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Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé part 1.pdf

Ousseini Barkiré MAHAMADOU
Ousseini Barkiré MAHAMADOU
Ousseini Barkiré MAHAMADOUNetwork Quality Engineer chez airtel at airtel

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Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé part 1.pdf

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Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé
LZT 103 1014 OF © Ericsson 2011 - 1 -
Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé
STUDENT BOOK part 1
LZT 103 1014/OF
Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé
- 2 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF
DISCLAIMER
This book is a training document and contains simplifications.
Therefore, it must not be considered as a specification of the
system.
The contents of this document are subject to revision without
notice due to ongoing progress in methodology, design and
manufacturing.
Ericsson assumes no legal responsibility for any error or damage
resulting from the usage of this document.
This document is not intended to replace the technical
documentation that was shipped with your system. Always refer to
that technical documentation during operation and maintenance.
© Ericsson 2011
This document was produced by Ericsson.
• It is used for training purposes only and may not be copied or
reproduced in any manner without the express written consent
of Ericsson.
This Student Book, LZT 103 1014/OF, supports course number
LZU 103 1014/OF .
Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé
LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 3 -
Table of Contents
0 WCDMA PLANNING AND OPTIMISATION CHALLENGES ......11
OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................11
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................13
PLANNING CHALLENGES .................................................................19
OPTIMISATION CHALLENGES ..........................................................21
SERVICE CONSIDERATIONS.............................................................23
INTERFERENCE CHALLENGES........................................................24
ANTENNA HEIGHTS ...........................................................................25
POWER CONTROL .............................................................................26
CARRIERS AND CAPACITY ...............................................................27
INDOOR PLANNING CHALLENGES..................................................28
PILOT POLUTION ...............................................................................29
SOFTHANDOVER OPTIMISATION.....................................................30
1 INTRODUCTION TO OSS-RC FOR PERFORMANCE
MANAGEMENT AND OPTIMISATION .......................................33
OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................33
INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................35
SUB-NETWORKS MANAGED BY OSS-RC ..................................................38
UPGRADE PATHS FOR OSS-RC.................................................................39
OSS-RC APPLICATIONS..............................................................................40
OSS-RC COMPONENTS ..............................................................................41
OSS-RC NETWORK EXPLORER .................................................................52
COMMON INTEGRATION FRAMEWORK ....................................................54
FREQUENCY ALLOCATION SUPPORT (FAS) ............................................57
FREQUENCY OPTIMIZATION EXPERT (FOX) ............................................62
SYNCHRONIZED RADIO NETWORK OPTIMIZATION EXPERT..................66
NEIGHBORING CELL SUPPORT GSM-WCDMA .........................................69
Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé
- 4 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF
NEIGHBORING CELL SUPPORT FOR WCDMA ..........................................73
MEASUREMENT RESULT RECORDING WCDMA.......................................76
FIND FAULTY ANTENNA EXPERT WCDMA................................................79
RNO DATABASE EXPORT INTERFACE......................................................81
LAUNCHING THE OSS-RC DATA COLLECTION GUI .................................83
SYSTEM DEFINED SUBSCRIPTION PROFILES .........................................84
USER DEFINED SUBSCRIPTION PROFILES..............................................86
ADDING A USER DEFINED PROFILE..........................................................88
SUBSCRIPTION PROFILE USER GUIDE...........................................90
CTR, UETR AND GPEH OSS-RC SUBSCRIPTION PROFILES.........93
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................93
LAUNCHING THE OSS-RC DATA COLLECTION GUI .................................93
CREATING A CTR, UETR OR GPEH RECORDING.....................................97
SUBSCRIPTION PROFILE USER GUIDE.....................................................99
2 RADIO NETWORK FEATURES................................................101
POWER CONTROL ...........................................................................103
OPEN LOOP POWER CONTROL...............................................................104
INNER LOOP POWER CONTROL..............................................................105
OUTER LOOP POWER CONTROL ............................................................107
SETTING COMMON CHANNEL POWERS.......................................110
OPEN LOOP POWER CONTROL.....................................................113
UPLINK SIGNAL TO INTERFERENCE RATIO (SIR) ..................................113
RACH PREAMBLE POWER SETTING .......................................................114
SETTING THE RACH MESSAGE POWER.................................................118
FACH POWER SETTING............................................................................119
DOWNLINK SIGNAL TO INTERFERENCE RATIO (SIR)............................120
INITIAL DOWNLINK DPDCH/DPCCH POWER...........................................121
SETTING THE INITIAL DOWNLINK DPDCH POWER................................121
SETTING THE INITIAL DOWNLINK DPCCH POWER................................122
DOWNLINK POWER RAMPING .................................................................123
DOWNLINK DPDCH/DPCCH POWER SETTING AT SOFT HANDOVER...124
Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé
LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 5 -
INITIAL UPLINK DPCCH/DPDCH POWER.................................................126
SETTING THE INITIAL UPLINK DPDCH POWER ......................................126
INNER LOOP POWER CONTROL....................................................130
UPLINK INNER LOOP POWER CONTROL ................................................130
UPLINK POWER CONTROL IN COMPRESSED MODE.............................132
INITIAL POWER SETTING AT INTER-FREQUENCY HANDOVER AND
CORE NETWORK HARD HANDOVER.......................................................135
DOWNLINK INNER LOOP POWER CONTROL..........................................136
DOWNLINK POWER BALANCING .............................................................138
DOWNLINK POWER CONTROL IN COMPRESSED MODE ......................140
OUTER LOOP POWER CONTROL...................................................142
OUTER LOOP JUMP REGULATOR ...........................................................143
OUTER LOOP ANTI-WINDUP FEATURE...................................................145
OUTER LOOP CONSTANT STEP REGULATOR .......................................146
ADMISSION AND CONGESTION CONTROL...................................152
SYSTEM RESOURCE HANDLING .............................................................153
DOWNLINK TRANSMIT CARRIER POWER...............................................156
AIR INTERFACE SPEECH EQUIVALENT (ASE) USAGE...........................156
HISTOGRAM MONITOR .............................................................................157
NUMBER OF HSDPA USERS ALLOCATED TO THE HS-DSCH................158
NUMBER OF E-DCH USERS HAVING THE CELL AS SERVING CELL.....158
NUMBER OF E-DCH USERS HAVING THE CELL AS NON-SERVING
CELL ...........................................................................................................158
DOWNLINK CHANNELIZATION CODE USAGE.........................................158
UPLINK RECEIVED TOTAL WIDEBAND POWER MONITOR ....................160
RBS HARDWARE MONITOR......................................................................160
CAPACITY MANAGEMENT ........................................................................162
ADMISSION CONTROL ....................................................................163
ALLOCATION RETENTATION PRIORITY (ARP)........................................164
TRAFFIC HANDLING PRIORITY (THP)......................................................165
DEFAULT ARP MAPPING...........................................................................166
FLEXIBLE QOS AND ARP HANDLING.......................................................169
RAB MODIFICATION ..................................................................................169
Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé
- 6 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF
LOAD TRIGGERED ACCESS CLASS BARRING ............................186
MANUALLY TRIGGERED ACCESS CLASS BARRING ..............................187
VIDEO SERVICE RESTRICTION ......................................................190
CONGESTION CONTROL.................................................................192
UPLINK CELL CONGESTION DETECTION................................................193
DOWNLINK CELL CONGESTION DETECTION .........................................194
HSDPA CELL CONGESTION DETECTION ................................................195
CONGESTION RESOLVE HANDLING........................................................196
INITIAL RATE SELECTION FOR AMR NB .......................................198
PARAMETERS............................................................................................199
HANDOVER.......................................................................................203
SOFT AND SOFTER HANDOVER ....................................................205
HANDOVER EVENTS.................................................................................210
CELL UPDATE...................................................................................215
URA UPDATE ....................................................................................216
INTRODUCTION TO INTER-FREQUENCY, INTER-RAT
HANDOVER AND INTER-RAT CELL CHANGE................................217
INTER-FREQUENCY HANDOVER....................................................219
INTER-RAT HANDOVER (IRATHO) ..................................................224
WCDMA TO GSM .......................................................................................225
INTER RAT CELL CHANGE (IRATCC) .............................................228
IRATCC FROM WCDMA TO GSM/GPRS...................................................228
IRATHO AND IRATCC FROM GSM AND GPRS TO WCDMA..........231
MEASUREMENTS ON WCDMA CELLS .....................................................231
IRATCC FROM GSM/GPRS TO WCDMA...................................................234
IRATHO FROM GSM TO WCDMA..............................................................236
CORE NETWORK HARD HANDOVER.............................................239
MEASUREMENT HANDLING FOR CORE NETWORK HARD
HANDOVER ................................................................................................239
Ad

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Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé part 1.pdf

  • 1. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © Ericsson 2011 - 1 - Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé STUDENT BOOK part 1 LZT 103 1014/OF
  • 2. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 2 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF DISCLAIMER This book is a training document and contains simplifications. Therefore, it must not be considered as a specification of the system. The contents of this document are subject to revision without notice due to ongoing progress in methodology, design and manufacturing. Ericsson assumes no legal responsibility for any error or damage resulting from the usage of this document. This document is not intended to replace the technical documentation that was shipped with your system. Always refer to that technical documentation during operation and maintenance. © Ericsson 2011 This document was produced by Ericsson. • It is used for training purposes only and may not be copied or reproduced in any manner without the express written consent of Ericsson. This Student Book, LZT 103 1014/OF, supports course number LZU 103 1014/OF .
  • 3. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 3 - Table of Contents 0 WCDMA PLANNING AND OPTIMISATION CHALLENGES ......11 OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................11 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................13 PLANNING CHALLENGES .................................................................19 OPTIMISATION CHALLENGES ..........................................................21 SERVICE CONSIDERATIONS.............................................................23 INTERFERENCE CHALLENGES........................................................24 ANTENNA HEIGHTS ...........................................................................25 POWER CONTROL .............................................................................26 CARRIERS AND CAPACITY ...............................................................27 INDOOR PLANNING CHALLENGES..................................................28 PILOT POLUTION ...............................................................................29 SOFTHANDOVER OPTIMISATION.....................................................30 1 INTRODUCTION TO OSS-RC FOR PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AND OPTIMISATION .......................................33 OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................33 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................35 SUB-NETWORKS MANAGED BY OSS-RC ..................................................38 UPGRADE PATHS FOR OSS-RC.................................................................39 OSS-RC APPLICATIONS..............................................................................40 OSS-RC COMPONENTS ..............................................................................41 OSS-RC NETWORK EXPLORER .................................................................52 COMMON INTEGRATION FRAMEWORK ....................................................54 FREQUENCY ALLOCATION SUPPORT (FAS) ............................................57 FREQUENCY OPTIMIZATION EXPERT (FOX) ............................................62 SYNCHRONIZED RADIO NETWORK OPTIMIZATION EXPERT..................66 NEIGHBORING CELL SUPPORT GSM-WCDMA .........................................69
  • 4. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 4 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF NEIGHBORING CELL SUPPORT FOR WCDMA ..........................................73 MEASUREMENT RESULT RECORDING WCDMA.......................................76 FIND FAULTY ANTENNA EXPERT WCDMA................................................79 RNO DATABASE EXPORT INTERFACE......................................................81 LAUNCHING THE OSS-RC DATA COLLECTION GUI .................................83 SYSTEM DEFINED SUBSCRIPTION PROFILES .........................................84 USER DEFINED SUBSCRIPTION PROFILES..............................................86 ADDING A USER DEFINED PROFILE..........................................................88 SUBSCRIPTION PROFILE USER GUIDE...........................................90 CTR, UETR AND GPEH OSS-RC SUBSCRIPTION PROFILES.........93 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................93 LAUNCHING THE OSS-RC DATA COLLECTION GUI .................................93 CREATING A CTR, UETR OR GPEH RECORDING.....................................97 SUBSCRIPTION PROFILE USER GUIDE.....................................................99 2 RADIO NETWORK FEATURES................................................101 POWER CONTROL ...........................................................................103 OPEN LOOP POWER CONTROL...............................................................104 INNER LOOP POWER CONTROL..............................................................105 OUTER LOOP POWER CONTROL ............................................................107 SETTING COMMON CHANNEL POWERS.......................................110 OPEN LOOP POWER CONTROL.....................................................113 UPLINK SIGNAL TO INTERFERENCE RATIO (SIR) ..................................113 RACH PREAMBLE POWER SETTING .......................................................114 SETTING THE RACH MESSAGE POWER.................................................118 FACH POWER SETTING............................................................................119 DOWNLINK SIGNAL TO INTERFERENCE RATIO (SIR)............................120 INITIAL DOWNLINK DPDCH/DPCCH POWER...........................................121 SETTING THE INITIAL DOWNLINK DPDCH POWER................................121 SETTING THE INITIAL DOWNLINK DPCCH POWER................................122 DOWNLINK POWER RAMPING .................................................................123 DOWNLINK DPDCH/DPCCH POWER SETTING AT SOFT HANDOVER...124
  • 5. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 5 - INITIAL UPLINK DPCCH/DPDCH POWER.................................................126 SETTING THE INITIAL UPLINK DPDCH POWER ......................................126 INNER LOOP POWER CONTROL....................................................130 UPLINK INNER LOOP POWER CONTROL ................................................130 UPLINK POWER CONTROL IN COMPRESSED MODE.............................132 INITIAL POWER SETTING AT INTER-FREQUENCY HANDOVER AND CORE NETWORK HARD HANDOVER.......................................................135 DOWNLINK INNER LOOP POWER CONTROL..........................................136 DOWNLINK POWER BALANCING .............................................................138 DOWNLINK POWER CONTROL IN COMPRESSED MODE ......................140 OUTER LOOP POWER CONTROL...................................................142 OUTER LOOP JUMP REGULATOR ...........................................................143 OUTER LOOP ANTI-WINDUP FEATURE...................................................145 OUTER LOOP CONSTANT STEP REGULATOR .......................................146 ADMISSION AND CONGESTION CONTROL...................................152 SYSTEM RESOURCE HANDLING .............................................................153 DOWNLINK TRANSMIT CARRIER POWER...............................................156 AIR INTERFACE SPEECH EQUIVALENT (ASE) USAGE...........................156 HISTOGRAM MONITOR .............................................................................157 NUMBER OF HSDPA USERS ALLOCATED TO THE HS-DSCH................158 NUMBER OF E-DCH USERS HAVING THE CELL AS SERVING CELL.....158 NUMBER OF E-DCH USERS HAVING THE CELL AS NON-SERVING CELL ...........................................................................................................158 DOWNLINK CHANNELIZATION CODE USAGE.........................................158 UPLINK RECEIVED TOTAL WIDEBAND POWER MONITOR ....................160 RBS HARDWARE MONITOR......................................................................160 CAPACITY MANAGEMENT ........................................................................162 ADMISSION CONTROL ....................................................................163 ALLOCATION RETENTATION PRIORITY (ARP)........................................164 TRAFFIC HANDLING PRIORITY (THP)......................................................165 DEFAULT ARP MAPPING...........................................................................166 FLEXIBLE QOS AND ARP HANDLING.......................................................169 RAB MODIFICATION ..................................................................................169
  • 6. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 6 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF LOAD TRIGGERED ACCESS CLASS BARRING ............................186 MANUALLY TRIGGERED ACCESS CLASS BARRING ..............................187 VIDEO SERVICE RESTRICTION ......................................................190 CONGESTION CONTROL.................................................................192 UPLINK CELL CONGESTION DETECTION................................................193 DOWNLINK CELL CONGESTION DETECTION .........................................194 HSDPA CELL CONGESTION DETECTION ................................................195 CONGESTION RESOLVE HANDLING........................................................196 INITIAL RATE SELECTION FOR AMR NB .......................................198 PARAMETERS............................................................................................199 HANDOVER.......................................................................................203 SOFT AND SOFTER HANDOVER ....................................................205 HANDOVER EVENTS.................................................................................210 CELL UPDATE...................................................................................215 URA UPDATE ....................................................................................216 INTRODUCTION TO INTER-FREQUENCY, INTER-RAT HANDOVER AND INTER-RAT CELL CHANGE................................217 INTER-FREQUENCY HANDOVER....................................................219 INTER-RAT HANDOVER (IRATHO) ..................................................224 WCDMA TO GSM .......................................................................................225 INTER RAT CELL CHANGE (IRATCC) .............................................228 IRATCC FROM WCDMA TO GSM/GPRS...................................................228 IRATHO AND IRATCC FROM GSM AND GPRS TO WCDMA..........231 MEASUREMENTS ON WCDMA CELLS .....................................................231 IRATCC FROM GSM/GPRS TO WCDMA...................................................234 IRATHO FROM GSM TO WCDMA..............................................................236 CORE NETWORK HARD HANDOVER.............................................239 MEASUREMENT HANDLING FOR CORE NETWORK HARD HANDOVER ................................................................................................239
  • 7. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 7 - CORE NETWORK HARD HANDOVER EVALUATION................................240 CORE NETWORK HARD HANDOVER EXECUTION .................................243 SERVICE BASED HANDOVER.........................................................246 DESCRIPTION............................................................................................246 SERVICE BASED HANDOVER EXECUTION .............................................247 GAN MOBILITY .................................................................................251 HANDOVER TO GAN..................................................................................253 GAN OVER IUR ..........................................................................................255 GAN INTERACTIVE WITH GSM HO...........................................................255 GAN INTERACTIVE WITH IFHO.................................................................256 GAN MOBILITY PARAMETERS..................................................................256 LOAD SHARING................................................................................259 DETECTING HIGH LOAD ...........................................................................260 LOAD BASED HANDOVER TO GSM..........................................................261 LOAD BASED INTER FREQUENCY HANDOVER......................................263 INTER-FREQUENCY LOAD SHARING.......................................................265 DIRECTED RETRY TO GSM ......................................................................268 PARAMETERS............................................................................................272 HSDPA AND EUL EVOLUTION.........................................................278 INTRODUCTION HSDPA...................................................................283 HSDPA GENERAL PRINCIPLES ......................................................285 SHORT TTI (2 MS)......................................................................................286 SHARED CHANNEL TRANSMISSION........................................................286 HIGHER-ORDER MODULATION................................................................288 FAST LINK ADAPTATION...........................................................................290 FAST CHANNEL DEPENDENT SCHEDULING ..........................................293 FAST HYBRID ARQ WITH SOFT COMBINING ..........................................295 DYNAMIC POWER ALLOCATION ..............................................................297 MIMO ..........................................................................................................298 MULTI CARRIER.........................................................................................300 UE CAPABILITIES FOR HS-DSCH CATEGORY ..............................303
  • 8. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 8 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF HSDPA TRANSPORT AND PHYSICAL CHANNELS........................305 EUL INTRODUCTION........................................................................308 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EUL......................................................................309 EUL CHANNEL STRUCTURE...........................................................312 DOWNLINK PHYSICAL CHANNELS...........................................................313 UPLINK PHYSICAL CHANNELS.................................................................315 TRANSMITTER ARCHITECTURE ..............................................................316 UE CAPABILITY E-DCH CATEGORY.........................................................318 3 PERFORMANCE STATISTICS (COUNTERS)..........................321 COUNTER COLLECTION PROCESS...............................................323 COUNTER STORAGE ON THE NODES.....................................................324 COUNTER STORAGE IN THE OSS-RC .....................................................326 PERFORMANCE STATISTICS COUNTERS.....................................329 PEG COUNTER ..........................................................................................330 GAUGE COUNTER.....................................................................................331 ACCUMULATOR AND SCAN COUNTERS.................................................332 TRIGGERED COUNTERS ..........................................................................333 POSITION DETERMINING FUNCTION (PDF) COUNTER (VECTOR)........335 DISCRETE DISTRIBUTED MEASUREMENTS...........................................336 MANAGED OBJECT (MO) CLASS..............................................................337 COUNTERS IN XML FILES.........................................................................338 COUNTER DESCRIPTIONS .......................................................................340 COUNTER LIMITATIONS ..................................................................344 RNC COUNTER WARNING ALARM...........................................................345 RNC MINOR ALARM...................................................................................346 RNC COUNTER CALCULATION ................................................................348 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPI).......................................350 ACCESSIBILITY..........................................................................................351 RETAINABILITY..........................................................................................352 INTEGRITY .................................................................................................353 CALL COMPLETION SUCCESS RATE (CCSR) .........................................355
  • 9. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 9 - SYSTEM UTILIZATION...............................................................................355 MOBILITY....................................................................................................355 AVAILABILITY.............................................................................................355 4 PERFORMANCE RECORDING (UETR AND CTR) AND HANDLING (GPEH)...................................................................357 PERFORMANCE RECORDING (UETR AND CTR)...........................359 PERFORMANCE RECORDING COLLECTION AND STORAGE .....363 PERFORMANCE RECORDING NODE STORAGE.....................................364 PERFORMANCE RECORDING OSS-RC STORAGE .................................366 PERFORMANCE RECORDING DOCUMENTATION ........................370 PERFORMANCE RECORDING FILE STRUCTURE.........................371 PERFORMANCE RECORDING EVENTS...................................................373 RNC-INTERNAL MEASUREMENTS ...........................................................375 UE MEASUREMENTS ................................................................................382 NODE B MEASUREMENTS........................................................................386 PERFORMANCE HANDLING (GPEH)..............................................390 GPEH FILE COLLECTION AND STORAGE................................................391 GPEH NODE STORAGE.............................................................................393 GPEH OSS-RC STORAGE .........................................................................396 GPEH DOCUMENTATION..........................................................................399 GPEH FILE STRUCTURE...........................................................................401 RNC GPEH EVENTS ..................................................................................404 INTER-NODE EVENTS...............................................................................410 RBS GPEH EVENTS...................................................................................411
  • 10. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 10 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF
  • 11. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 11 - 0 WCDMA Planning and Optimisation Challenges OBJECTIVES Figure 0-1. Chapter Objectives
  • 12. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 12 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Intentionally Blank
  • 13. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 13 - INTRODUCTION WCDMA has changed radio network planning • WCDMA technology has set new requirements to radio network planning. • Multiservice environment (CS, PS) with different service requirements. • All frequency dependent elements have to be updated and taken into account during planning (antennas, cables, power amplifiers, low noise amplifiers, filters, combiners…) • WCDMA has a strong impact on radio interface management and thus also GSM-based radio network planning principles and planning and measurement tools need updates. • WCDMA air-interface: Capacity and coverage coupled, Fast power control, Planning a soft handover overhead, Cell dominance and isolation and Vulnerability to external interference. • All the WCDMA cells can use the same frequency -> reuse = 1. • Interworking between WCDMA and GSM has to planned. • The state of WCDMA network is changing fast and it is important to have an immediate feedback loop from the operational network, such as performance measurements. • WCDMA radio network planning is closely related to the optimisation of radio network. Differences of GSM and WCDMA network planning Claimed often: ”GSM RF planning is more difficult than WCDMA RF planning” • Partly true, but o WCDMA network serves users with various services (Release 99 PS 8-384 kbps, CS 5.95 – 64 kbps) and the aspects of these services has to be taken into account. o Many aspects of planning are more closely intertwined to each other in WCDMA
  • 14. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 14 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Also wideband nature of WCDMA (5 MHz) compared to GSM (200 kHz) imposes new criteria in modelling the propagation environment. • Differences occur in coverage and capacity planning (detailed planning phase) o In GSM Coverage is planned separately after network is dimensioned. Capacity and frequency planning is executed simultaneously. o In WCDMA Coverage and capacity are planned simultaneously. Capacity requirements and traffic distribution affect coverage. • WCDMA operates in the frequency band of 2100 MHz, which is much more higher than the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz typically in GSM. Higher user data rates require better signal quality, Eb/No radio propagation in WCDMA is not equivalent to GSM Old GSM base station coverage areas are not necessarily valid for WCDMA not being in the most optimum locations for WCDMA coverage. Possibility to reuse the existing GSM base station sites depends heavily on the implementation strategy and on the traffic forecasts costs due to implementing new WCDMA base stations In low traffic areas, WCDMA planning is quite similar to GSM planning as the load does not have a great impact on coverage. In high traffic areas, unlike for GSM, there is no clear split between coverage, interference and capacity planning of WCDMA. Radio network planning strategies for WCDMA WCDMA radio network planning strategy must be done before actual planning is started. Overall layout of the radio network and the evolution path should be decided in order to reach the optimal network configuration for quality, capacity, coverage, and cost.
  • 15. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 15 - Analysis of existing GSM radio network configuration and needs of WCDMA network for a certain planning area is needed: GSM900 used as coverage layer for idle and (E)GPRS service GSM1800 used as capacity layer for voice calls Next the WCDMA major topology or layout (antenna heights and site density) must be decided in order to define the radio propagation environment and to fix planning principles. Decision what services to enable in WCDMA and what to enable in GSM/(E)GRPS. Continuous coverage wherever implemented in order to maintain a consistent service level. GSM/(E)GPRS layer used as reference for WCDMA layer when planning. Co-siting and co-sectorisation approach is preferable for GSM/WCDMA dualmode network layout. More WCDMA BTS sites needed to have continuous coverage when using GSM900 sites. WCDMA coverage should be equivalent to GSM coverage layer in order to optimize handovers. Interworking strategy between GSM and WCDMA need attention. Figure 0-2. WCDMA Network planning and optimization objectives
  • 16. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 16 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF The ideal is to spend as little money as possible, to cover the whole country, with good quality services for all subscribers. This is the ideal, but let’s create a formula to illustrate a realistic objective. •Cov = coverage •Cap = capacity •QoS = quality •Cos = costs Cov = 1/Cap, so to increase the coverage/cell, you decrease the capacity of the cell directly. More money spent = more capacity, coverage and quality. Figure 0-3. Network planning and optimisation from operator perspective
  • 17. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 17 - For an operator good network planning = Less money spend on infrastructure Generally if you spend less money, it affects all the other aspects; coverage, capacity and quality negatively. By only increasing the capacity, it has the inverse effect on the coverage and vice versa. So more capacity, smaller coverage area due to the breathing effect. Higher coverage will imply that the capacity per cell is lower. This is where it is important to do traffic modeling and coverage mapping, to identify the actual requirements from a user and network perspective. More satisfied customers (good service quality) Customer satisfaction is king! With more satisfied customers, we require higher capacities per cell, thus an investment might be required, driving up costs. Less need for adjustments In a mobile network environment adjustments are a given. So here it is important to spend money on good performance management tools, with the possibility to automatically or dynamically control/adjust hardware by software from the OMC, rather than continuous costly hardware changes. For an operator network optimization = Better return on investment T weaking of Admission control and other parameters without any more investment Less need for costly hardware updates Less need for new sites
  • 18. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 18 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Figure 0-4 Network Life Cycle
  • 19. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 19 - PLANNING CHALLENGES Figure 0-5 Planning Process Overview The overall radio network planning goal is to maximise the coverage and capacity while meeting the key performance indicators (KPIs) and quality of service (QoS). Basic WCDMA planning process similar to GSM but detailed planning phases need modifications. Traffic level has to be considered continuously in WCDMA radio network planning. Distribution of traffic between voice and data should be estimated at each base station coverage as accurately as possible. Location of users should be known as exactly as possible (hard to forecast). Regional traffic hot spots should be identified. Base station locations should be selected so that they are on the traffic hot spots.
  • 20. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 20 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Figure 0-6 Air interface considerations Detailed planning - Coverage and capacity planning Combines the use of link budget calculations with path loss predictions and interference analysis. Objective for coverage is to obtain the ability of the network to ensure availability of services in the entire service area. WCDMA coverage planning can be done as in GSM by using pathloss information and prediction models such as Okumura-Hata if there is no other traffic (one user only) and thus no interference in the radio network. When traffic is included, cell-breathing occurs and cell range, as well as coverage, is dynamic, based on the load of the network. Remember that Cells’ coverage areas are linked to each other as a function of mobile terminal locations for SHO, which can also cause interference and coverage issues. Maximum load or capacity of the WCDMA network depends on the coverage area (cell overlapping, depth of propagation slope, etc.), base station locations, antenna configurations (height, direction, beam width, tilting, etc.) Service coverage performance should be specified on a per service and per clutter basis for indoor, outdoor, and in-car environments. Service quality objectives are defined in terms of call blocking probabilities applied to speech, circuit switched data, and packet switched data, which all have very different properties.
  • 21. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 21 - OPTIMISATION CHALLENGES Figure 0-7. UMTS Optimisation challenges. WCDMA like GSM network require continuous optimization and monitoring because mobile users’ locations and traffic behaviour vary constantly. Measurements -> Analysis -> Updates to configurations and parameters. Optimization and monitoring is to check that the planned coverage, capacity and quality has been reached with efficient resource usage and KPIs operator has defined are met. Network element monitoring with counters, measurements with scanner and test mobile. KPI monitoring and field measurements are needed for optimization o Traffic, deviation, mixture o Soft handover overhead (usually lower than 40%) o Average TX power (e.g. MS transmission power) o Average RX power o Call establishment success, packet call delay o Dropped calls o Interference (Pilot pollution due to high-elevation sites with RF large coverage). o Overload situations (lack of element capacity, interference) o Handovers per cell (soft handovers, hard handovers, Inter- system handovers o Throughput and delay with packet switched services (Web, FTP, MMS, Streaming, PoC)
  • 22. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 22 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Figure 0-8 Multi-Service environment considerations Figure 0-9 Services in UMTS
  • 23. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 23 - SERVICE CONSIDERATIONS Figure 0-10 Future of UMTS Services Figure 0-11 ARPU from different services
  • 24. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 24 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF INTERFERENCE CHALLENGES Figure 0-12 Biggest challenge is interference
  • 25. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 25 - ANTENNA HEIGHTS Since WCDMA performance is interference limited the cell dominance areas should be kept as controlled as possible. If the antenna is located ”too high” (no proper tilting); then the cell gathers more traffic and external interference and thus the ”effective” capacity is decreased, produced interference decreases the capacity of the surrounding network, also the surrounding network’s service probability is negatively affected. Figure 0-13 Antenna heights
  • 26. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 26 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF POWER CONTROL All the other common control channels are powered in relation to the P-CPICH. The goal of allocating power to the common channels is to find a minimum power level needed for each channel to secure the network operation and to provide the same cell coverage area as with CPICH, but not to waste any capacity left for the traffic channels. Figure 0-14 Power Control
  • 27. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 27 - CARRIERS AND CAPACITY Adding a carrier to even with less power per carrier can significantly increase the capacity. As we add more and more carriers can cause a loss in capacity per carrier. See figure below. Additional carrier can also be used for e.g. optimization of indoor coverage with clever network planning and parameterization (not with power reduction). Even with less transmit power, there is a capacity gain possible especially for high traffic areas (low cell range). Actual gain produced is heavily dependent on the traffic mix . Figure 0-15 When to add a carrier?
  • 28. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 28 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF INDOOR PLANNING CHALLENGES Most of the UMTS users are indoors. Therefore good indoor coverage is vital for UMTS success. In GSM indoor coverage is pretty straightforward to plan. However this is not the case with WCDMA. Indoor coverage provided from outdoor base stations is highly sensitive to cell load increase in WCDMA If outdoor users are given a high-data rate bearer this can result in loss of coverage to users indoors. See figure below. Figure 0-16 Indoor coverage analysis
  • 29. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 29 - PILOT POLUTION Pilot pollution is faced on a certain area when there is no clearly dominant CPICHs over the others. The pilot pollution creates an abnormally high level of interference, which is likely to result in the following performance problems: Increased interference level Poor service quality, decreased throughput or increased delay Decreased service access Frequent changes in Active Set and potential risk for unnecessary handovers. Higher non-controllable load In the figure below we can see a screen capture from TEMS showing pilot pollution: The yellow dots represent points where 4-5 CPICHs were received within 6dB window As Active Set size is typically 3, in this situation the rest of the Pilots produce unnecessary interference Figure 0-17 Pilot pollution
  • 30. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 30 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF SOFTHANDOVER OPTIMISATION Soft/Softer HO planning and correct operation is one of the most important means of optimizing WCDMA networks. The importance is high because of the high bit rate (pathloss sensitive) and RT (delay sensitive) RABs. SHO is measured in terms of probability, the percentage of all connections that are in SHO state, so goes hand-in-hand with traffic estimation. The probability is also effected by network planning and parameter settings. SHOs have the following effects to the network performance: Advantages Required to avoid near-far effects Coverage increases when more distant users can connect. Capacity can be “increased” if more users can be connected. Alongside with PC, SHO is the main interference mitigation means in WCDMA. Disadvantage Requires more connections, thus eats DL transmission power and decreases capacity Introduces more interference to DL Increases the traffic in lub by 40% SHO probability 1.4 times the traffic!
  • 31. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 31 - Figure 0-18 SHO effect
  • 32. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 32 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Intentionally Blank
  • 33. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 33 - 1 Introduction to OSS-RC for Performance Management and Optimisation OBJECTIVES Figure 1-6: Objectives
  • 34. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 34 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Intentionally blank
  • 35. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 35 - INTRODUCTION OSS-RC as a Network Management System Network Management Layer • Complete network view • Multi vendor, multi technology • Interface towards business/service management systems Element Management Layer • Functions limited to the Network Element itself • Embedded into the Network Element • Web access Sub-network Management Layer • Responsible for one Sub-Network • Single Vendor or single Network Technology • Can be sufficient as NMS for pure Ericsson networks Integration Reference Points Integration Reference Points N Ne et tw wo or rk k L La ay ye er r S Su ub b- -N Ne et tw wo or rk k L La ay ye er r E El le em me en nt t L La ay ye er r Figure 1-7: Layers of Management Telecom operators today have a vast network with equipment and applications from several vendors. For managing these complex networks a layered approach was devised. The idea is that management decisions at each layer are different but interrelated. For example, detailed information is needed to keep a switch operating (at the element layer), but only a subset of that information is needed to keep the network operating. Working from the top down, each layer imposes requirements on the layer below. Working from the bottom up, each layer provides capabilities to the layer above. The layers are integrated via Integration Reference Points, IRP. There is a trend that network management functionality is being moved and integrated into the network elements in the element layer. Normally the network operator does not want to work with the network elements one by one. The solution is to work with a few sub-network managers in the sub-network layer. To be able to support multi-vendor, multi-technology networks of intelligent nodes and enable a complete network view, network management functionality is being moved up to the network layer.
  • 36. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 36 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF The Operations Support System Radio & Core, OSS RC is a sub- network manager that adheres to the standard of management as specified by the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) TMN. The Telecommunications Management Network is a conceptual framework developed by the ITU for connecting different operating systems and telecommunications networks and communicating between them. TMN defines the infrastructure needed to support the management and deployment of telecommunications services. TMN provides the framework for scalable, reliable, flexible, inexpensive networks by defining standard ways of doing network- management. FCAPS Standard of Management Non-Ericsson Network Domains Ericsson Network Domains Network Independent Management (Common Tools) Service Management (Provisioning, Assurance, Charging) Ericsson Network Domain Management ( FCAPS) Non - Ericsson Network Domain Management ( FCAPS ) Customer Management ( CRM/ERP ) Real-Time Real-Time Resources B2B Non-Ericsson Network Domains Ericsson Network Domains Network Independent Management (Common Tools) Service Management (Provisioning, Assurance, Charging) Ericsson Network Domain Management ( FCAPS) Non - Ericsson Network Domain Management ( FCAPS ) Customer Management ( CRM/ERP ) Real-Time Real-Time Resources B2B Resources B2B Ericsson OSS-RC provides: O&M (FCAPS) capabilities for Ericsson network domains (e.g. 2G, 3G, Wireline, IMS) FCAPS support Fault Management Configuration Management Accounting Performance Management Security Figure 1-8: Operations Support System Radio and Core, OSS-RC Fault Management – Detecting, diagnosing and correcting network faults Configuration Management – Installation, identification, configuration of Hardware/Software Accounting – Tracking use of resources Performance Management – Measurement and analysis of statistics Security – User access rights, data privacy, audit trails etc. Figure 1-9: FCAPS Standard
  • 37. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 37 - Fault Management Fault Management is concerned with detecting, diagnosing, and correcting network and system faults (outages and degradations). Fault management products typically provide for alert handling and event management functions, and can include the diagnostic tools needed to isolate faults to facilitate corrective or alternative actions. Configuration Management Configuration management is concerned with the installation, identification, inventory removal, and configuration of hardware (including components such a cards, modules, memory, and software), software, firmware and services. Configuration management also provides for monitoring and managing the deployment status of a device. The configuration management functional area includes software management, change control, and inventory management Accounting Accounting management is concerned with tracking the use of resources in a network. An example would be the allocation of billing costs for both time and services rendered by a service provider. Accounting management also addresses billing for utilization of communications and computing facilities, as well as tracking user access to networks and the resources accessed by those users. Accounting management systems typically include knowledge of tariff structures. Performance Performance management is concerned with the measurement and analysis of both short-term and long-term network and system statistics related to: • Utilization • Response time • Availability • Error rates
  • 38. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 38 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Performance management is also used to determine whether there are any outages on a network. Ideally, performance data can be used to prevent future failures by helping network planners identify trends that suggest capacity utilization or other problems before such problems affect users or services. Performance management tools are also used to assist in planning, design, and performance- tuning for improved network and systems efficiency. Security Security management is concerned with the management of security for the communications network and the network management infrastructure. Security management tools can address user access rights, data privacy, alarms and audit trails of security attacks/breaches, the management of security mechanisms, and password distribution. SUB-NETWORKS MANAGED BY OSS-RC OSS RC is Ericsson Specific Network Management system. It is generally used as a Sub-Network Management System. OSS-RC Manages the following nodes, with full FCAPS functionality. GSM RAN WCDMA RAN LTE RAN Core - GSM, WCDMA, SAE - IMS - Wireline for TSS Figure 1-10: OSS-RC Functionality OSS-RC is a future proof solution for supporting operation and maintenance of existing and future mobile networks. It provides a state of the art platform and new applications as well as enhanced applications from previous product generations.
  • 39. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 39 - Today' s market demand is very focused on reduced operational and capital expenditures. Ericsson' s answer to this is to provide one single offering, OSS-RC which substitutes the individual OSS products for GSM RAN (GSM OSS), WCDMA RAN (RANOS) and Core Network (CN OSS), Wireline for TSS (MN OSS), IMS and LTE/SAE. Some of the network elements supported by OSS-RC R10 are: RNC, RBS, BSC, TRC, BTS, MSC, SGSN, GGSN, MGW, AUC, EIR, ATM switch, STN, GSN, RXI, eRBS, MME CSCF and MRFC. UPGRADE PATHS FOR OSS-RC RANOS P2.0 GSM OSS R9.1 CN-OSS R2.0 RANOS P2.0 GSM OSS R9.1 CN-OSS R2.0 GSM OSS R9.1 CN-OSS R2.0 RANOS P2.1 OSS-RC 1.1 RANOS P2.1 OSS-RC 1.1 OSS-RC 2.2 OSS-RC 3.1 OSS-RC 4.1 OSS-RC 5.2 OSS-RC 6.3 OSS-RC 7.1 OSS-RC 10.0 MN OSS 8.0 Wireline GSM Core WCDMA GSM Core WCDMA/ LTE + Wireline Figure 1-11: OSS-RC Upgrade History In the first release of the product (OSS-RC 1.1) the integration of 2G/3G functionality was implemented partially. The support for GSM RAN and GSM/WCDMA Core Network was fully integrated. The support for WCDMA RAN was offered by RANOS, with the possibility to integrate it on the same hardware as OSS-RC 1.1, with a common client environment and an integrated Fault Management application. OSS-RC R2.2 fully integrated radio network support and fully replaced GSM OSS, RANOS and CN OSS. OSS-RC R3 continues this support of the radio and core networks and includes support for many service layer nodes.
  • 40. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 40 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF OSS-RC evolved from the separate GSM RAN and Core Network systems, GSM OSS R9.1 and CN-OSS 2.0. These systems were first integrated in OSS-RC 1.1, with a migration from the TMOS and CNOS platforms to a CIF platform. The WCDMA RAN support system, RANOS, was integrated with the GSM and Core in OSS-RC 2.2, remaining on a CIF platform. OSS-RC R3 included a number of platforms and feature enhancements (including the Upgrade of the OS to Solaris 9) and introduced HSDPA. OSS-RC R5 included and upgraded to Solaris 10. OSS-RC R6 increased performance and capacity and a number of new features for WCDMA RAN components as well as supporting LTE NEs. MN-OSS R8 has now been integrated with OSS-RC. OSS-RC APPLICATIONS OSS - RC Radio Access Network IP Multimedia Domain Core Network Circuit Service Domain Packet Service Domain Open Interfaces/IRPs Network & Service Management MMS SMS Prepaid Service network WCDMA GSM CoreNet Common Applications Fault Mngr Perform Mngr SW/HW Mngr Script Mngr SN Element Managers OSS - RC GSM IP Multimedia Domain Core Network Circuit Service Domain Packet Service Domain IMS Core Network Packet Service Domain Open Interfaces/IRPs Network & Service Management Network & Service Management MMS SMS Prepaid Service network WCDMA / LTE GSM CoreNet CoreNet Common Applications Fault Mngr Fault Mngr Perform Mngr Perform Mngr SW/HW Mngr SW/HW Mngr Script Mngr Script Mngr SN Element Managers Element Managers WCDMA LTE Circuit Service Domain Wireline For TSS OSS - RC Radio Access Network IP Multimedia Domain Core Network Circuit Service Domain Packet Service Domain IP Multimedia Domain IP Multimedia Domain Core Network Circuit Service Domain Circuit Service Domain Packet Service Domain Packet Service Domain Open Interfaces/IRPs Network & Service Management Network & Service Management MMS SMS Prepaid Service network WCDMA WCDMA GSM CoreNet CoreNet Common Applications Fault Mngr Fault Mngr Perform Mngr Perform Mngr SW/HW Mngr SW/HW Mngr Script Mngr Script Mngr SN Element Managers Element Managers OSS - RC GSM IP Multimedia Domain IP Multimedia Domain Core Network Circuit Service Domain Circuit Service Domain Packet Service Domain Packet Service Domain IMS Core Network Packet Service Domain Open Interfaces/IRPs Network & Service Management Network & Service Management MMS SMS Prepaid Service network WCDMA / LTE GSM CoreNet CoreNet Common Applications Fault Mngr Fault Mngr Perform Mngr Perform Mngr SW/HW Mngr SW/HW Mngr Script Mngr Script Mngr SN Element Managers Element Managers WCDMA LTE Circuit Service Domain Wireline For TSS Figure 1-12: OSS-RC Applications OSS-RC manages the GSM, WCDMA,SAE, Wireline TSS and IMS core network nodes, the GSM, WCDMA and LTE radio access network nodes, the Service network nodes (i.e. MOIP and MMS) and the Multimedia network nodes developed or sourced by Ericsson. OSS-RC consists of a number of functional packages related to specific nodes, as well as application packages that are common across all nodes.
  • 41. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 41 - OSS-RC COMPONENTS Common Integration Framework WCDMA RAN Components Common Components Core RAN Components GSM RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components Core RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components GSM RAN Components Core RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components GSM RAN Components Core RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components Common Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components Core RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components GSM RAN Components Core RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components GSM RAN Components Common Components WCDMA RAN Components GSM RAN Components Common Components OSS RC WCDMA RAN Components Common Components Core RAN Components GSM RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components Core RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components GSM RAN Components Core RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components GSM RAN Components Core RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components Common Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components Core RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components GSM RAN Components Core RAN Components WCDMA RAN Components Common Components GSM RAN Components Common Components WCDMA RAN Components GSM RAN Components Common Components OSS RC Common Components Core Components Wireline Components GSM RAN Components WCDMA / LTE RAN Components Figure 1-13: OSS - RC Components GSM & Wireline •BSS G10A •AXD 301/305 WCDMA LTE •RAN W10A •LTE L10A Core •MSC 14.0 •MGW 6.0 •SGSN 09B •GGSN 09B •SAE R1/FD3 •TSS 4.1.1/4.1.2 **A Complete list of supported nodes can be found in Alex (1/1029-AOM 901 017 Uen AZ )** Figure 1-14: Supported NEs For a complete list of supported network elements see document: Supported Network Elements for All OSSRC 1/1029-AOM 901 017 Uen AZ
  • 42. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 42 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Common Components The common components are intended to work towards any of the sub-network types. OSS Network Explorer (ONE) Fault Management AXE Management – CHA, Winfiol, CLS, SRM, EMAM, OPS, FHA Software & Hardware Management Job Manager Network Statistics Radio Network Optimization Event Based Applications Health Check Common Components Figure 1-15: OSS - RC Common Components OSS Network Explorer The OSS Network Explorer or ONE GUI is the central point of access for OSS-RC applications and network topology information. ONE is a system portal, that is, the starting point of all OSS Operation and Maintenance (O&M) activities, functions and applications. The O&M functions that are available in ONE are dependent on what is installed in the OSS system. ONE is a graphical user interface that gives you an overview of • The topology of the connected network • The system functions for presentation of information for the different network objects • The system functions to support different O&M activities for the different network objects
  • 43. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 43 - Fault Management The Fault Manager provides an integrated view of a telecom network, showing status in real time. Fast fault finding and quick problem response are facilitated, increasing the quality of service of the managed network. The fault management application incorporates several presentation features including: • Alarm List Viewer (ALV) • Alarm Status Matrix (ASM) • Alarm Log Browser(ALB) • Geographical and Logical Network Information Presentation (GNIP) • Alarm Status Viewer (ASV). AXE Management AXE Management is made up of several tools concerned with command and response with AXE network elements. These include: • Operation Procedure Support (OPS): provides support for development and run-time control of MML command files • Command Handling Application (CHA): used for Man- Machine Language (MML) and Adjunct Processor (AP) communication with all types of systems supported by External Access (EA). • Command Log Search (CLS): All commands sent to an NE, all responses received, and all spontaneous reports received are logged by the External Access Manager (EAM). Command Log Search (CLS) provides the possibility to retrieve information from the command and response log. • Spontaneous Reports Manager (SRM): A spontaneous report is an event initiated and sent out by a NE. SRM enables the user to subscribe to these spontaneous reports. • Element Management Activity Manager (EMAM): provides facilities for time activation/scheduling or immediate execution of MML files, OPS scripts and System Command Files. Scheduled orders can be repeated at scheduled intervals. Output from file execution can be sent to file, mail, or printer.
  • 44. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 44 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Network Statistics Network Statistics (NWS) is the OSS-RC Performance Management application. It receives and stores counters from the managed network elements and generates statistical reports. NWS consists of a number of components or subsystems categorized according to the following roles: • Initiation and Collection o Statistical Measurement Initiation and Administration, SMIA o Measurement Initiation and Administration, MIA o Statistical Gateway, SGW o Performance Data Mediation, PDM o Performance Management Sub-system, PMS • Storage o Statistical Data Mart, SDM • Presentation and Analyses o Network Statistics Analyzer, NWS-A o Performance Statistical Alarms, PSA Software/Hardware Management SMO is a common application for remote software handling activities towards different types of network elements. SMO is used to remotely handle software and hardware inventory, file distribution, upgrades and back-ups.
  • 45. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 45 - Job Manager The Job Manager enables OSS-RC users to create Jobs that can be executed towards the various network elements. The Job Manager also enables an OSS-RC user to monitor the progress of Jobs initiated in OSS-RC. Job Manager is split into three main applications: • Job Supervisor • Job Editor • Task Editor Radio Network Optimization The purpose of Radio Network Optimization (RNO) is to provide an operator with a powerful efficient way to optimize their network. The RNO applications operate on data collected from live MS in the network. Data collected without disturbing the capacity in the radio network, and that data is collected both on uplink and on downlink. RNO is a product family rather than a single application. RNO includes the following products: • Frequency Allocation Support (FAS) • Frequency Optimization Expert (FOX) • Neighbouring Cell Support (NCS) • Neighbouring Cell List Optimization Expert (NOX) • Measurement Result Recording (MRR) • Traffic Estimation Tool (TET) • Synchronized RNO Expert (SYROX) • Competitor Coverage Average (CCE)
  • 46. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 46 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Event Based Applications The Event Based Applications consists of the following applications: • Real-Time Performance Monitoring (R-PMO). R-PMO contains the R-PMO agent process which subscribes to events from BSCs and provides monitors that are used by the other event based applications. R-PMO also provides the graphical user interface used to control the event based applications. • Event Based Statistics (EBS). The purpose of EBS is to store monitored data for large cell sets and long durations. EBS is composed of two parts: REBS (R-PMO Event Based Statistics) which fetches monitored data from R-PMO and formats it for storage in the database, and RSDM (R-PMO Statistical Data Mart) which feeds the data into the database and automatically manages time aggregation and deletion of data • R-PMO Database Interface (RPDBI). RPDBI is used to store customised reports from R-PMO in a database. It is primarily aimed to be used for smaller cell sets. • Find Faulty Antenna Expert (FFAX). FFAX is an optional feature on top of R-PMO that is used for initiation and evaluation of RXLEV measurements from different RX branches to find faulty antenna installations. • Event Based Statistics for WCDMA (EBS-W) EBS-W is the WCDMA version of EBS. The main difference is that EBS-W does not store the counters in a database but in 3GPP compliant XML-files. • Real Time Trace Manager (RTTM) RTTM is used for tracing of individual mobiles using IMEI or IMSI in the GSM network. Messages related to a mobile or a subscriber are collected from the BSC and stored for real time or post processing. • Event Based Statistics for SGSN (EBS-S) EBS-S is the SGSN version of EBS. Counters are handled in the same way as EBS-W i.e. stored in an XML-file. • EBS Drifting RNC Observability (EDRO) EDRO allows users to define EBS-W counters for user equipment connected to drifting RNCs.
  • 47. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 47 - • GPRS/EGPRS Mobile Logging (GMLog) GMLog logs protocol information in the RLC/MAC and the BSSGP protocols for one whole cell or four individual mobiles. Health Check The Health Check (HC) application is a diagnostic tool used to check the state of network elements. Health Check is particularly useful before and after hardware/software upgrades to verify the network element is working correctly. Health Check uses the Software Management Organizer application to schedule jobs and report job progress. WCDMA RAN Components WCDMA / LTE RAN Components Tools that support WCDMA & LTE: Comman Explorer Bulk Configuration Management Base Station Integration Management Network Status Display Advanced MO Scripting Trivial Export and Import Figure 1-161: OSS - RC WCDMA RAN Components ½
  • 48. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 48 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF WCDMA / LTE RAN Components Tools that support WCDMA Only: IRATHOM Add RBS Wizard Node Status Analyser Radio Tool for Reparenting Transport Network Tool for Reparenting Transport Network Viewer Cell Availability Figure 1-172: OSS - RC WCDMA RAN Components 2/2 Common Network Explorer OSS Common Explorer (CEX) is a Sub-Network management application for operation and maintenance tasks. CEX is an Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP) based application that enables the operator to perform configuration management tasks on WCDMA, LTE and TD-SCDMA Networks. The CEX application displays a variety of information relating to the configuration and maintenance of WCDMA, LTE or TD- SCDMA Radio Access Networks. Its uses and applications are largely determined by user requirements Bulk Configuration Management Bulk CM is a means of configuring data for large networks using XML files which follow a defined structure, and are compliant with 3GPP standards. This application can be used configure the Transport Network which acts as a bearer for call control (for example NBAP-C and NBAP-D) and voice traffic (voice over ATM/AAL2) in the WCDMA/LTE RAN. Bulk Configuration for Radio parameters is also supported
  • 49. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 49 - Radio Network Handling The term Radio Network Handling is used to collectively describe WCDMA and LTE Radio Access Network configuration applications and processes. The RNH applications provide a number of graphical user interfaces, used to configure radio networks. The applications are as follows: • Cell and Channel Management • Area Management • Adjacent Cell and Handover Management • Frame Synchronization Management • IUB Consistency Report Inter Radio Access Technology Handover Management IRATHOM is used to synchronize the data between a GSM RAN and Ericsson UTRAN to support Inter-Radio Access Technology Handover (IRATHO). To support UTRAN to GSM and GSM to UTRAN hand-over in accordance with the 3GPP standardization, UTRAN must retain information on the GSM system, and the GSM system must retain information on the UTRAN system. This type of information is generally cell related information, that is, information on external cells required by user equipment in one system to measure and evaluates the possibility of hand-over to cells in the other system. Add RBS Wizard The Add RBS Wizard supports the activities to configure the transport network in the radio network controllers and the new radio base stations in the process of rolling out new radio base stations.
  • 50. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 50 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Node Status Analyzer NSA is designed to be used by skilled users for fast identification of problem areas in the Radio network. The user receives an alarm or similar indication that the service level has degraded. The user then launches NSA based on UtranCell identity, Radio Base Station (RBS) node identity or a Channel (Rach, Fach or Pch) from the Common Explorer Graphical User Interface (GUI). NSA presents the entire node status information in one GUI, which should point the user in the direction of the area causing the service degradation. The user can then conduct the needed corrective action from NSA directly or if more advanced actions are required launch the element manager or other applications in WCDMA RAN or OSS to correct the problem. Network Status Display Network Status Display (NSD) is an advanced trouble shooting tool that displays information relating to network optimization and performance. The information displayed ranges from high level summary information for the network to alarm details for particular network elements. NSD displays network status information relating to fault management, performance management and configuration management information for WRAN and LTE, also provides support for high level troubleshooting. Radio Tool for Reparenting The Radio Tool for Reparenting (RTR) application calculates all necessary radio network configuration changes when reparenting one or more RBS nodes. These changes are written to a Planned Configuration that must be activated by the operator for those changes to be executed on the RNC node. The cells and channels are moved, and impacted neighbouring cell relations (both in moved cells and in cells pointing on moved cells) are adjusted to match the move. The reparenting of an RBS (or NodeB) is defined as moving the traffic control of an RBS from a source RNC to a target RNC.
  • 51. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 51 - Transport Network Tool for Reparenting Transport network Tool for Re-parenting (TTR) is used to generate configuration files to aid in the reconfiguration of the transport network during the re-parenting of an RBS, i.e. moving an RBS from one RNC to another RNC. Trivial Export and Import Trivial Export and Import (TEI) is an off-line application that enables an operator to convert a configuration file (Bulk CM export file) into an MS Excel work book. TEI offers powerful filtering options when reading the Bulk CM export file by which the operator can select the scope of configuration data i.e. the Nodes and the MOC(s) that are to be included in the generated work book. Advanced Managed Object Scripting Advanced MO Scripting (AMOS) is a text-based Operation and Maintenance (O&M) client providing access to the following services on CPP based network elements: • Configuration Service (CS) • Alarm Service (AS) • Performance Management Service (PM) • Log Service (LS) • OSE Shell (COLI)
  • 52. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 52 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF OSS-RC NETWORK EXPLORER Figure 1-183: ONE GUI ONE is the system portal, that is, the starting point of all O&M applications. ONE provides access to all the available support activities for O&M in the radio and core network. ONE is a GUI that provides a topology overview to the radio and core network, as well as access to all available applications in O&M that are installed. It can be configured which network objects are visible in the topology tree and which applications can be launched for the respective network object. Furthermore, users can create personal network views containing the desired network objects. ONE also provides an overview of the: • Connected radio network objects and their hierarchical relationship (in the Network Browser). • Basic properties of the selected network objects (in the Property Pane). • System activities available for presentation of information (from the Information List Pane). • System activities to support different tasks (from the Menu Bar).
  • 53. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 53 - Figure 1-194: ONE Launch Applications Each available OSS application/function is accessible from ONE in at least one of the following ways: • As a menu item on one of the menus on the Menu Bar. These applications offer operations and maintenance support that actively affects the selected network object(s). • As an information item in the upper right pane, the Information List Pane. These functions/applications have the purpose of presenting information on network objects. • As a menu item on the pop-up menu. The pop-up menu contains the configurable application(s) for the respective network object type. It is opened by right-clicking the mouse button after selecting one or more network objects in the Network Browser Pane.
  • 54. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 54 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF COMMON INTEGRATION FRAMEWORK Common Integration Framework Based on Standard 3rd Party Products when possible Common Integration Framework Based on Standard 3rd Party Products when possible Figure 1-15: Common Integration Framework The Common Integration Framework (CIF) is a unified platform upon which the O&M applications are built and integrated. It provides all support services required by any O&M applications to manage a network in an efficient and cost effective manner. CIF provides a framework with consistent APIs and design rules. This provides the opportunity to support more than one type of network on the same OSS node. This modular approach allows CIF to be extended to provide additional services without interfering with existing components. It has also been designed to support the 3GPP management specifications (that is, Integration Reference Points). CIF has a component based architecture based on CORBA communication. The components are developed using the Java language. The major CIF benefits are: • CIF makes it possible to run, upgrade and maintain the O & M environment as one system • CIF is built on state-of-the-art technology, thus creating a secure foundation upon which future O & M systems can migrate and expand • CIF is a multi-technology platform consisting of commercial IT components facilitating integration in the operators existing IT environment • CIF supports scalable O & M solutions for management of large networks
  • 55. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 55 - OSS-RC Radio Network Optimization RNO is a collection of Radio Network Optimization applications. The overall principle of the RNO applications is that they are operating on data collected from live Mobile Stations (MS) in the GSM and WCDMA network. Data is collected without disturbing the capacity in the radio network and the data is collected both on the uplink and the downlink. The overall aim of RNO is to help ensure that the network resources are performing in an optimized and efficient manner. In addition RNO applications can identify specific areas of performance degradation and help with improving the situation. It is clear that RNO provides a time efficient method for collecting and analyzing data compared to drive testing. Furthermore, it can function over a wider area of the network and all nodes and active mobiles can contribute to proving the required data. The RNO applications are defined and supervised from the RNO main window. The OSS applications interact with corresponding BSC and RNC (Radio Network Controller) functions such as RIR (Radio Interface Recording), MRR (Mobile Results Recording), BAR (BCCH Allocation Recording) and GPEH (General Performance Event Handling). RNO Applications The figure below shows the RNO Applications and the sub-systems that they require in order to function. NOX Basic Recording Framework FAS MRR FOX SYROX GWNCS WNCS TET CCE NCS-G WMRR FFAXW GSM WCDMA RNDBI RNDBI RNDBI RNDBI RNDBI Figure 1-16: RNO Dependencies (Radio Network Optimization)
  • 56. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 56 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF The RNO applications are defined and supervised from the RNO main window. The OSS recordings communicate with corresponding BSC and RNC functions according to the following diagrams. All recordings are created from the RNO main GUI SYROX will be accessed from the Tools menu Figure 1-17: RNO GUI The RNO architecture is divided into one application-specific part and one common part called BRF (Basic Recording Framework). This design is made to enable a large amount of reuse. The RNO applications use the following OSS applications: • TSS (Telecom Security System) for authority service. • CNAI, CNA is used to update the network, and to get information on the network as defined in CNA, such as a list of the cells belonging to a certain BSC. • CS is used to get information about the WCDMA network, such as a list of the cells belonging to a certain RNC. • The CIF activity manager handles the recording progress as defined in scheduled recordings. • GNIP is used to present the results of the FAS, NCS, and MRR recordings in graphical maps. • The SDM Data Collection database is used to read STS counters for the recorded cells and add these to the FAS, FOX, NCS and NOX results. • BSM (Base Station Management). RNO uses the BSM database to fetch data about the network. • PMS is used by the RNO to communicate with the WCDMA network.
  • 57. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 57 - RNO Workflow The figure below shows the workflow and steps involved in an RNO recording. Configuration Measurements Activate Recording Result transfer Update Network Analyse RNO BSC Figure 1-18: RNO Workflow FREQUENCY ALLOCATION SUPPORT (FAS) Frequency Allocation Support (FAS) is an advanced function for monitoring frequency plan quality. Correct frequency plans are essential for a high capacity radio network, in order to ensure high speech quality and few dropped calls. FAS can be used to identify poor frequency allocations and thereby limit network interference by measuring uplink and downlink radio interference. After a reallocation of frequencies has been performed, the effect of the changes can be studied using a FAS comparison report. Tighter frequency reuse: Frequency Allocation Support (FAS) can be used to optimize a frequency plan and identify weaknesses in the cell plan. This is critical for high capacity networks. Efficient network operation: Frequency plans can be optimized and verified in an efficient, cost-effective way, while minimizing the need for traditional drive tests.
  • 58. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 58 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Improved speech quality; fewer dropped calls: Through efficient tuning of an existing network, network expansion is facilitated. FAS can suggest the best suitable frequencies for new TRXs or cells. The interference level in GSM networks has to be kept to a minimum in order to use the frequency spectrum in an efficient way, and to increase the capacity of the network. FAS can be used to identify poor frequency allocations and thereby limit network interference By monitoring the up- and downlink interference environment in the network, FAS can find bad frequency allocations for BCCH and TCH carriers, and replace them with better ones FAS also supports updating of a planned area in Cellular Network Administration (CNA) with frequency changes. Recording initiation: – Cells/BSCs are selected – Frequencies to measure on are selected – Time schedule is selected – OSS sends recording request to the BSC – Uplink and downlink are measured – Results displayed in various reports Figure 1-19: FAS Functionality Description A Frequency Allocation Support (FAS) recording is initiated from the OSS-RC, where the following items are specified: • Cells and/or BSCs involved in the measurements (if a BSC is specified, all cells under it are included) • A list of frequencies to measure on • A time schedule for the recording periods The OSS-RC sends a recording request to the BSCs. Both uplink and downlink measurements are performed. No traffic is affected by these measurements. Measurements can be done in a pre- defined time frame, e.g. during peak hour. The OSS-RC requests the recording result from the BSCs, after the recording is completed. About uplink measurements: BSCs send requests to BTSs, to measure uplink interference levels on the specified frequencies. These measurements are repeatedly carried out by the TRXs during a recording period and the uplink interference from both packet switched and circuit switched mobile stations are included in the result.
  • 59. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 59 - The downlink interference measurements are based on measurement reports sent by the circuit switched mobile stations. These measurements are used to create an Inter Cell Dependency Matrix (ICDM), which shows how much cells disturb each other. The matrix describes both co-channel and adjacent channel interference. An ICDM can gradually be improved by merging data from new recordings into an existing ICDM. The ICDM can be used to analyze the cell plan, and give an indication of which cells that affect too many other cells (so called Dragon cells). Since the ICDM is valid for only one frequency band, there is a function that automatically recalculates ICDM elements for Multi Band cells that was measured on another band. This ensures that the ICDM elements are valid for the band that that the ICDM will be used for. It is possible to import an ICDM to FAS. This makes it possible to include data from external sources, for example, predicted data, into the ICDM. The ICDM data is important input for the optimization algorithms in FOX and SYROX. By combining the ICDM with the frequency plan, the percentage interfered traffic (PIT) can be calculated. PIT is calculated for all frequencies, both allocated and non-allocated, in all cells. PIT is a measure of how interfered a certain frequency would be on the downlink, if it were used in a certain cell. The PIT values are compensated for traffic load from both circuit switched and packet switched traffic, discontinuous transmission, power control and adaptive antennas. Uplink: BSCs send requests to BTSs, to measure UL interference levels on specified frequencies. These measurements are carried out by the TRXs and the uplink interference from both packet switched and circuit switched MS’are included in the result. Downlink: Interference measurements are based on measurement reports sent by the circuit switched MS’. These measurements are used to create an ICDM from which the PIT is calculated for the downlink. BSC BAR RIR BSC BAR RIR BSC BAR RIR downlink uplink downlink uplink Figure 1-20: FAS
  • 60. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 60 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF On the basis of the recording result, different reports can be generated and presented in graphical and tabular format, as well as on a GNIP map. This helps the operator to achieve a good frequency allocation plan with a minimum of effort. One FAS recording can perform interference level measurements on up to 150 frequencies in at least 2000 cells. Speech Quality Index (SQI) per cell is used in FAS to get an indication of the user perceived quality of the radio interface for circuit switched users. In order to see SQI on the uplink in FAS, the optional BSS feature Speech Quality Supervision (SQS) is required. In order to see the SQI on the downlink in FAS, the optional BSS feature Enhanced Measurement Reporting is required in addition to SQS. In a similar way the distribution of the bit rate for GPRS CS 1-4 and EGPRS traffic is used to get an indication of the quality of the radio interface for packet switched users. If many users have a bit rate towards the low end of the spectrum this indicates problems in the radio interface (i.e. interference). The bit rate and the SQI-values are taken from STS counters. FAS Reports The information from FAS can be presented in different reports. A few examples are: • Overview Report (Uplink interference and downlink PIT, aggregated on cell level) • Cell Report (Uplink interference and downlink PIT, per frequency) • Overview Comparison Report (Comparison of two recordings, on cell level) • Cell Comparison Report (Comparison of two recordings, on frequency level) • ICDM Overview Report (shows overall information about all cells included in the ICDM as well as the quality of the ICDM) • ICDM Cell Report (For a selected cell, shows interfering and also interfered cells on sub cell level if applicable) • Cell Frequency Interference Report (Shows the interfering cells for each frequency in a cell) • Probable Cell Name Diagnostics report (Shows incomplete or missing input data as well as uncertain output data from the
  • 61. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 61 - algorithm that maps a cell name to a measured BCCH/BSIC combination) One FAS recording can perform interference level measurements on up to 150 frequencies in at least 2000 cells Figure 11-21: FAS Reports For all reports, different sorting facilities are available to the user. Thresholds can be set for which data to present. The data from the reports helps the user to find suitable frequency reallocations and to find cells covering too much or too little. Upon a change of BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel) frequency, FAS will give a recommendation of a new BSIC (Base Station Identity Code). A CNA Planned Configuration or a CNAI file containing all the desired frequency changes can be created directly from FAS. CNA must then be used to update the network. FAS results can be exported on a tab-separated format, either manually or automatically as soon as they are finished. A built-in function that enables customized post-processing of automatically exported results is included in the application. FAS is also adapted to the optional feature RNO Database Export Interface, FAJ 121 601, which enables export of FAS results to a relational database. This export can be set at the recording definition to be done automatically when the result is finished or be initiated manually for an already existing result. A Business Objects universe is also included in the optional feature, which enables FAS data to be viewed in the tool Business Objects.
  • 62. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 62 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF FAS is a tool that supports the operator in creating efficient frequency plans and cell plans so that tighter frequency reuse, and lower interference levels in the network, can be achieved. The operator will use FAS in the following areas: • To introduce new frequencies when adding or expanding a cell. (Network Planning) • To monitor the interference levels on the frequencies in use. (Network Supervision) • To check how a new reconfiguration of the network affects the interference levels. (Network Verification) • Find suitable new frequency allocations for frequencies experiencing interference (Network Optimization) • Find cells with a coverage that is limiting the capacity in the network (Network Optimization) FAS can be used as input to cell planning tools. Measurements on downlink are used to create an Inter Cell Dependency Matrix (ICDM). The ICDM can be exported to cell planning tools, for example TEMS Cell planner. FREQUENCY OPTIMIZATION EXPERT (FOX) Frequency Optimization eXpert (FOX) is an expert tool for frequency plan optimization, allowing minimization of interference levels in radio networks. Poor frequency allocations can be found and corrected by measuring uplink and downlink interference. The current frequency plan is taken into account. Optimization can be achieved in either automatic or recommendation mode. Automatic mode makes FOX operate in a closed loop, i.e. measured data are analyzed to find better frequencies, and changes in the network are performed without operator interaction. In recommendation mode (open loop operation), confirmation from the operator is required before the changes are implemented.
  • 63. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 63 - FOX is built upon FAS, with the extra function of recommending and/or implementing changes. FOX has the additional functionality of proposing changes that will improve the network quality by using an algorithm that takes all possible frequencies in all cells into account, and suggests the best changes for the cells included in the recording The results from interference measurements and steering parameters are the input to the frequency reallocation search algorithm and a list of suggested frequency reallocations is the output. There are two levels of FOX recordings: – Recommended – Automatic Figure 1-22: FOX Functionality Description Frequency Optimization eXpert (FOX) is a tool, which monitors and optimizes frequency allocations. It is built upon Frequency Allocation Support (FAS), with the extra function of recommending and/or implementing changes. To initiate a FOX recording, the following items are specified: • Cells and/or BSCs involved in the measurements (if a BSC is specified, all cells under it are included) • A list of frequencies to measure on • A time schedule for the recording periods The OSS-RC sends a recording request to the BSCs. Use of FOX relies upon the measurements performed in FAS. (Please refer to FAS description for uplink and downlink measurements). When a recording is completed, the OSS-RC requests the recording result from the BSCs. The recording result contains FAS uplink measurements and Inter Cell Dependency Matrix (ICDM) calculated from downlink measurements. All reports contained in FAS are also available for this data. The results from interference measurements (uplink interference + ICDM) and steering parameters are the input to the frequency reallocation search algorithm in FOX. A list of suggested frequency reallocations is the output.
  • 64. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 64 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF It is also possible to create a FOX result using a previously recorded FAS result as input. This makes it possible to try out different parameter settings for the FOX algorithm. The FOX reallocation search algorithm finds configured frequencies that should be changed to new frequencies in several phases. The initial phase sorts out all cells in the reallocation cell set that either has a low bit rate for GPRS CS 1-4 or has a high amount of SQI bad, and tries to change maximum one configured frequency for each such cell found. These frequency changes are prioritized first by FOX. In order to use SQI in FOX, the optional BSS feature Speech Quality Supervision (SQS) is required. The next phase tries to find all other tentative frequency changes that fulfill any of the following conditions: • Downlink is improved without impairing uplink too much • Uplink is improved without impairing downlink too much • Downlink is improved in a cell by changing a strong interferer. A check is made to see that all cells were active during recording. If some cells were down a security zone is placed around them and no reallocation is allowed in this area. This behavior can be switched on/off. After this, all reallocation suggestions are prioritized according to the following criteria. • Prioritize the highest uplink interference • Prioritize the highest uplink interference gain • Prioritize the highest downlink PIT • Prioritize the highest downlink PIT gain All suggestions are checked to verify that final interference level in the system will not increase. Suggestions are checked against a barring matrix. This matrix (user defined) states if two given cells are not allowed to use the same frequencies. Suggestions are checked against a spacing matrix. This matrix (user defined) states how close the frequencies are allowed to be on a cell, site and neighbor level. A check is made to verify that each frequency is changed only once per iteration in a given area. Final algorithm suggestions include all reallocations that satisfy the above criteria.
  • 65. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 65 - FOX implements frequency changes in a radio network automatically or by operator confirmation. A CNA Planned Area and a CNA Update job are used to carry out the implementation. In the case where an operator prefers to confirm the proposed changes, it is possible to execute the changes directly from the FOX application. It is also possible to create a CNA planned area or a CNAI file that contains the frequency changes. In addition to FAS reports, information from FOX can be presented in the following reports: • Change Order Recommendation (Shows suggested reallocations, existing and new interference levels) • Change Order Evaluation (Shows if the reallocations were implemented or not) • Reallocation Log (Summary of several iterations of frequency reallocations) One FOX recording can perform interference level measurements on up to 150 frequencies in at least 2000 cells. FOX is a tool that supports optimizing a frequency plan so that tighter frequency reuse and lower interference levels can be achieved. An operator can use FOX in the following areas: • To perform frequency planning and monitor interference levels on frequencies in use (Network Supervision) • To introduce new frequencies into cells already in operation (Network Planning) • To check how a new reconfiguration of the network affects interference levels (Network Verification) • To find suitable new frequency allocations for frequencies experiencing interference (Network Optimization). FOX can run in different modes: Recommendation Mode and Automatic Mode. • In Recommendation Mode, FOX suggests a number of frequency reallocations, which the operator can accept, modify or reject. Accepted reallocations are implemented in the network.
  • 66. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 66 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF • In Automatic mode, FOX analyzes data, decides on suitable frequency changes and implements them in the network. The user sets the parameters that rule the algorithm. SYNCHRONIZED RADIO NETWORK OPTIMIZATION EXPERT Fractional load planning (FLP) is an attractive alternative to traditional frequency planning. Instead of assigning just a few frequencies to each cell, and guaranteeing that frequencies are only occasionally reused, a large fraction (or all) of the frequencies are assigned to each cell. With the introduction of synchronized networks, it has become possible to take FLP one step further, and avoid being hit by the strongest interferers. This can be achieved through smart adjustment of the parameters that control the frequency hopping. Relying on interference measurements, the feature Synchronized Radio Network Optimization Expert (SYROX) is able to assign frequency-hopping parameters to all cells in a network so that very strong interference is avoided and the remaining interference is smeared out. Recommends how certain frequency hopping parameters should be set for a group of synchronized cells in order to minimize the interference between the cells. An ICDM measured by FAS is used as input for the SYROX algorithm, together with at least one synchronization cluster SYROX can assign frequency-hopping parameters to all cells in a network so that very strong interference is avoided and the remaining interference is smeared out. SYROX will provide a list of recommended parameter settings for the cells so that very strong interference is avoided and the remaining interference is smeared out Figure 1-23: SYROX Functionality Keeping all frequency hopping parameters in a synchronized network at an optimum setting is a difficult task at best. There are many factors to consider. With the use of the feature SYROX this task becomes easy.
  • 67. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 67 - Using an Inter Cell Dependency Matrix (ICDM) measured from the feature Frequency Allocation Support (FAS) as input, SYROX will provide a list of recommended parameter settings for the cells on a format easily that can be used to update the network. In contrast to the feature Frequency Optimization Expert (FOX), SYROX is used when the planning of frequency hopping parameters is more important than the frequency plan (i.e. FLP networks). Combining these two tools makes it possible to manage interference levels for any type of network. Description SYROX is used to get recommendations on how certain frequency hopping parameters should be set for a group of synchronized cells in order to minimize the interference between the cells. Synchronized cells mean cells that use a common synchronization source (clock). Both network synchronization and site synchronization is supported by SYROX An Inter Cell Dependency Matrix (ICDM) measured by the feature Frequency Allocation Support (FAS) is used as input for the SYROX algorithm, together with a number of synchronization clusters (at least one). A synchronization cluster is a group of cells that are mutually synchronized and where a channel group in each cell is frequency hopping over the same frequency hopping set (i.e. the same frequency numbers). There is support in the SYROX application to sort out cells with channel groups that frequency hop over the same frequencies in an easy way. It is also possible to set a number of prioritized interferers for any cell, which will make the SYROX algorithm minimize the interference first between the prioritized interferers. For each generation of SYROX results the following conditions must be fulfilled: • All cells included in any synchronization clusters must be included as measuring cells in the ICDM that is used as input. • A cell may only be included in one synchronization cluster. This means that only one frequency hopping set per cell can be optimized by SYROX.
  • 68. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 68 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF It is possible to specify that all cells in a synchronization cluster only are synchronized within each site. This means that it is not necessary to create one synchronization cluster for each site if site synchronization is used in the network. The output from the SYROX algorithm is a list of recommended settings for all cells/channel groups included in the synchronization clusters for the following parameters: • HSN (Hopping Sequence Number) • FNOFFSET (Frame Number Offset) • MAIO list (Mobile Allocation Index Offset List) • TSC (Training Sequence Code) There is support in SYROX to export the recommended parameter settings to a CNAI-file or a CNA planned area, which provides an easy way to update the parameters in the affected BSC' s. Parameters and their recommended settings Export Recommended settings to CNAI or CNA to update the parameters Figure 1-24a: SYROX Recommendation Report
  • 69. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 69 - Figure 1-24b:NCS GUI and Report NEIGHBORING CELL SUPPORT GSM-WCDMA Increasing complexity in a growing GSM network makes the process of defining neighboring cell relations a complicated and time-consuming task. GSM-WCDMA Neighboring Cell Support (NCS-GW) provides operator support in the optimization process of adding or deleting WCDMA neighboring cell relations to GSM cells. A missing neighboring cell relation can cause dropped calls and poor speech quality. If a cell has too many neighboring relations the accuracy of the measurement results from mobiles will decrease, since there is less time to measure on each neighbor. This can cause dropped calls or poor speech quality. GSM-WCDMA Neighboring Cell Support (NCS-GW) gives improved speech quality and fewer dropped calls, since all necessary neighboring relations are defined. Number of dropped calls due to too many neighbors will decrease, since NCS-GW helps to identify and remove unnecessary neighboring relations.
  • 70. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 70 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF GWNCS supports the user in finding the most appropriate set of WCDMA neighbour cell relations for each cell in the GSM network NCS-GW together with NCS-G makes it possible to perform combined measurements of both GSM and WCDMA neighboring cells in one recording. Data from surrounding WCDMA cells is collected and statistics are collected about the performance of already existing WCDMA neighbour relations. The handover decision in a radio network is based on measurements from the MS on the downlink and from the BTS on the uplink Several different reports can be generated and are then analysed by the user It is possible to add and remove WCDMA neighbour cells in CNA via a GWNCS Change Order and CNAI Figure 1-25: NCS-GW Functionality Description GSM-WCDMA Neighboring Cell Support (NCS-GW) gives an operator extensive support for monitoring and optimizing WCDMA neighboring cell relations. It provides a recording set-up, where the following criteria can be specified: • Cells and/or BSCs involved in the measurements (if a BSC is specified, all cells under it are included). • A list of test UMFIs (UTRAN Measurement Frequency Information) to add to the 3G Active BA (BCCH Allocation) lists in the examined cells. • A time schedule for the recording periods. As an option it is also possible to temporarily change the number of WCDMA cells that are included in each measurement report. This option enables a more efficient data collection during the recording. Functionality is included in NCS-GW for calculating which UMFIs that are used by the WCDMA cells in an area (specified by a set of GSM cells), and this makes it possible to easily create an UMFI set that contains all interesting UMFI values to measure on. As a result the efficiency of the measurements is increased, since only the UMFIs that are used in the area will be added to the 3G BA-list of the GSM cells.
  • 71. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 71 - NCS-GW together with NCS-G makes it possible to perform combined measurements of both GSM and WCDMA neighboring cells in one recording. For more information about the measurements on GSM neighboring cells, see Neighboring Cell Support - GSM RAN (NCS-G). The OSS-RC sends a recording request to the BSCs. The BSC will then include test UMFIs in the 3G Active BA list that is sent to the mobile stations in each GSM cell. Mobile stations do not detect any difference, but measure all UMFIs (including the ones that belong to defined WCDMA neighboring cells) in the 3G Active BA list and report six cells as usual. Parameters determine how many of the six positions in the measurement report that are used for GSM and WCDMA cells respectively. In this way, potential new WCDMA neighbors, i.e. test UMFIs with good signal quality, can easily be found. The OSS-RC requests the result from the BSCs, when the recording is completed. Results are processed and presented to the operator in charts and alphanumeric reports. This helps the operator to determine the optimal BA list with a minimum of effort. The results may also be manually or automatically exported to a tab separated ASCII file, which can be read into e.g. a spreadsheet program. A built-in function that enables customized post- processing of automatically exported results is included in the application. NCS-GW is also adapted to the optional feature RNO Database Export Interface, FAJ 121 601, which enables export of NCS-GW results to a relational database. The export can be set at the recording definition to be done automatically when the result is finished or be initiated manually for an already existing result. A Business Objects universe is also included in the optional feature, which enables NCS-GW data to be viewed in the tool Business Objects. Recording information is suitable when adding neighbors, but it should not be used as a basis for a decision to remove neighboring relations. For this purpose handover statistics is used. NCS-GW shows handover statistics covering up to the last 31 days.
  • 72. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 72 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF BSC GWBAR NCS BSC has an Active 3G BA list including test UMFIs MS’ measure all UMFIs in the BA list MS’ report the 6 strongest frequencies in the BA OSS requests measurements at end of recording period Reports CNA BSC sends measurements for defined and undefined neighbours to OSS Update network adding removing Figure 1-26: NCS-GW Workflow Information from NCS-GW can be presented in different reports. Here are a few examples: • Overview Report (Summary information on cell level) • Cell Report (Detailed information on defined and undefined neighbors) • Cell Report Chart (A visualization of the Cell Report) • Probable Neighboring Cell Report (Shows the all data that was used to map a cell name to a measured UMFI). • Probable Cell Name Diagnostics Report (Shows incomplete or missing input data as well as uncertain output data from the algorithm that maps a cell name to a measured UMFI) For all the reports, different sorting facilities are available. Thresholds can be set for which data to present and comments can be added. Data from reports helps a user to find neighboring cell relations to add. A CNA Planned Configuration containing the neighboring cell relations to add can be created directly from NCS-GW. CNA must then be used to update the network. NCS-GW supports an operator in the process of defining an optimal 3G BA list that includes the best handover cell candidates. NCS-GW uses measurement reports from the multi-RAT mobiles to detect missing neighboring cell relations.
  • 73. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé LZT 103 1014 OF © 2011 Ericsson - 73 - Add on to NCS-G Figure 1-27: NCS-GW GUI NEIGHBORING CELL SUPPORT FOR WCDMA Summary In today' s complex network the process of defining neighboring cell relations is a complicated and time-consuming task. The Neighboring Cell Support for WCDMA (NCS-W) feature allows the operator to observe candidates used in mobiles for evaluating the best cell to do a handover to. With these observations, the operator can easily define new neighboring cells and remove currently defined neighbor relations. An operator will use NCS-W in the following areas: • To find suitable neighbor cell relations to add to a new cell (Network Planning) • To evaluate which neighbor cell relations to add or remove for a group of cells (Network Optimization). Neighboring Cell Support for WCDMA (NCS-W) gives improved speech quality and fewer dropped calls, since necessary neighboring relations are identified with NCS-W and therefore can be defined. The number of dropped calls due to too many neighbors will decrease, since NCS-W helps to identify and remove unnecessary neighboring relations
  • 74. Atelier radio optimisation 3G avancé - 74 - © Ericsson 2011 LZT 103 1014 OF Measurements to determine the missing/wrong neighboring cells can be made on the real traffic, i.e. costly drive tests can be avoided. NCS-W keeps the neighbour relations in the WRAN optimized by finding missing neighbouring cells relations and finding currently defined neighbour relations that can be removed. Only neighbour relations between WCDMA cells using the same frequency can be optimized with NCS-W UE continuously monitors cells that are defined and undefined neighbors. The UE is configured to evaluate and send measurement reports to the system only when certain events occur (event-triggered reporting) Events are collected by the GPEH function in the RNC Various reports are generated and changes can be implemented using the WRAN CM Figure 1-28: NCS-W Functionality Description One of the most important factors to achieve a well performing radio network is to define proper neighboring cell relations. Defining too few or erroneous neighboring relations means that connections will drop and that unnecessary interference will be created. Defining to many neighboring cell relations create similar problems. The number of cells, including both neighboring cells and cells in the active set, on which the terminal can be ordered to measure, is limited to 32 by the 3GPP Standard. The list of neighboring cells sent to the UE is composed of the union of neighboring relations belonging to the cells in the active set. If, after the merging procedure, this list, together with the cells is the active set, is larger than 32, the list is truncated, i.e. some defined neighboring cells will not be monitored by the UE. With Neighboring Cell Support (NCS), it is possible to measure and find both missing neighboring cells, i.e. non defined neighboring cells, and neighboring cells that are missing due to truncation, so called unmonitored cells. Unmonitored cells need to be given higher priority in the neighboring cell list. NCS collects the information based on the real traffic in the network and thereby costly and time consuming drive tests can be avoided.