Converting thoughts into actions Nicolelis, Nature Reviews Neuroscience (2003)
Brain machine interfacesIdea first proposed by Edward M. Schmidt in 1980: `Singleneuron recording from motor cortex as a possible source ofsignals for control of external devices’. Schmidt, Annals of Biomedical Engineering (1980)
Target-dependent population activity ni Here ni is the number of spikes fi = emitted by neuron i during a time D bin of duration D .
Decoding direction of motion for center out task
Predicting motion from neural activity Simultaneous recordings of population activity provide insight on the activity of networks of neurons and its relation to function. The mathematical analysis of neural activity associated with arm reaches allows us to predict motion trajectory. The ability to simultaneously record and decode the activity of large populations of neurons provides a tool for the restoration of function.
Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface • Incorporate realistic limb dynamics into forward pathway • Incorporate proprioception in feedback pathway