Sanitation Sector Development in IndonesiaPresented by,Oswar MungkasaDirectorate of Settlement and Housing,National Development AgencyRepublic of Indonesia
The Portrait Percentage of households that have access to sanitation facilities (regardless the quality of the facilities) : 67,1% (data source: BPS/National Statistics Agency, 2004) Only 10 cities have sanitary sewers (with only 13,9% of the population with access to the system). (data source: Indonesia Environmental Status 2003, published by Ministry of The Environment) Economic lost due to poor sanitation approximately Rp 42,3 trillions per year (2% of GDP).
Identified Problems Attitude toward sanitation – inadequate concern by the community that leads to: Un-healthy and un-hygienic behavior poor operation and maintenance of public sanitation facilities by the government that leads to low development priority for sanitation sector Policy Policies and regulatory frameworks for sanitation sector are inadequate to allow accommodative environment for effective and efficient development of the sector Institutional Responsibility for sanitation sector development is dispersed among several ministries at central level and several agencies at local level, but not supported by a clear and strong coordination framework. Inadequate capacity of local government to carry out sanitation service delivery functions Investment – limited investment by public, private, and community in sanitation.
Available Policy Framework . Law No 7 /2004 : Water Resources Government Regulation No 16/2005 Drinking Water Provision System National Policy In Finalized and agreed by refinement Institutional based Community based 6 ministries (Home stage Affairs, Public Works, National Development Strategy for water supply, waster Agency, Health, water, solid waste and drainage Strategy Environment, Finance). Currently is being advocated to local Action Plan governments Action Plan
The National Policy for Community-basedWater Supply and Environmental Sanitation(WSES) Development1. Water as a social and economic good2. Informed-choice, based on demand.3. Sustainability4. Community education: good health and living behavior5. Pro-poor6. Increased women participation.7. Transparent & accountable processes8. Government as facilitator, not executor9. Community participation10. Optimum and well targeted services11. Cost recovery
The National Policy for Institutional-basedWater Supply and Environmental Sanitation(WSES) Development Pro poor Environmental conservation Stakeholders active involvement Good corporate governance Law enforcement Regionalization
Current Initiatives Sanitation sector “high profiling” to change the attitude toward sanitation by the government increased concern and development priority for sanitation Public sanitation campaign to increase public awareness toward good sanitation practices increased demand of good sanitation services Carried out through Strengthening coordination framework among Indonesia Sanitation different agencies that responsible for sanitation development. Sector Development Develop investment framework that enables Program (ISSDP) and accommodates investment initiatives by all stakeholders. Capacity building for local governments to enable them to carry out sanitation sector development tasks. Have produced : • Sanitation by the Develop sanitation approaches that can be Community implemented in different locations, communities, and (SANIMAS) conditions •Community Total Led Sanitation (CLTS)
Indonesia Sanitation SectorDevelopment Program (ISSDP) Goal: to improve the health, environmental and economic well-being of the population, especially the poor, through targeted improvements in sanitation service delivery in Indonesia Component • National enabling framework for sanitation: strengthening policy, regulation, institutions, strategies and action plans • Co-ordination of activity & investment: the development of broad stakeholder consensus among ministries, levels of government, donors, private sector and NGOs to the objectives and principles of a coordinated sanitation program & sector investment framework. • Raising awareness of sanitation & hygiene promotion: advocacy and marketing activities to stimulate and increase demand through targeted, nationwide sanitation awareness raising and hygiene promotion campaigns. Campaign segment focused on the urban poor implemented in 6 cities. • City capacity building & sanitation strategies: facilitating local governments to undertake sanitation mapping and situation assessments, to build capacity, and develop a citywide sanitation strategy, budgets and action plans.
Indonesia Sanitation SectorDevelopment Program (ISSDP) Component • Neighborhood sanitation pilots: provide matching fund to develop community-based sanitation systems, including for example, school or other community improvements which have been prioritized in their city wide strategies/ action plans. • Priority municipal actions: provide matching funds to enable the design and implementation of primary and/or secondary physical, institutional and financial solutions, needed to serve the poor or to integrate community-based solutions into a centralized city sewer systems, as identified in the city strategies/ action plans. Pilot locations: 6 cities (Jambi, Payakumbuh, Surakarta, Blitar, Banjarmasin, Denpasar) Timeframe: 2006 – 2009 Funding: grant from Netherlands Government Current Status: Sanitation condition mapping in 6 cities Facilitation for 6 municipalities to develop sanitation sector strategy.
Sanitation by the community (SANIMAS) : Acollective action, a small step Goal: to improve sanitation conditions of poor communities who live in dense urban slums by constructing community level centralized sewerage system. Principles Demand Responsive Approach/DRA Participative Informed choice Self-selection Process Capacity Building Funding : Total cost approximately Rp 250 - 400 millions/facility (servicing 200 – 300 households) NGO: 16% Community: 2%(in kind or in cash) Central Government: 27 % Local Government: 55% Has been tested in 7 districts (Denpasar, Sidoarjo, Pamekasan, Pasuruan, Mojokerto, Kediri, Blitar) in 2004.
SANIMAS: What does it offer? Improved Livelihoods SANIMAS improves quality of livelihoods and health especially of mothers and children Protecting clean water sources SANIMAS treatment options will reduce pollution load of groundwater and rivers High Efficiency – Time-wise Less than 12 months are anticipated for planning and implementing CBS-systems
SANIMAS: What does it offer? High Efficiency – Cost-wise Investment as well as operation & maintenance costs of technical CBS options are low Sustainability of technical options Technical options promoted within SANIMAS are simple, proven, and tested easily maintained by the community Training and capacity building Community are trained to plan, implement and manage SANIMAS independently
A Brief Example of SANIMAS ProcessDissemination & Rapid Hand over to thecommunity Participatory construction community groupselection Assessment•Selected •Technology •Constructed facility •The facility is fullycommunity selected managed by •Community group community group. formed •Capacity building constructing and for community managing the built group operation facility and maintenance •Capacity building for community group construction
SANIMAS: So far …. It’s a park!! It’s a mini-market!! Terima Kasih It’s a community center!! . NO!! IT’S A COMMUNAL TOILET!!
SANIMAS: So far …. Nice facilities: Chosen and managed by the community.
SANIMAS: So far ….From toilet to a banquette:bio-gas being used forcooking.
Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) :Behavioral change triggering. Goal: to change community’s behavior toward healthy and hygienic practices. Strategy: motivate and empower the community to stop open defecation and build and use latrines (based on their economic and technical ability, without compromising technical standard of the facility). Principles: Community’s active participation Zero subsidy Social solidarity Pride as the key element of motivation Has been tested in 6 districts in 6 provinces (2005). Up until May 2006,there are 19 dusuns (hamlets) that free of open defecation.
CLTS Process Follow up Community selfTriggering & participatory by the monitoring & analysis community “open defecation free” declaration•Community’s •Community action plan to •Community’s satisfactorycomprehensive eradicate open defecation in ratingunderstanding of their village. •Cross visit to other villagesanitation condition in •Collective actions, organized that has not beentheir village and impacts by natural leader. triggered yet.of open defecation •Community declare that•Sanitation map their village is now free ofshows locations of open open defecation.defecations.•Natural leader emerges
Main Considerations of CLTS and SANIMAS CLTS SANIMAS Suitable for low density Suitable for high density area land availability Can not co-exist with area land scarcity other program that Community contribution (in provide subsidy kind or in cash) is a must to Natural leader existence ensure sustainability is a must he/she play a role as motivator Continuous capacity It’s a behavioral change building for community and must be followed by group (management, O&M) sanitation facilities quality Management manual and improvement sanitation ladder technical guidance availability