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OBC | Observing the brain to know ourselves


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Sara A. Solla, Northwestern University, Chicago, USA
Observing the brain to know ourselves

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OBC | Observing the brain to know ourselves

  1. 1. Observing the brain to know ourselves Sara A. Solla Northwestern University
  2. 2. The human brain
  3. 3. The human brain
  4. 4. NeuronsAbout 85 billion neurons,of which about 15 billionare in the cortex.
  5. 5. Neurons
  6. 6. Neurons electrode
  7. 7. Spikes: action potentials
  8. 8. Spikes: from single neurons to multiple neurons
  9. 9. Multi Electrode Arrays (MEAs)
  10. 10. Reaching tasks
  11. 11. Center out task
  12. 12. MEA recordings: center out task
  13. 13. MEA recordings: multiple targets
  14. 14. Converting thoughts into actions Nicolelis, Nature Reviews Neuroscience (2003)
  15. 15. Brain machine interfacesIdea first proposed by Edward M. Schmidt in 1980: `Singleneuron recording from motor cortex as a possible source ofsignals for control of external devices’. Schmidt, Annals of Biomedical Engineering (1980)
  16. 16. Multi Electrode Arrays (MEAs) Truccolo, Hochberg, Donoghue, Nature Neuroscience (2009)
  17. 17. Activity: multiple neurons 110 neurons, M1, hS3
  18. 18. Brain machine interfaces
  19. 19. NeuroprosthesisHochberg, Serruya, Friehs, Mukand, et al, Nature (2006)
  20. 20. Neuroprosthesis
  21. 21. MEA recordings: center out task
  22. 22. Target-dependent population activity ni Here ni is the number of spikes fi = emitted by neuron i during a time D bin of duration D .
  23. 23. Decoding direction of motion for center out task
  24. 24. Predicting motion from neural activity  Simultaneous recordings of population activity provide insight on the activity of networks of neurons and its relation to function.  The mathematical analysis of neural activity associated with arm reaches allows us to predict motion trajectory.  The ability to simultaneously record and decode the activity of large populations of neurons provides a tool for the restoration of function.
  25. 25. Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface • Incorporate realistic limb dynamics into forward pathway • Incorporate proprioception in feedback pathway