OBJECTIVESBy the end of the session,participants should be able to:• Define communication.• Describe the process of communication.• List at least 3 qualities of effective communication.
• List at least 3 barriers toeffective communication.• Plan messages effectively.• Utilize speaking skills to enhance communication.
WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?Communication is a processwhereby a message is sent from oneperson to another person or agroup of persons, with the intentionof receiving a feedback andfacilitating some change or action.
THE OBJECTIVES OFCOMMUNICATION To be received (heard or read) To be understood To be accepted To get action (change ofbehaviour or attitude)
COMMUNICATION PROCESS SENDER MESSAGE Credible Clear Confident ConciseKnowledgeable PreciseRespectable SimpleRECEIVER CHANNEL Patient AppropriateGood Listener Acceptable Committed Accessible Interested Convenient
NOVERBALCOMMUNICATION(Communicating without words) Facial expression -a smile, a frown Gestures- movement of hands and body to aid in explaining oremphasizing verbal message Posture- how we stand or sit. Orientation- facing or turning away
Eye contact- whether we look at theperson or not, and the length of timethat we look Proximity- distance standing orsitting from person Appearance-physical groomingand choice of clothes Non-Verbal aspects of speech-variations of pitch, stress and timing,quality and tone of voice.
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION*Language - use of words notunderstood by the other party.*Environment - disruptive and noisy *Attitude - e.g. uncaring, uninterested *Disability - hard of hearing
*Differences in perception -the way we view the world islargely determined by our pastexperiences, so people ofdifferent ages, nationalities,cultures, education, sex, andpersonality will perceivesituations differently.
*Lack of interest - one of thegreatest barriers to overcome isthe receiver’s lack of interest inyour message. You musttherefore angle your message toappeal to the interest and needsof the receiver.
*Why- am I communicating;what am I hoping to achieve; whatis my purpose?
*Where and when (Place andcontext)- do I need to remind them of the facts? *What- do I want to say; need to say; what do they need to know? What can I omit?
*How- (tone and style) am I going to communicate my message? With words or pictures? Which medium- written or spoken? *How am I going to achieve the right effect?
PLANNING YOUR MESSAGEB. THE MECHANICS* Write down your purpose -what you are trying to achieve.* Assemble the information - if itis a long message from a letter orreport etc., jot down all thepoints that you need to make.
*Group the information - whichmessages can be linked(Departments, etc.)?*Put information into logical sequence(e.g. order of importance, ascendingorders of complexity).*Produce a skeleton outline - makespresentation of the message easier.
*Write and edit draft - check forambiguities, awkward expressionsand errors. *Write final draft - use words thereceiver will understand; avoidcertain colloquialisms (e.g. to cut along story short); avoid verbosity—omit unnecessary words.
SPEAKING SKILLS Clarity – Be able to express your ideas clearly, using simple languageand arranger your information so that it can be easily followed. Utter yourwords distinctly so that they are easily recognizable.
Accuracy – Make sure yourwords say exactly what you mean. Thefacts you use should be correct. Sincerity – Be natural. There isalways a danger when talking to strangersor people of higher status of becoming stiffand awkward and trying to put on an act.
Relaxation – The best way ofgetting rid of unnatural speechcharacteristics is to relax. When ourmuscles are tense we have difficultyexpressing ourselves naturally.Awkward movements are also theresult of tension. Deep breathing ishelpful.
Eye contact – Direction andlength of gaze are important factors insynchronizing speech and signifying thedesire to be friendly. A speaker whonever looks at his/her audience may beconveying messages like, “I am not veryinterested in you; I am not very sure ofmyself; I am not very sure about what Iam saying”; or even, “Don’t believewhat I am saying.”
Appearance – Yourappearance reflects how you seeyourself. Your self-image is critical.People see the speaker and formjudgments about you even before youspeak. Two critical factors to considerare: • Personal cleanliness and tidiness • Dress and appearance appropriate to the situation.
Posture – Someone whoprops up the wall or slouches whilecommunicating is conveying amessage to the listeners which maysurprise them. His/her posturemay suggest that he/she is eithertired, bored, or careless, or allthree!
Posture affects the quality of yourvoice. If you slouch over, hang yourhead or let your shoulders droop,the quality of your voice will not begood, because your breathing will beaffected.
You will not be able to draw as muchair into your lungs, nor would youhave complete control over how youlet out the air. In addition the throatmuscles, jaw and vocal chords wouldnot be able to operate as freely asthey should, resulting in muffled,poorly pronounced words.
MORE SPEAKING SKILLS Pitch – When people arefrightened or tense, their vocal cordsstretch tightly and their voices tend tosqueak.
A simple exercise could provehelpful. Take a deep breath. Then,as you breathe out, say severalshort syllables, e.g. “She gave us alla short talk on art.” The tightnesstends to disappear as you exhale. Itis impossible to breathe out andkeep the muscles tight at the sametime.
Volume – Learn how to projectyour voice so that you can be heard atgreat distances without yelling orstraining. The right volume depends onthe situation.
You should therefore note: • Where you are speaking – in asmall room, or a large hall; in aroom where sounds carry well or ina room where sounds echo; indoorsor outdoors. • The size of the group to whichyou are speaking.Background noise, e.g. noise of fansor air conditioning units.
Difficulty in expressing yourselfnaturally, and awkwardmovements are the result oftension. Deep breathing,pausing for a moment andsmiling, are simple techniquesthat can enable you to relax.
Diction and accent –Diction is the way in which youpronounce your words, and isacquired. To some extent it isaffected by accent. Dictiondepends upon articulation andenunciation, which are terms usedto describe how you pronouncewords.
• Articulation refers to the way people pronounce consonants.• Enunciation refers to the way people pronounce vowels.
Vocal tension – blurred indistinctspeech can be caused by a tight, rigidjaw or tight lips. If your throat is tightthen it is almost certain that your jawwill be tight also. (Do this simpleexercise. Test your jaw movement.Tighten –half close your jaw and say“a cleverly devised scheme”; now relaxyour jaw and let your lips and mouthmove freely as you say the phraseagain.
Speed – The speed at whichyou talk affects the message thatyou are sending. While speakingvery quickly conveyed a sense ofurgency, speaking rapidly all thetime, pouring out your words in a great rush, may cause your listeners to switch off. Speaking too rapidly may also make itdifficult for you to be understood.
On the other hand, speaking tooslowly may allow your listenersminds to wander or may result inthem becoming bored and losetract of what you are saying. Agood speaker varies their paceaccording to the relativeimportance of what he/she issaying. More emphasis is placedon important statements.
Pause – Long pausesbetween words or a series ofwords causes you to wearyyour audience, however, ifcarefully used, it can beeffective in getting themessage across.
Tone – The inflection (upand down pitch) of your voicealso affects the way yourmessage is received.Variations in tone are oftenassociated with pitch andspeed in giving interest andemphasis to you speech.
Your tone can betray yourattitudes and emotions. Youcan even make the samewords mean several differentthings by the tone you give it.
QUALITIES FOR GOOD SPEAKING Alertness – This sends a message of interest. Pleasantness – It conveys a friendly tone to your voice. Distinctness – This quality facilitates hearing and understandingwithout straining. Expressiveness – This puts feeling into your voice.
SIX Cs OF EFFECTIVECOMMUNICATION(whether in speaking or writing) Clarity Conciseness Courtesy Constructiveness Correctness Completeness