Top 10 donors - 2012 thematic humanitarian reform by upholding its leadershiphumanitarian funds responsibilities under the cluster approach. The proportion of overall humanitarian funding for 2012 represented by thematic humanitarian funding (9 per cent through the end of October) was significantly lower than it was in 2011, German when it stood at 19 per cent for the year. It US$8,360,803 Committee for should be noted that two thirds (US$122 million) UNICEF of the thematic humanitarian funds received in 2011 were for the Horn of Africa response, while the remaining US$65 million was provided for other emergencies. Japan Committee for US$6,328,552 The decline in thematic funding becomes even UNICEF more evident when looking at the figures for 2010, when US$332 million (or 32 per cent of humanitarian income) was received as thematic humanitarian funds. In that year, the majority of United the thematic funding came in response to the Kingdom crises in Haiti and Pakistan, showing the US$5,633,376 Committee for UNICEF significant impact that media attention to large-scale emergencies has on raising flexible funding. It is evident that donors recognize the benefits of flexible funding for large-scale Spanish emergencies, and UNICEF would like to Committee for US$5,314,820 encourage them to consider contributing UNICEF thematic humanitarian funds to other emergencies to provide the flexibility that is so crucial to effective humanitarian action. French In 2012, the top thematic donor was the German US$4,731,103 Committee for Committee for UNICEF, followed by the Japan UNICEF Committee for UNICEF and the United Kingdom Committee for UNICEF. UNICEF would like to acknowledge all donors who provide thematic funding – particularly its national committee Government of partners, who provided 76 per cent of the Norway US$4,597,040 thematic funding received for 2012. UNICEF continues to urge its donors to provide flexible humanitarian funding for all countries Italian US$3,119,806 Committee for and at the global level. Next to regular UNICEF resources, global thematic humanitarian funding is UNICEF’s preferred funding modality. The amount received as global thematic United humanitarian funding by the end of October States Fund (US$1.5 million) represents only 2 per cent of US$2,801,000 Committee for the total thematic humanitarian funds received UNICEF in 2012. Global thematic humanitarian funds allow the organization to prioritize and respond Netherlands strategically to the needs of children worldwide. US$1,989,560 Committee for Using these funds, UNICEF can invest efficiently UNICEF in new initiatives; meet its commitments to humanitarian reform, particularly its cluster leadership responsibilities; prioritize underfunded UNICEF US$1,534,457 crises; and build capacity. These are undertaken Ireland with a focus on outcomes and sustainable As of 31 October 2012 results for children. UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 19
  22. 22. Figure 1.4: Contributions received in US$ Somalia 60.4 million Democratic Republic of the Congo 59.1 million Niger 42.1 million Yemen 41.3 million South Sudan 38.2 million Sudan 36.1 million Chad 32.6 million Ethiopia 32.0 million Kenya 30.0 million Afghanistan 28.2 million Syrian Refugees 27.8 million Pakistan 26.4 million Mali 22.3 million Côte d’Ivoire 18.6 million State of Palestine 17.1 million Burkina Faso 15.2 million Central African Republic 11.7 million Syrian Arab Republic 10.7 million Haiti 10.7 million Nigeria 10.5 million Democratic People’s Repunlic of Korea 9.8 million Global/Headquarters 9.7 million Liberia 8.4 million Mauritania 8.3 million Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office 7.2 million Cameroon 6.7 million Iraqi Refugees 5.6 million Central Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of 5.6 million Independent States Regional Office Zimbabwe 5.1 million West Central Africa Regional Office 4.3 million Eritrea 3.8 million Senegal 3.6 million Djibouti 2.9 million Philippines 2.8 million Lesotho 2.2 million Sri Lanka 1.6 million Middle East and North Africa Regional Office 0.9 million Rwanda 0.7 million Madagascar 0.6 million Colombia 0.5 million South Asia Regional Office 0.4 million East Asia and Pacific Regional Office 0.4 million Latin America and Caribbean Regional Office 0.3 million Gambia 0.2 million Millions of US dollarsProvisional income through 31 October 2012Funding figures represent total contribution amounts, including applicable recovery costs, as issued to country offices. These figures do not reflectadjustments, which may be made due to International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) conditionsFunding received for emergencies outside the HAC 2012 (mainly through the Central Emergency Response Funds) were for Angola, Burundi, Comoros,Congo, Ghana, Myanmar, Nepal, Paraguay, Peru, Sierra Leone, and Uganda20 | UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 – <>
  23. 23. Figure 1.5 Funding shortfalls against requirements in percentage Latin America and Caribbean Regional Office 97% Madagascar 94% Sri Lanka 92% East Asia and the Pacific Regional Office 91% South Asia Regional Office 89% Colombia 83% West and Central Africa Regional Office 82% Gambia 77% Syrian Arab Republic 76% Rwanda 74% Liberia 67% Middle East and North Africa Regional Office 65% Global/Headquarters 65% Djibouti 64% Lesotho 64% Democratic Republic of the Congo 64% Somalia 63% Sudan 63% Syrian Refugees 63% Nigeria 63% Pakistan 62% Eritrea 62% Mali 62% South Sudan 59% Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 56% Philippines 53% Iraqi Refugees 51% Chad 50% Haiti 50% Cameroon 49% Yemen 49% Senegal 46% Ethiopia 45% Zimbabwe 40% Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office 39% Afghanistan 37% Mauritania 34% Central Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of 32% Independent States Regional Office Burkina Faso 32% Côte d’Ivoire 31% Kenya 29% Central African Republic 9% Niger 0% State of Palestine 0% 0% 50% 100%Provisional income through 31 October 2012Funding figures represent total contribution amounts, including applicable recovery costs, as issued to country offices. These figures do not reflectadjustments, which may be made due to International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) conditionsFunding received for emergencies outside the HAC 2012 (mainly through the Central Emergency Response Funds) were for Angola, Burundi, Comoros,Congo, Ghana, Myanmar, Nepal, Paraguay, Peru, Sierra Leone, and Uganda UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 21
  24. 24. 2013 planned response For 2013, UNICEF is appealing for nearly US$1.4 billion to cover humanitarian needs described in this Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 funding document. Taking into account the countries covered in regional chapters, UNICEF will be assisting children in 45 countries. The bulk of the targeted results will come from Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 are ongoing responses to the larger protracted for communication, prevention, and testing crises: the Syrian Arab Republic and the refugee and referrals. response in neighbouring countries; the Sahel, notably the complex emergency inside Mali and Regional shifts in requirements have also the regional refugee crisis surrounding it; Somalia occurred, with almost a third of the overall and the Horn of Africa; the ongoing fighting and requirements focused on West and Central Africa nutritional crises in Yemen; the displacement and because of regional responses to the crisis in Mali nutrition crises in the Democratic Republic of the and the Sahel nutrition situation. Requirements for Congo and its children’s increasing vulnerability countries throughout the Middle East and North to lost schooling and threats of exploitation and Africa now comprise more than a quarter of overall abuse; and ongoing needs in Sudan, in particular needs, because of increases in the Syrian Arab education. The targeted results include Republic and Syrian refugee responses and responses to worsening crises that emerged late significant increases in requirements for Yemen. in 2012, such as the rising numbers of people Meanwhile, needs for Eastern and Southern Africa internally displaced by the fighting in the have dropped considerably because of Democratic Republic of the Congo; the improvements in the food security situation humanitarian situation in the State of Palestine in Kenya and Somalia, yet remain a significant following violence in the Gaza Strip in November proportion of overall needs because of a sharp and the additional needs in the Philippines increase for South Sudan, given the high refugee following Typhoon Bopha in early December. influxes from Sudan. There has also been a sharp decrease in needs for Latin America and the The focus of response has also evolved. In Caribbean (60 per cent) because of lower 2013, the proportion of funding per sector has requirements for Haiti, which is now moving slightly changed from that of 2012, with towards transitional and development requirements for nutrition interventions programmes, while maintaining an emergency decreasing by 11 per cent, largely due to the response capacity. Requirements for Central and improved food security situation in the Horn of Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Africa. This also accounts for the 40 per cent Independent States have remained constant; global reduction for livelihood programmes and however, in this year’s appeal, Georgia (the cash transfers. Meanwhile, the requirements for Abkhazia region), Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have WASH have increased by 30 per cent, largely stand-alone chapters to highlight their needs because of the need to increase the number and individually. Requirements for both South Asia and quality of sanitation services in many countries East Asia and the Pacific regions have decreased to reduce open defecation and halt the spread slightly, representing 7 and 4 per cent of global of disease. The requirements for child protection requirements respectively, with high priority given have more than doubled, mainly because of an to preparedness planning, emergency response increase in the number of psychosocial support and community-based disaster risk reduction. programmes but also to prevent child recruitment by armed groups and support Because of the unpredictable context in which those who are demobilized. In addition, given UNICEF and its humanitarian partners operate, the increased number of armed conflicts, these requirements are expected to be adjusted, programmes to reduce the risk of injuries from both upwards and downwards, as new events landmines have increased. Requirements for occur, additional assessments are carried out and HIV and AIDS programmes have fallen 35 per needs are met. Timely commitment and receipt cent, as many costs have now been of funds have been essential in the past, and the streamlined into all other programme budgets continued support of donors will be critical to or are addressed through national development ensure an effective and comprehensive response frameworks. Most HIV and AIDs programmes in in 2013.22 | UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 – <>
  25. 25. 9%3% 25% UNICEF and partners in 2013 will work toward the following results:5 FUNDING REQUIREMENTS NUTRITION PER SECTOR 1.9 million children to be treated for severe acute 13% malnutrition Figure 1.6: Total nearly US$1.4 billion requirements by sector HEALTH 39 million children 9% immunized against measles, 23% 2% 3% pneumonia, polio, 1% 25% meningitis, rubella, acute respiratory infections and/or tetanus 14% FUNDING Nutrition REQUIREMENTS WATER, SANITATION & HYGIENE Health PER SECTOR 12.3 million people to have WASH 13% access to safe water for Child protection drinking, cooking and Education 11% bathing HIV/AIDS Cluster coordination CHILD PROTECTION Non-food items & livelihoods 23% 3.5 million children (and women) to have access to Emergency response & DRR child protection services (including family tracing and foster care for separated Emergency preparedness and disaster risk reduction includes countries covered under regional chapters; the children, assistance for Democratic Republic of the Congo’s multi-sector Rapid Response to Movements of Population (RRMP) mechanism; multi-sector refugee response in South Sudan; and global support. children demobilized from Totals do not add to 100 per cent due to rounding Nutrition armed groups, services for victims of gender-based Health violence, psychosocial WASH support and life skills programmes) Child protection Education HIV/AIDS EDUCATION Cluster coordination 6 million children to have access to improved Non-food items & livelihoods education, including Emergency response & DRR through temporary spaces HIV and AIDS 292,752 people to have access to testing, counselling and referral for treatment UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 23
  26. 26. NIGER, 2012Young children collect water for their families at a camp forMalian refugees in Niger. © UNICEF/NIGER/2012/Christopher Tidey24 | UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 – <>
  27. 27. Global supportChildren and women are most affected by The main functions of this globalhumanitarian situations. Complex emergencies architecture are:and natural disasters worsen children’s • Headquarters has a role in providing overallnutritional status; increase the risk of excess strategic direction and guidance linked toillness and death from common killers such as the wider United Nations and policypneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria; strain already guidance of the Executive Board, withstretched water and sanitation systems responsibility for strategic planning,worsened by poor hygiene conditions; increase advocacy and oversight for the organizationthe risk of disease outbreaks; interrupt learning; as a whole. Headquarters also providesexpose children to increased threat of violence, leadership in developing UNICEF’s globalabuse and exploitation, including grave perspective by integrating the experiencesviolations; and increase the risk of HIV infection. and contributions of all parts of the organization and by ensuring that the globalOver the past six years, UNICEF has responded perspective informs planning, policyto an average of over 250 humanitarian development and guidelines forsituations annually, guided by its Core management and quality assurance.Commitments for Children in Humanitarian • Regional offices have a role as mechanismsAction (CCCs). In partnership with national for guidance, support, oversight andgovernments, civil society partners and other coordination of country offices withinUnited Nations agencies, UNICEF works in regions. This includes leadership andsome of the most challenging environments in representation, strategic planning and policythe world to deliver results for millions of development, country programme support,children and women whose rights are performance monitoring and administration.threatened by natural disasters or complexemergencies. The UNICEF programmes that Global support is coordinated by a dedicatedlead this response in over 150 countries and team in UNICEF’s Office of Emergencyterritories are present before, during and after Programmes (EMOPS) as well as emergencycrises and leverage existing partnerships and focal points across headquarters divisions.programmes for response as well as for EMOPS aims to strengthen UNICEF capacity topreparedness and resilience building. Though advocate for and assist children in emergencythe bulk of UNICEF’s US$1 billion humanitarian situations effectively and to provide policy,expenditure6 occurs in the field, considerable technical and operations support to field officessupport is provided by regional offices and dealing with complex emergency situations.headquarters (as described in the following This includes development andillustration). This system enables UNICEF to implementation of systems and procedures, formobilize its global resources in support of example to strengthen organizational capacitycountry-office-led responses to deliver results for results-based monitoring in humanitarianfor children and women in all emergencies and situations jointly with regional offices. A globalfragile settings. security team as well as a 24-hour, 7-day-a-week information gathering and disseminationUNICEF’s global architecture for humanitarian operations centre (OPSCEN) and deploymentaction provides the core infrastructure to mechanisms provide direct support to the the field’s response to: save and protect Global policy capacity also supports UNICEF’slives in accordance with the CCCs and ability to deliver humanitarian assistancehumanitarian principles; strengthen national consistent with humanitarian principlessystems to build preparedness and resilience articulated in General Assembly resolutionat the community level; and support sector and 46/182,7 including in conflict-affected or highlycluster coordination and good humanitarian insecure environments, and to improve qualitypartnership initiatives. Headquarters capacity of response through knowledge managementand systems for programmes and operations and use of innovations. This has included, forunderpin and complement regional support example, documentation and application ofmechanisms so that country offices can deliver lessons from major emergencies such as thoseresults for children and adapt to emerging in Haiti and the Horn of Africa, to informchallenges. systems change and future responses. Headquarters is also central to mobilizing UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 | 25