Unexploded dictation-teacher records at regular rate with no pauses then students have to listen to the recording stopping and starting again until they have completed the transcript.
T reads something twice 1st time Ss listen. 2nd time Ss take notes of key words. then Ss work together in groups to recreate. Then groups compare answers and they work on it again to make changes. They can also retell text several times to people with each time allowing less time for each retelling.
Listening -a critical skill
Listening—A Critical Skill
Created by Jerrold Frank, Adapted by Eve Smith
ETRC Spring School
6-8 March, 2014
How Should Teaching and Learning be Done?
The MINUS Approach
1. Meaning: Focus on meaningful and relevant language.
2. Interest: Maintain interest through a variety of activities.
3. New Language:Avoid overloading the learners with too much
4. Understanding: Provide plenty of comprehensible input.
5. Stress-free: Create a friendly, safe, cooperative classroom
Questions Teachers Should Ask?
• Is the input of a piece meaningful communication?
• Does the input contain useful or interesting
information that will attract the learners attention?
• What learnable (new) language will learners meet
through the listening experience?
• Can the learners understand the input and how are
new language items being made comprehensible?
• How is stress and anxiety being controlled?
Tips for Selecting “MINUS” Listening Activities
• Choose materials learners are interested in.
• Choose materials that are at the right level for the
• Help students understand unfamiliar words through
• Don’t focus exclusively on language features.
Concentrate on the FLOW of the listening task.
• Allow opportunities for interaction during tasks
• Concentrate on input over output.
Activities for “MINUS” focused Listening.
• Listening to stories
• Oral Cloze exercises
• Picture ordering
• The “What is it?” technique
• Same or different exercises
• Listen and Choose exercises
• Listen and Draw exercises
• Padded Questions
• Information transfer activities
• Note taking
1. Provide pre-listening support with aspects of
the text (i.e., with language, ideas, skills or
2. Guide learners through the text.
3. Establish cooperative learning arrangements.
4. Help learners to be autonomous listeners.
Dictation and Related Activities
• Running Dictation
• One Chance Dictation
• Dictation of Long Phrases
• Guided Dictation
• Dictation for Mixed Classes
• Peer Dictation
• Completion Dictation
• Sentence Dictation
• Unexploded Dictation
• Delayed Repetition
1. Memory span is shorter in a foreign language.
2. Memory span in a foreign language increases
with mastery of the language.
3. The difference between the native and the
foreign language memory span is greater when
the material in the foreign language contains
pronunciation and grammatical contrasts
between the language.
4. The relation of memory span to foreign
language is greater for contextual material than
Dictogloss and Related Activities
• Expert Groups
• Oral Reproduction
• Disappearing Text
• Phrase by Phrase
Websites for Listening
• VOA Special English
• National Public Radio
Strategy Based Listening
• Communication Strategies: strategies to assist
comprehension, for example making predications
before listening, listening selectively, knowing
how to interrupt politely, etc.
• Learning Strategies: strategies for noticing
language forms in the input in their independent
listening, negotiating(seeking clarification),
listening for patterns, focused listening.
Activities to Encourage Negotiation
• Listen and do.
• Controlling the teacher.
• Could you repeat that?
• Graded Discussion
Developing Fluency in Listening
• Name it!
• Listening to Questions.
• A Listening Corner.
• Listening to Pictures.
• Listening to Questions.
• Listening to Stories
• Listen Again.
• Visit and Listen.
• Listen while Reading.
• Recorded Interviews.
• Washback effect: A good test is a model for
what should happen in the classroom.
• Reliability: A reliable test is one whose results
are not greatly affected by a change in the
conditions under which it is given and marked.
• Validity: A valid test is one that measures
what it supposed to measure.
• Practicality: Ease of administration and
Examples of Listening Tests
• Partial Dictation
• Text with Questions
• Responding to Statements
• Three Choice True-False
• Recorded Cloze
• Information Transfer
• Resource: Nation, I.S.P & Newton, J. Teaching
ESL/EFL Listening and Speaking
THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND
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