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Teaching for success cpd models

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Teaching for success cpd models

  1. 1. TAKING RESPONSIBILITY: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ACTION AND REFLECTION Simon Etherton, British Council
  2. 2. Overview In this presentation, we’ll investigate: • What the aims of CPD for teachers are • What ineffective CPD is • What models of CPD there are – Learning by observation – Communities of practice – Mentoring – Reflective practice – Teacher research – Training courses • How to design programmes that use these models effectively 2
  3. 3. What are the aims of CPD? CPD contributes to improvements in the quality of teaching and learning Evidence suggests that teacher effectiveness is the single most important school variable influencing student achievement – therefore investing in CPD for teachers is likely to provide ministries of education with the best return on investment A specific CPD programme will therefore focus on developing teachers’ skills and knowledge to achieve specific improvements in performance in the classroom. The improvements aimed for will be defined by the needs analysis prior to designing the programme. Examples of foci are: • Improving the teachers’ use of English as the language of the classroom • Improving students’ results in a listening test • Improving the quality of interaction in the classroom to foster deeper engagement in the subject content The impact of the CPD programme will be assessed by measuring improvements at the end of the programme from baseline measures taken at the beginning 3
  4. 4. Teacher development as change 4 INTENDED CHANGE STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT STARTING POINT Change in awareness, knowledge, motivation Change in practice, habit, skills and belief Awareness (A) you have heard of the particular professional practice Beginning with little/no prior knowledge/skills, attitudes, beliefs Understanding (U) you know what the professional practice means and why it’s important Beginning with prior knowledge/skills, attitudes, beliefs Engagement (E) you demonstrate competency in this professional practice at work Beginning to embed new ideas/practice, attitudes, beliefs in practice Integration (I) you demonstrate a high level of competency in this professional practice and it consistently informs what you do at work Beginning to set an example in ideas/practice, attitudes, beliefs
  5. 5. Our CPD framework for teachers is our key 5 • To be consistent about what teachers’ knowledge and skills are • To engage in informed dialogue with clients • To show how resources contribute to the development of particular knowledge and skills • To profile teachers and their development
  6. 6. What is ineffective CPD? We want to avoid common aspects of CPD which are not effective: • Training workshops without effective follow-up • Too much training input • No support to help teachers develop their actual practice in the classroom • No measuring of impact • CPD unrelated to specific needs of teachers and classroom realities • Lack of a system for sustaining CPD and embedding it in school practice • Lack of reward for teachers We avoid these by creating CPD programmes that incorporate the effective models outlined here 6
  7. 7. CPD models In class In-school Out of school Online Individual Group Learning by observation Y Y Y Communities of practice Y Y Y Y Mentoring Y Y Y Y Y Reflective practice Y Y Y Y Y Y Teacher research Y Y Y Y Training courses Y Y Y Y Y 7
  8. 8. Learning by observation Benefits How it is organised Teachers learn from observing actual teaching: • Observing other teachers • Observing their own teaching • Being observed This focuses on developmental observation which aims to help teachers improve, not evaluative observation which judges their performance against standards • Demonstrates what actually happens in the classroom reality • Can show both what works and what does not work • Teachers can learn by modelling what other teachers do or by modifying what they themselves do See: Observational learning theory (Bandura) Can be done physically or by video May be observation by a peer or by a mentor Teachers involved need guidance on noticing skills to do this effectively See: Iris Connect for technology and expertise to facilitate this A Guide to CPD – Peer observationsWhat it is 8
  9. 9. Communities of practice What it is Benefits How it is organised Communities of Practice (CoP) are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.. (Wenger) Teachers’ communities of practice are self-directed groups which allow teachers to discuss issues and find common solutions • Evidence suggests that teachers sharing ideas and discussing teaching have a very strong impact on their performance • Learning that takes place is not necessarily intentional, but can be transformative • Draws on teachers’ own expertise See: Lave & Wenger Can be done physically or online Can take the form of Teacher Activity Groups Teachers involved may need guidance to manage and participate in groups effectively CoPs are an important aspect for all CPD models See: Teaching for Success Facebook and MOOC communities 9
  10. 10. Mentoring What it is Benefits How it is organised Mentors support and encourage people to manage their own learning in order to maximise their potential, develop their skills, and improve their performance • Gives teachers the benefits of advice and guidance from more expert teachers in their own context • Provides ongoing support for teachers throughout the school year • Is flexible and responsive to concerns as they arise for the teacher Mentors themselves need training and support Mentors may be peers or superiors Can be done physically or by video Mentoring complements other CPD models See: Teaching for Success Mentoring Course 10
  11. 11. Reflective practice What it is Benefits How it is organised Reflective teaching is a process whereby teachers think over their teaching practices, analysing how something was taught and how the practice might be improved or changed for better learning outcomes • Evidence shows that reflective abilities are characteristics of very effective teachers • Reflective practice helps teachers develop their skills in thinking about and discussing their teaching • Reflective practice focuses on teachers’ actual interests and concerns in context Teachers involved need guidance and a spport network. Reflective practice can be managed formally with a portfolio of journal entries, video etc. , or through dialogue with a peer or mentor. Reflective practice is encouraged throughout all the CPD models. See: Teaching for Success module - Being a reflective teacher 11
  12. 12. Teacher research What it is Benefits How it is organised Teachers identify areas of classroom practice and behaviour that they would like to understand better, with a view to improving their performance. They then undertake small-scale research tasks focused on the areas of interest. • Research evidence suggests that teacher research has a deep impact on teacher development • Teacher research helps identify solutions to issues the teacher really faces • Teacher research can enhance the teacher’s professional status See: Teachers Research (IATEFL) Where teachers have a range of specific issues, a teacher research programme may be the best solution. Teachers involved need guidance and mentoring to prepare them for such activity. Teacher research may complement other CPD models such as a training course. See: Teacher research guide 12
  13. 13. What is the difference between Reflective Practice and Teacher Research? 13
  14. 14. Training courses What it is Benefits How it is organised Teachers participate in F2F or online training which provides them with opportunities to consider new ideas and knowledge about teaching, and develop teaching skills Good practice suggests that training courses are best spaced out over a period, giving teachers enough time and support between modules to integrate their learning into practice • Structures teachers’ learning with quality materials and trainers • Provides a safe environment to discuss and experiment BUT Evidence shows that training has very limited impact on classroom teaching, without systems being in place to support change in the classroom Cascade models need careful performance management Courses are assembled from Teaching for Success F2F and online modules according to the needs of the teachers All modules have tasks for teachers to apply learning to their teaching Other CPD models are combined with courses to help teachers put their learning into practice in the classroom See: Teaching for Success Collections site 14
  15. 15. How to design a CPD plan that use these models effectively - finding the appropriate model(s) ANALYSE TEACHER NEEDS, THEN IDENTIFY DESIRED CPD OUTCOMES AND TARGETS WHICH CPD MODEL(S) WILL BEST ACHIEVE THESE OUTCOMES? LEARNING BY OBSERVATION MENTORING COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE REFLECTIVE PRACTICE TEACHER RESEARCH TRAINING COURSE 15
  16. 16. Action planning 16 Reflect on the conference: • Identify something(s) you have heard/learnt that you would like to follow up further • How will you follow them up? – Think about understanding it more (theory) – Think about applying it (practice) – Think about evaluating it (analysis) – Think about sharing with others (collaboration)
  17. 17. Thank you We investigated: • What the aims of CPD for teachers are • What ineffective CPD is • What models of CPD there are – Learning by observation – Communities of practice – Coaching and mentoring – Reflective practice – Teacher research – Training courses • How to design CPD programmes that use these models effectively Any questions or comments? 17

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