Martin BalluchStruggle forAnimal Rights
The Struggle    for Animal Rights               Martin Balluch    Association Against Animal Factories                VGT,...
The modern         animal rights movement1964:• Ruth Harrison‘s book „Animal Machines“ published  → details factory farmin...
Repressive ideology newly identified:            Speciesism1970: Richard Ryder coins the phrase speciesism  → painism – go...
Academic development• 1975: Peter Singer‘s „Animal Liberation“  → Utilitarianism• 1983: Tom Regan‘s „The case for Animal R...
National organisations ↔ grassroots      Welfarism ↔ RightsismOld established welfare organisations are charity, not  poli...
               ANIMAL WELFARE               ANIMAL RIGHTS      Basic idea             first in 18th century      first in ...
              National organisations           Grassroots      Ideology              Animal Welfare              Animal Ri...
Campaigns 1970ies – environmentalSeal pup culling in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada:• 1st time TV reports from animal a...
Emancipation of animal issuesAustria: December 1984,  occupation of the primieval  forests East of Vienna to  prevent cutt...
The Fur Campaign 1988Activism:• Rather naked than fur• Pictures from fur farms  in the media• Media stunts                ...
Kürschner, Handschuhmacher, Gerber120.000100.000 80.000                                                                   ...
Campaign against live animal transport           1995 UK: mass             demos and actions                       → only ...
Killed in action!                        Tom Worby, 3. 4. 1993                        Hunt sabbing the                    ...
Pressure campaigns against companiesPressure campaign:• permanent demos• many actions (most illegal)• no media, no public ...
Aspects of abolitionist direct       pressure campaigns• Abolitionist: against animal using companies,  alternative only n...
Paradigm shift in AustriaSynthesis of:• National Organisation ↔ Grassroots  → national network of grassroots groups, non- ...
Fur farm campaign in earnest• 1988: ca. 80 farms (fox,  mink, nutria), start of  campaign• 1989: Greens demand fur  farm b...
Fur farm ban in Austria• 1995: 6 provinces  ban fur farms, 3  don‘t• 1997: permanent  demos begin• 10. 2. 1998: office  of...
Fur farm ban: critical assessment• Abolitionist?  – What about leather?  – What about sheep fur?  – Outright ban of certai...
Campaign against animal circuses• 1996: Circuses  documented• 1997: Permanent demos  start (almost daily)• 1998: circus do...
Wild animals circus ban:         critical assessment• Only certain animals banned from usage→ Usage of domestic and farmed...
Preliminaries to battery farm ban1994: UV lamp tests in  supermarkets  → 1995: control institute  foundedBeak trimming for...
Phase 1: making the public awareMarch 2003: 7 chickens  liberated openly with  journalists presentFound guilty for theft a...
Investigation: battery farmingJuly 2003: 48 battery               farms  visited within               15 days,  keeping 40...
January – May 2004:            confrontational campaignDaily demos outside government buildings and on the streets, inform...
Opinion pollFebruary 2004:• 86% of the population  want battery farming  bannedActually:• 80% buy battery eggs• 30% eggs i...
Disruption of Conservativeprovincial election campaigns
Occupation ofgovernor‘s officeOccupation ofConservative HQBanner drop inProvincialParliament
More open liberations andbattery farm occupations
SUCCESS !! – Battery farming banned!On 27th May 2004 historic  unanimous vote for a ban:• conventional cages banned  from ...
Further bans• 2005: song bird trapping• 2006: experiments on  apes (chimps, bonobos,  gorillas, orang utans  and gibbons!)...
Violence 2007-2008
Repression: USA and UKUSA: Center of the defence of free enterprise• 1992: Animal Enterprise Protection Act• 2004: Ecoterr...
Repression in Austria• Investigation starts October 2006• Special Police Unit formed (35 officers) in April 2007• In 2008 ...
Home raids and remand prison• 21st May 2008: 23 raids in homes  and 7 offices; later 10 more raids• 10 activists for 105 d...
Animal rights trial• 2nd March 2010 – 2nd May 2011• 98 trial days• 126 witnesses of the prosecution• Consecutively: 3 tax ...
Repression in Spain• Investigations start 2008• Methods: phones tapped,  emails read, social  profiles, surveillance• 22. ...
And next? Ban on sow stalls 2011!
OBS | The struggle for Animal Rights
OBS | The struggle for Animal Rights
OBS | The struggle for Animal Rights
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Martin Balluch
The struggle for Animal Rights

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  • OBS | The struggle for Animal Rights

    1. 1. Martin BalluchStruggle forAnimal Rights
    2. 2. The Struggle for Animal Rights Martin Balluch Association Against Animal Factories VGT, Austria Out of the Box Seminar University of Maribor, Slovenia 6. July 2012
    3. 3. The modern animal rights movement1964:• Ruth Harrison‘s book „Animal Machines“ published → details factory farming → inspires Peter Singer to „Animal Liberation“ 1975• Hunt Saboteurs‘ Association founded by journalist John Prestige while writing about deer hunting → direct action against hunting with hounds in UK → grass roots, mass actions, begin of animal rights activism
    4. 4. Repressive ideology newly identified: Speciesism1970: Richard Ryder coins the phrase speciesism → painism – golden rule: Don‘t do to others, what you don‘t want done to yourselfOthers: your race – racism your nation – nationalism your sex – sexism your species – speciesismSolution: others, who can suffer as well
    5. 5. Academic development• 1975: Peter Singer‘s „Animal Liberation“ → Utilitarianism• 1983: Tom Regan‘s „The case for Animal Rights“ → Kantianism• 1996: David DeGrazia‘s „Mental Life and Moral Status“ → Reflective equilibrium• 1998: Mark Rowlands‘ „Animal Rights“ → Contractarianism• 2005: Martin Balluch‘s „The Right to Autonomy“ → Categorical values
    6. 6. National organisations ↔ grassroots Welfarism ↔ RightsismOld established welfare organisations are charity, not political – hierarchical, within the established order (royal prefix)Young activist rights groups are political, not charity – non-hierarchical, critical of the systemUK:• HSA as basis of ar activism turns the working class against rich farm owners → class aspect• Welfare organisations often run by aristocrats
    7. 7.   ANIMAL WELFARE ANIMAL RIGHTS Basic idea first in 18th century first in 19th century Groups  since early 19th century since end 19th century Laws  since early 19th century none Motivation empathy justice Aim minimize suffering autonomy Animal usage ok in principle wrong in principle Activity help for suffering animals stop animal abuse Societal changes  unchanged completely new (property, personhood)Human-Animal relation stays the same completely new Self-definition social political Killing ok if painless not ok Ethics act good act just
    8. 8.   National organisations Grassroots Ideology Animal Welfare Animal Rights Concept Reform Abolitionism Seen in Society mainstream, propagandist radical, honest Organisation hierarchical non hierachical Idealism small large Appearance decent excentric Activity petitioning, informing demos, direct action Activists paid, not many volunteers, mass movement Finances big budget small budget Campaign goals geared towards donations no concept, the cruelestExecution of activity professional, media spontaneous, no media Access to politics farely good none
    9. 9. Campaigns 1970ies – environmentalSeal pup culling in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada:• 1st time TV reports from animal actions• Actress Brigitte Bardot with baby seals on the ice flows• Spray painting of seal pups→ killing of seal pups is banned! (trade 1982)Whaling:• Inflatables block harpoons of whalers→ moratorium on whaling adopted 1982, in effect 1986
    10. 10. Emancipation of animal issuesAustria: December 1984, occupation of the primieval forests East of Vienna to prevent cutting→ 10.000 activists attend to:• protect democracy• protect ecosystems• protect endangered species• protect individual animals→ first purely animal rights oriented groups form
    11. 11. The Fur Campaign 1988Activism:• Rather naked than fur• Pictures from fur farms in the media• Media stunts Result: • Fur sales crash • Fur becomes anti- social
    12. 12. Kürschner, Handschuhmacher, Gerber120.000100.000 80.000 Bruttoproduktionswerte 60.000 Betriebserlöse Produktionswerte 40.000 20.000 0 88 89 90 91 92 93 95 96 97 98 94 99 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19
    13. 13. Campaign against live animal transport 1995 UK: mass demos and actions → only Dover 1995 Austria: media stunts and reports → 6 hour max travel time → overthrown in 1998 by EU courts
    14. 14. Killed in action! Tom Worby, 3. 4. 1993 Hunt sabbing the Cambridge Foxhounds Jill Phipps, 1. 2. 1995 Blocking Coventry Airport against the export ofMike Hill, 9. 2. 1991 live calves toHunt sabbing the Europe Cheshire Beagles
    15. 15. Pressure campaigns against companiesPressure campaign:• permanent demos• many actions (most illegal)• no media, no public sympathy1996-1997: Consort Beagles1997-1999: Hillgrove Cats1999-2000: Shamrock Farm Monkeys1999-2005: Newchurch Guinea Pigs (prison after end)2000: Regal Rabbits1999-prison(2007): SHAC
    16. 16. Aspects of abolitionist direct pressure campaigns• Abolitionist: against animal using companies, alternative only no usage at all• No compromise• Direct pressure without large scale support of the public• Grassroots non-hierarchical autonomous activities• No public face explains activities• But: if certain companies are stopped, does that reduce animal abuse?
    17. 17. Paradigm shift in AustriaSynthesis of:• National Organisation ↔ Grassroots → national network of grassroots groups, non- hierarchical but with reasonable budget, media relations and access to politics• Welfare ↔ Rights → appreciate welfare as political and psychological step towards rights• Reform ↔ Abolitionism → confrontational reform campaigns for incremental law/system changes with the sympathy of the public
    18. 18. Fur farm campaign in earnest• 1988: ca. 80 farms (fox, mink, nutria), start of campaign• 1989: Greens demand fur farm ban• 1989: voluntary quality seal for fur farms• 1991: environmental minister campaigns against fur farms• 1993: Activists find 43 fur farms, publish footage• 1990ies: disruption of all fur fashion shows
    19. 19. Fur farm ban in Austria• 1995: 6 provinces ban fur farms, 3 don‘t• 1997: permanent demos begin• 10. 2. 1998: office of provincial governor occupied• 17. 2. 1998: ban introduced• 30. 11. 1998: last fur farm closes
    20. 20. Fur farm ban: critical assessment• Abolitionist? – What about leather? – What about sheep fur? – Outright ban of certain animal product• But: – Fur farms move abroad – Fur trade not reduced• Although: – Ban might be exported (indeed: UK, …) – Banned production stigmatises the product fur
    21. 21. Campaign against animal circuses• 1996: Circuses documented• 1997: Permanent demos start (almost daily)• 1998: circus documentary film published• Violence by circus staff• 2002: Ban on wild animals in circuses agreed• 2005: Ban takes effect
    22. 22. Wild animals circus ban: critical assessment• Only certain animals banned from usage→ Usage of domestic and farmed animals ok?• But even the most humane usage of wild animals banned!• Consequence: – Almost no circuses with animals left in Austria – No foreign circuses come to Austria• 3 times was the banned challenged at EU-level and at the Austrian constitutional court→ Ban was upheld
    23. 23. Preliminaries to battery farm ban1994: UV lamp tests in supermarkets → 1995: control institute foundedBeak trimming for non-cage birds → 2001: scientific study for management of non-cage flocks without beak trimming → beak trimming < 1%
    24. 24. Phase 1: making the public awareMarch 2003: 7 chickens liberated openly with journalists presentFound guilty for theft and burglary to the value of € 15Appeal court: not guilty, because acted in the name of society
    25. 25. Investigation: battery farmingJuly 2003: 48 battery farms visited within 15 days, keeping 40% of all battery hensResult:• 79% massively overstocked cages• 91% overstocked cages• 100% ill animals• 71% very unhygienic• 47% dead chickens rotting in cages
    26. 26. January – May 2004: confrontational campaignDaily demos outside government buildings and on the streets, informing the public
    27. 27. Opinion pollFebruary 2004:• 86% of the population want battery farming bannedActually:• 80% buy battery eggs• 30% eggs imported from cage systems
    28. 28. Disruption of Conservativeprovincial election campaigns
    29. 29. Occupation ofgovernor‘s officeOccupation ofConservative HQBanner drop inProvincialParliament
    30. 30. More open liberations andbattery farm occupations
    31. 31. SUCCESS !! – Battery farming banned!On 27th May 2004 historic unanimous vote for a ban:• conventional cages banned from 1st Jan 2009• no new enriched cage systems from 1st Jan 2005• existing enriched cage systems (2% of hens) for 15 years (till 2020)And:• Animal solicitor scheme• Animal protection in constitution
    32. 32. Further bans• 2005: song bird trapping• 2006: experiments on apes (chimps, bonobos, gorillas, orang utans and gibbons!)• 2007: caging rabbits for meat production
    33. 33. Violence 2007-2008
    34. 34. Repression: USA and UKUSA: Center of the defence of free enterprise• 1992: Animal Enterprise Protection Act• 2004: Ecoterrorism Prevention Act• 2006: Animal Enterprise Terrorism ActUK: Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005→ 2006: 4 new church guinea pig campaigners convicted of blackmail for up to 12 years prison→ 2006: 8 sequani campaigners convicted of SOCPA for up to 6 years prison→ 2009: 13 SHAC campaigners convicted of conspiracy to blackmail for up to 11 years prisonUSA: 2006 SHAC 7 imprisoned for up to 6 years
    35. 35. Repression in Austria• Investigation starts October 2006• Special Police Unit formed (35 officers) in April 2007• In 2008 alone: optical and accoustical surveillance of 267 activists• Methods: police spies, phone tapping, email reading, tracking device on car, cameras at doors, bugging devices in homes and offices, cash account monitoring, direct surveillance• Police reports against 46 people, 150 suspects, 16 suspected animal organisations
    36. 36. Home raids and remand prison• 21st May 2008: 23 raids in homes and 7 offices; later 10 more raids• 10 activists for 105 days on remand in prison• Suspicion: criminal organisation since 1988 for all animal campaigns• Appeals fail: released because of public pressure• After intensive PR campaigns (e.g. 25 press conferences): media and public side with the accused
    37. 37. Animal rights trial• 2nd March 2010 – 2nd May 2011• 98 trial days• 126 witnesses of the prosecution• Consecutively: 3 tax and charity investigations against ar group• Verdict: not guilty – There never was a real suspicion – There is no criminal organisation in the animal movement – The accused have understandably critisized police – Police have acted illegally and lied in court
    38. 38. Repression in Spain• Investigations start 2008• Methods: phones tapped, emails read, social profiles, surveillance• 22. June 2011: 13 home raids, 11 arrests, 3 on remand in prison for almost 1 month• Charge: Criminal organisation• Bad media coverage as „ecoterrorists“
    39. 39. And next? Ban on sow stalls 2011!

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