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La Fing and OuiShare campaign
OVERVIEW OF PLAYERS
of the COLLABORATIVE economy
Design by Collectif Bam
La Fing is supporte...
Design by Collectif Bam
collaborative consumption
is included in just like: distributed production, crowdfunding, collabor...
Design by Collectif Bam
Act of consumption by a user
Both digital and non-digital practices
Supply is offered (at least pa...
Design by Collectif Bam
4 mAIN MODELS
ProdUCT - Services
(PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM)
ReDistribution p2p services
“on-demand”
...
Design by Collectif Bam
These systems organise the transfer of ownership (or “re-use”) of goods between individuals whethe...
Design by Collectif Bam
These systems allow you to access a physical resource (property, vehicle, area) exchanged between ...
Design by Collectif Bam
Here, the purpose of exchange is a service and no longer a material resource like the first two ca...
Design by Collectif Bam
This final category, often overlooked in
English writings, groups together local
practices based o...
Design by Collectif Bam
Several players position themselves as third-party service providers in collaborative consumption,...
Design by Collectif Bam
Finally, collaborative consumption models also apply to a B2B logic of optimising excess capacity ...
Design by Collectif Bam
SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS
MobilitYMiscellaneous
HEALTH & WELLBEING LOCAL TRADING
Habitat
spACES / M...
Design by Collectif Bam
subscription
Pay as you go
service fees
Freemium
ReSALE
ADVERTISING
Donation/BARTERING
for collabo...
Design by Collectif Bam
MAIN CRITERIA
1.		 Macro Model (redistribution, product-service system, on-demand, local systems)
...
Design by Collectif Bam
Merchant Non-merchant
EXaMPLES of goods
p2p renting
C2C SECOND-HAND RESALE
p2p lending
EXCHANGING ...
Credits
Graphic design
ShaREvolution Team
OuiShare :
Antonin Léonard, Arthur De Grave,
Benjamin Tincq.
La Fing :
Marine Al...
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ShaRevolution: Overview of Players of the Collaborative Economy

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ShaRevolution: Overview of Players of the Collaborative Economy

  1. 1. La Fing and OuiShare campaign OVERVIEW OF PLAYERS of the COLLABORATIVE economy Design by Collectif Bam La Fing is supported by its major partners
  2. 2. Design by Collectif Bam collaborative consumption is included in just like: distributed production, crowdfunding, collaborative governance, ... ‘‘Collaborative consumption (or the sharing economy) is an economic model which encourages the use of ownership and allows you to optimise resources through the sharing, bartering, reselling, renting, lending or gifting of goods and services.’’ Rachel Botsman (2010) ‘‘The sharing economy refers to economic practices and models which have been organised through a network or user communities.’’ OuiShare (2012) SHARING ECONOMY
  3. 3. Design by Collectif Bam Act of consumption by a user Both digital and non-digital practices Supply is offered (at least partially) by non-professionnals On-demand services will be included (even if it isn’t “sharing”) NB: In principle, this definition excludes B2C systems such as Autolib, but for the sake of completeness, they will be repre- sented in another colour: red. “Collaborative consumption (or the sharing economy) is an economic model which encourages the use of ownership and allows you to optimise resources through the sharing, bartering, reselling, renting, lending or gifting of goods and services.“ Rachel Botsman (2010) HYPOTHESIS OF SHAREVOLUTION’s PROJECT SCOPE ShaREvolution has built on these definitions but defined a scope in their own study based on several theories:
  4. 4. Design by Collectif Bam 4 mAIN MODELS ProdUCT - Services (PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM) ReDistribution p2p services “on-demand” LOCAL CO-OP SYSTEMS
  5. 5. Design by Collectif Bam These systems organise the transfer of ownership (or “re-use”) of goods between individuals whether the object has been (re) sold, swapped or given away, generally on a digital platform. It is the oldest collaborative consumption model which is based on “C2C” pioneers (eBay, PriceMinister, followed by LeBonCoin) and classified ads websites (Craigslist, Freecycle) NB: We can also include the P2P selling of “handmade” items (like Etsy) in this category C2C re-selling of second-hand goods • generalist (e.g: LeBonCoin, eBay) • specialist (e.g: Videdressing, MonExTel) C2C selling of “handmade” goods • e.g: Etsy, aLittleMarket Giving away second-hand goods • e.g: Recupe.net, Freecycle Exchanging second-hand goods • generalist (e.g: MyRecycleStuff) • specialist (e.g: Pretachanger) ReDistribution material assets
  6. 6. Design by Collectif Bam These systems allow you to access a physical resource (property, vehicle, area) exchanged between individuals without a transfer of ownership (renting, loaning, sharing). The systems embody the famous adage “access over ownership” and are the P2P extension of a product-service system / access, which often tends to be found in B2C. NB: Some collaborative consumption definitions (which focus on “sharing” rather than “collaboration”) include the B2C mo- dels as presented below: P2P renting of goods • generalist (e.g: Zilok, Placedelaloc) • specialist (e.g: Bricolib, RentezVous) P2P lending of goods: • (e.g:ShareVoisins, Peerby) B2C renting (e.g: Pley, Kiloutou) B2C lending of goods (e.g: ToolPool) P2P vehicles rentals • with exchange of keys (e.g: Drivy) • with a box (e.g: Koolicar) • at airports (e.g: Flightcar, EasyCarClub) Carsharing and bike sharing [B2C] P2P accommodation rentals • P2P Short-term rental (e.g: Airbnb) • Home exchange (e.g: GuestToGuest) • Couchsurfing (e.g: couchsurfing.org) Shared working space • Co-working spaces (e.g: Copass) • Office rental between companies (e.g: BureauxAPartager) • Meeting areas (e.g: Breather) Other types of spaces • P2P storage system (e.g: JeStocke) • P2P parking (e.g: JustPark) • Event spaces (e.g: Snap Event) MobilitY SPACES / M2 ProduCt - Services MATERIAL ASSETS
  7. 7. Design by Collectif Bam Here, the purpose of exchange is a service and no longer a material resource like the first two categories. Individuals who would like a service (transport, cleaning, DIY, dry cleaning etc.) are connected to others who are offering, in most cases, their “labour power “ via a mobile app. Excluding “experiences/lessons” and traditional carpooling (which involves sharing fees and optimising excess capacity), it’s a far cry from the “sharing economy” : it’s the “on-demand economy”. Generalist (e.g: Stootie, Taskrabbit) Cleaning & Maintenance (e.g: Helpling) Dry cleaning & laundry (e.g: Washio) Petsitting (e.g: DogVacances) Safety (e.g: Musketeer) … Traditional carpooling • long distance (e.g: BlaBlaCar) • home to work (e.g: IDvroom, WeDrive) “Real time” carpooling • P2P Taxi (e.g: Uber, Private Chauffeur) • “Urban” ride-sharing (e.g: Lyft, Djump) P2P Coaching (e.g: Vint, Helparound) Doctors On-Demand (e.g: TripMD) P2P Tour guides (e.g: Vayable) Co-travelling (ex: Tripnco) One-to-one lessons (e.g: LiveMentor) P2P delivery • urban areas (e.g: Instacart, TokTokTok) • long distance (e.g: Nimber, mmmule) P2P Cooking and ready-made meals • takeaway (e.g: SuperMarmite) • meals-on-wheels (e.g: Munchery) • on-demand chef (e.g: La Belle Assiette) P2P Table d’hôte (e.g: Eatwith, Cookening) SERVICESforINDIVIDUALS ExpEriences & LEsSONSHEALTH & WELLBEINGLOGISTICS FOOD SERVICEs P2P SERVICES (“On-Demand Services”) MobilitY
  8. 8. Design by Collectif Bam This final category, often overlooked in English writings, groups together local practices based on the co-operation or grouping together of members of a network. Many of them involve “low digital participation”. They can particularly be found in short food supply chains, time banking etc. Co-housing (or housing co-ops) Flat sharing with like-minded people (e.g: auTroisieme) «Farm-to-table» • AMAP, La Ruche Qui Dit Oui • Food co-ops (e.g: La Louve) P2P Agriculture • Urban agriculture, shared gardens, ... • Shared vegetable patches (e.g: Plantezcheznous) Renewable energy • P2P energy supply (e.g: Vandebron) • Crowdfunding of renewable energy (e.g: Energie Partagée) Telecommunications • Wifi sharing (e.g: Wifis.org, Fon) • Mesh Network (e.g: Freifunk, Guifi, Firechat) Local Exchange Trading Systems (and alternatives) • Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS) • Time Banking, Accorderies [mutual exchange of services] • Reciprocal Knowledge Exchange Networks Neighbourhood Social Network Peuplade, Nextdoor, Ma-Residence HabitatFOOD local exchange LOCAL CO-OP SystEms Infrastructure
  9. 9. Design by Collectif Bam Several players position themselves as third-party service providers in collaborative consumption, whether they are targeting individuals (to manage shared apartments) or the platforms themselves (as trust engines , payment gateways, logistics engines, or even as fully customisable marketplace platforms). guest management REPUTATION SYSTEMS Yield management marketplace PLATFORMS PAYMENT gateways VEHICLE FLEETS LOYALTY PROGRAMS (cross-sectional) “Enablers “ Services FOR USERS TOOLS FOR PARTICIPANTS
  10. 10. Design by Collectif Bam Finally, collaborative consumption models also apply to a B2B logic of optimising excess capacity or accessing resources (property, merchandise, vehicles) or even swapping employees between companies for specific tasks. B2B MODELS WORK SPACES tangible assets Vehicles & Logistics human resources
  11. 11. Design by Collectif Bam SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS MobilitYMiscellaneous HEALTH & WELLBEING LOCAL TRADING Habitat spACES / M2 Redistribution Products-services P2P Services “on-demand” local co-op Systems • C2C second-hand reselling • C2C “handmade” selling • Giving second-hand goods • Swapping second-hand goods Services for users • Management of shared assets and analytics (yield management) • Loyalty programs Tools for those involved • Reputation systems • Payment gateways • Marketplace platforms • Vehicle fleets B2B Collab Consumption • Work spaces • Tangible asset optimisation • Vehicle & Logistics • Employee swapping (ex: Flexojob) • P2P object rentals • P2P lending • B2C renting • B2C lending • P2P car rentals • Carsharing and bike sharing P2P accommodation • P2P short-term rental • Home exchange • Couchsurfing Sharing work spaces • Coworking • Office sharing Other shared spaces • Traditional carpooling • P2P taxi (dynamic carpooling) Generalist / Maintenance / Dry cleaning / Security / Animals • P2P coaching • Doctors On-Demand • LETS and alternatives • Neighbourhood Social Network • LETS and alternatives • Neighbourhood Social Network • Farm-to-table • P2P Agriculture MATeRIaL goodS Logistics • P2P courrier (urban area) • P2P long distance delivery Infrastructure • P2P courrier (urban area) • P2P long distance delivery FOOD SERVICE • P2P ready-made meals • P2P Table d’hôte ExpEriences & LESSONS • Collaborative tourism • P2P lessons (online/offline) food
  12. 12. Design by Collectif Bam subscription Pay as you go service fees Freemium ReSALE ADVERTISING Donation/BARTERING for collaborative consumption economic/ revenue models
  13. 13. Design by Collectif Bam MAIN CRITERIA 1. Macro Model (redistribution, product-service system, on-demand, local systems) 2. Exchanged resources (material goods, spaces, ...) 3. Means of exchange: monetary or not 4. Nature of offer : personal, professional, both 5. Interface mainly digital or offline / local SECONDARY CRITERIA 6. Generalist or specialist/niche platform 7. Platform’s economic model 8. Type of critical mass needed (hyperlocal, local, national, worldwide) 9. Exchanges between strangers/ ad hoc community/ acquaintances 10. Importance of trust / perceived risk of the practice 11. Creating a social link vs a transactional approach 12. Type of social link / community (see Chronos study “communities manufactured from collabo- rative services (2014)”) 13. Density of intermediation (e.g: profiles, moderation, online payments, insurance, customer ser- vice, Premium features, hosting communities, …) 14. Type of ownership, platform governance / value sharing 15. Sector in question: transport, tourism, delivery, industrial, … The economic collaborative consumption models can be analysed according to a certain number of primary or secondary criteria. GOING FURTHER analysis criteria of collaborative consumption
  14. 14. Design by Collectif Bam Merchant Non-merchant EXaMPLES of goods p2p renting C2C SECOND-HAND RESALE p2p lending EXCHANGING SECOND-HAND GOODS B2C RENTING C2C “HomeMade SALES” B2C LENDING GIVING AWAY SECOND-HAND GOODS Re-distribution Products-services
  15. 15. Credits Graphic design ShaREvolution Team OuiShare : Antonin Léonard, Arthur De Grave, Benjamin Tincq. La Fing : Marine Albarède, Véronique Routin, Jacques-François Marchandise, Pierre Mallet. Program led by The ShaREvolution team would like to thank its partners (Île de France, La Poste, ADEME, Nord Pas De Calais, Orange, Bouygues Immobilier, Bouygues Construction, Renault et EDF) for their active participation in this venture. La Fing is supported by its major partners Pictograms Noun Project Thomas Le Bas - Iain Hector - Jon trillana - John Caserta Jane Pellicciotto - Dan Hetteix - George Agpoon - Edward Boatman Chris Kerr - Kaio Fialho - Natalia Bourges - Edward Boatman

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