Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 8 May 2005


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 8 May 2005

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Published by: Working Group for Water Supply and Sanitation From the Editor 1 Your Voice 2 Advisor: Director General for Urban and Main FeatureRural Development, Department of Public Works Aceh Emergency, Disaster Emergency 3 Board of Trustee: Standard Operational Procedure for Disaster Emergency 7 Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Tsunami 8 Republic of Indonesia Imagining the Face of the Veranda of Mecca 9 Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Interview Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, The Community Must to Be Resettled 13 Department of Public WorksDirector of Natural Resources and Appropriate "Our Surveilance is Functioning" 14 Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, TPA Must Be Enlarged 16 Department of Home Affairs Fulfillment of Basic Infrastructure and Provision of Access 17 Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Meeting the Minimum Level of Service 20 Department of Home Affairs Telescope Chief Editor: PDAM Banda Aceh, Your Story Today 21 Oswar Mungkasa To Take Care of the Survival 22 Board of Editor: Book Info 23 Ismail, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Website Info 24 IATPI Clinic 25 Editor:Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Reportase Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti At ZERO POINT 26 Insight Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Tragic Story at Lewigajah. Are We Learning a Lesson? 30 Waste Material Management in the Town of Luwuk 33 Production: Machrudin Community Empowerment Model in Water Supply and Sanitation Management Distribution: for Settlement Area 35 Meiza Aprizya, Agus Syuhada Clean Beach and Blue Sea Through GBPL 38 Address: About WASPOLA 39 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat About WSS 45 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 Agenda 52 e-mail: Glossary 53 Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our addressor e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accom- panied by identity. Cover by RUDI KOSASIH
  2. 2. F ROM EDITORDear readers, SOURCE: FANY WEDAHUDITAMA It seems we are not really aware that ithas been four months we did not see eachother. There is, of course, a feeling oflongingness to be able to greet you onceagain. Thanks God, in this opportunitywe are able to visit your drawing room. Please be informed, that the presenceof Pecik is inseparable from governmentsupport. Therefore, Perciks life dependson the liquidity of budget support. As youknow, APBN budget is liquid in April sothat Percik has to adjust with it. Onceagain, please be informed and pardon usfor the delay, until someday when Percikhas become financially independent. Readers, this time we present you inthe main feature a discussion aboutearthquake and tsunami that devastateda major portion of Nanggroe Aceh Da-russalam and a small part of NorthSumatra. Though a bit late, some newdata especially related to water supply Pokja AMPL is welcoming the visit of Ede Jorge Ijjasz-Vasquez, Manager of Water andand environmental sanition may hopeful- Sanitation Program (second from right) to see what the Pokja is be useful. This is our sincere participa-tion in the on going process there. Compared with the previous edition,the main feature is somewhat longer. As usual, we still present to you the lished in English. When the members ofThis is related to the magnitude of the old coloumns. Such as insight, kaleidos- Working Group attended Water Weekdisaster that involved damage to property cope, reportase, info, bibliography, about 2005 in the United States, last February,and invaluable loss of human lives. WSS, around WASPOLA, agenda, and so an attempt was made to introduce PercikBecause of the size and the extent of the forth. The contents of these columns are to the Water Week participants. Thedisaster, we cannot present you all the emphasized on subjects related to tsuna- result, it sold well. A few hundred copiessectors that were damaged and how to mi and its impact. We also keep in mind were distributed. Favourable responserehabilitate them. Whereas, this is actu- to insert an article about Lewigajah case was flowing in. This of course means a lotally a very important matter for all of us in Bandung. This is important consider- to be informed about. ing its significance in the dynamics of Altough it is getting more and more Our discussion is limited on WSS sector waste material management in Indonesia welknown, we never cease to promoteconsisting of drinking water, solid waste, so that it could be used as a reflection for Percik. One of them is through Appro-severage, and drainage. Our objective is TPA (final solid waste disposal site) man- priate Technology exhibition in thethat the readers have a better knowledge agement and that all the basic require- framework of World Water Day com-about the condition of this sector during the ments for a TPA should be met. memoration, held last end of April. Percikemergency response and able to imagine Dear readers, there is a pleasing infor- is also present in WSS related events atwhat it will look like after the rehabilitation mation for us. Percik is gaining more the national and regional levels.and reconstruction. To support the presen- acceptance from day to day even to those At the least, with the presence oftation, we present to you our interviews who are newly acquainted to it. This is Percik, water and sanitation relatedwith the individuals involved in the ma- not only within this country but also from issues are continuously brought to ournagement during the emergency response abroad. For your information, beside in attention. Lets hope for the best.and after that. Indonesian language Percik is also pub- Best regards. Percik 1 May 2005
  3. 3. Y OUR VOICE Sanitation Coverage should elaborate the Rating Data with the magazine. Thank you. Rating Data more specified information about sa- nitation facility types and the condi- Wisnu H Wibowo Ive been observing Percik from tion of those facilities. We will revise Lecturer time to time. Percik have always pre- the Rating Data as soon as we able to Department of Environmental senting issues regarding water and sa- gather the necessary data from the Engineering, Diponegoro University nitation. These issues are very compli- involved parties. (Editor) Semarang cated due to the decreasing of our envi- ronmental quality as an impact of Request for Percik humans irresponsible act. Percik subscription is free of charge Ive read Percik December 2004 The UPTD Laboratorium Kese- because this magazine is funded by the edition and I like to comment on the hatan Daerah (Local Health Labo- APBN (National Budget). If you like to Cities Sanitation Coverage Rating Data ratory) of Sawahluto/Sijunjung Mu- receive Percik regularly, send us your 2002. Firstly, we are tend to give our nicipality is responsible for water and complete address via postal mail or attention more on the quantity rather environmental quality monitoring in email. Regarding to CDs that you ask than the quality. In Metro City, more Sawahluto/Sijunjung. Issues covered for, we have a limited stock of it. If there than 90% of the population consume in Percik are relevant with our scope are any CDs left in our stock, we will water from deep wells, but according to of work. We hope that the publisher send it to you. (Editor) our study, most of those wells are po- continues to send us Percik periodi- lluted with faecal coli. cally. Thank You Secondly, the type of sanitation facilities is unclear as there are various Asrul, SKM Hereby we like to thank you for types of sanitation facilities (water su- Head Of UPTD Laboratorium Percik 8th edition that you sent us. We pply facility, sewerage system, latrine, Kesehatan Daerah of Sawahluto/Sijunjung hope that Percik continue to grow to be solid waste disposal location). In fact, Municipality more reliable in quality and published there are some cases where the water regularly. supply coverage is higher than the The publisher also received same latrine service coverage. Thus, the requests from Sujoto SH, MM (Head of Ir. Agus Slamet MSc. Rating Data should be elaborated with Environmental Agency, Sragen Muni- Head of Environmental Engineering more specified information about sani- cipality) and Riau Province Legislative Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November tation facility types and their condition. Board Secretariat. (Editor) Surabaya Arvianda Jaya AR Subscription Inquiry Thank you for your comment. We Staff of Environmental Health Section also receive the same comments from Health Agency, Metro City, I received Percik on a seminar in Head of General Affairs and Human Lampung Yogyakarta. I found the content inte- Resource Bureau Ministry of Environ- resting. I like to subscribe for this ma- ment and Regional and City Panning Thank you for the comments. That gazine. How much do I have to pay? I Program Department of Planology is a good suggestion of yours that we also like to receive CDs that covered in Trisakti University. 2 Percik May 2005
  4. 4. M AIN REPORTSOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO/TANWIR S unday. The time indicated 07.58 were trapped within the falling debris. The tsunami happened as a conse- WIB. When most of the people A few minutes later another surprise quence of an earthquake at the Indian were enjoying holiday, morning followed. Mountains of water came Ocean. Precisely on the west coast of gym, or a sip of hot coffee in the plundering the coastal areas. The peak Sumatra. The earthquake occured at warungs, playing on the beach, and might be as high as a coconut tree. Mo- the Indo-Australian fragment that enjoying the day with family, all of a ving at a speed of more than 900 km/hr. caused slabs of earth crust below the sea sudden the earth of Aceh and an island Thats what people came to know as slide as far as 10 metres. This is what off the coast of West Sumatra were sha- tsunami. The sudden "attack" crushed trigers the appearance of tsunami. ken with an earthquake at 9.0 on the down anything on its way. Everything Based on the existing record this tsuna- Richter scale. Buildings collapsed. indiscriminately. Buildings, vehicles, mi was the fourth biggest since 1900 and People were fleeing their houses for people, animals, all were unable to with- the first in the last 40 years. Not only in safety. Some were unable, though. They stand it. All seemed to be nothing. Sumatra, this huge tidal waves also hit Percik 3 May 2005
  5. 5. M AIN REPORT Thailand, Srilanka, India and several 2. There are no direct accesses from earthquakes or tidal waves. countries of the eastern coast of Africa. which people could reach higher It is not known exactly how many places without hindrance; Damage to Infrastructure people lost their lives in the disaster. It is 3. People were trapped in bottleneck be- Massive destruction hit the coastal estimated 200 thousand died and anoth- cause road pattern and networks were areas. These areas suffer from double di- er 1,5 million had to take refuge. The not designed for evacuation function; saster, earthquake and tsunami, while biggest number is in Indonesia. The la- 4. Struck by boulders or pieces of bro- other places suffered from infrastructure test data record 115.000 died, and more ken construction, equipment, vehi- damages caused by earthquake only. The that 100.000 wounded. Refugees are cles, trees, and so on that were car- infrastructure damage has caused a dras- scattereed in 21 kabupatens/kotas of ried over by the current; tic decline of service both in Aceh and the Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, and some 5. Collapsing buildings because they island of Nias. The damage covered vari- areas in Sumatra Utara. were not designed to withstand ous sectors including transport, energy The total economic loss, and telecommunication, wa- according to World Bank Table 1 ter resources, drinking water, estimate, is USD 4-5 billion Total Number of Buildings sanitation and drainage, ho- (40-50 trillion rupiahs). Based on the Type of Repair and Construction using, and other infrastruc- Some even mentioned that tures and facilities. This pa- the total loss might reach 7 Number of houses per attempts to discuss spe- billion dollars. This condi- NO REGION cifically about issues related New tion may reduce Indonesian Repair to drinking water and sanita- Building economic growth by 0,1 - 0,4 tion service. percent. Those figures do not I Province of NAD include invaluable loss of Drinking Water 1 Kabupaten Simeuleu 1.863 4.968 lives and human sufferings. The dreadful disaster not 2 Kabupaten Aceh Selatan 3.005 1.440 Based on data presented only wiped down houses and 3 Kabupaten Aceh Timur 2.426 5.077 in "Indonesia: Preliminary other buildings, but it also ca- 4 Kabupaten Aceh Barat 3.191 9.835 Damage and Loss Assess- used severe damages to water 5 Kabupaten Aceh Besar 6.780 30.344 ment - the December 26, supply facility and infra- 6 Kabupaten Pidie 7.368 15.217 2004 National Disaster, Ja- structures that belongs to 7 Kabupaten Bireuen 5.319 5.319 karta. 19 January" and "Indo- PDAM (local water enterpri- 8 Kabupaten Aceh Utara 8.414 17.340 nesia: Notes on Recon- se) as well as the communi- 9 Kabupaten Nagan Raya 2.500 3.994 struction - the December 26, tys. In general the damages 10 Kabupaten Aceh Jaya 2.642 8.714 2004 National Disaster, Ja- to PDAM installations happe- 11 Kabupaten Aceh Singkil 2.804 1.384 karta. 19 January" more than ned in the intake facility, wa- 12 Kota Banda Aceh 20.448 3.934 1.000 villages and cities were ter processing unit, and dis- 13 Kota Sabang 947 3.099 affected by the disaster im- tribution network. The da- 14 Kota Lhokseumawe 2.147 1.058 pact and approximately mage level varies between 10- 15 Kabupaten Aceh Barat Daya 2.849 2.849 100.000 houses were totally 90 percent. PDAM also suf- 16 Kota Langsa 700 1.000 damaged. It was estimated fers from financial problem Sub Total 77.903 119.072 that the total loss to Aceh and especially in overcoming the North Sumatra was Rp 13,4 running costs. The financial II Province of Sumatra Utara trillion (USD 1,4 billion). loss due to inactivated facility 1 Kabupaten Nias 7.890 23.670 Based on field observa- has reached Rp 29 billion. 2 Kabupaten Nias Selatan 4.365 13.096 tion and identification, there Before the disaster PDAM Sub Total 12.255 36.766 are several factors that cau- production in the Province of sed so many casualties: Aceh varied from 20 to 425 TOTAL 90.158 155.838 1. There are no highlands l/sec. The biggest production for the people to run for Source: was by PDAM Banda Aceh, safety; Directorate of Settlement and Housing, Bappenas, 2005 PDAM Sabang and PDAM 4 Percik May 2005
  6. 6. M AIN REPORT Lhok Seumawe. Other PDAMs were rela- desinfectant such as alum, chlorine, and main distribution system for areas with tively small, varying from 20-60 l/sec. In assistance for operational costs. piping network through replacement of the provinve of Sumatra Utara only UNICEF representatives in Banda the broken pipes and isolation of the PDAM Sibolga had relatively big produc- Aceh took an initiative to form "Watsan" severely damaged areas in order to save tion. team (Water and Sanitation), cosisting of water pressure on the main pipeline. Shortly after the disaster, drinking domestic as well as foreign organi- water service was in real mess. It was zation/institution/NGO to help NAD Garbage Handling because many of the employees fell victim community especially in water supply The tsunami left behind a huge or members of their families were either and sanitation service. The Watsan team amount of city solid waste. Debris from dead or lost. It was difficult to move will discuss, evaluate, and exchange shattered buildings mixed with plant them to serve the community. As a way information related to water supply and wastes and dead bodies. With such a out, Perpamsi (Association of Indonesian sanitation. big amount of wastes, it was impossible Drinking Water Suppliers) mobilised per- With the multiple parties lending help for the ordinary city cleaning agency to sonnel from outside Aceh, particularly in water and sanitation has helped to handle all of it. There must be other from Medan, even as far as Jakarta, to keep the refugees in a relatively sound parties to take part in handling this. help the situation. SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO "We made inventory taking what the refugees needed most and we coordinat- ed with the extraordinary personnel. And a number of 1 litre capacity water purifi- cation equipment was sent to several refugee camps. We sent technicians to Banda Aceh because we were certain that the installation must be out of order," said Drs. Godman Ambarita, Perpamsi Executive Director. In addition, Perpamsi also immedi- ately sought help for simple water treat- ment facility for the refugees. At the sa- me time, foreign as well as domestic vo- lunteers spontaneously began to make drinking water ready for the refugees. A group of volunteers from Solo for instance, dug water wells to pump up groundwater for the refugee camps. While the Australian army brought in mobile water treatment facility at 20.000 l/hr capacity producing potable water for the city of Banda Aceh. UNICEF handed health condition. During the emergency Moreover, the garbage could not be over 4 units of water treatment facility at phase there has never been any extraordi- handled in the usual way, it needed 15 m3/hr (4 l/sec) cap. to help easing up nary outbreak of disease. One of the rea- heavy machineries. water shortages in the towns of Calang, sons was the relatively good water supply Saefuddin, the Head of City Cleaning Tenom, and Kuala on the west coast, and condition. Agency revealed, that his agency can only the towns of Pidie, Pantai Raya, and In general, the emergency response deal with ordinary domestic waste mate- Peudada on the east coast. Siliwangi consisted of efforts to recover and reacti- rials. Even then, it has been brought to a Army Command operated Mobile Water vate the existing installations and some very limited scale because most of the Treatment Unit at 2,3 l/sec capacity limited repairworks. This was to fill the garbage fleet was broken down. "There is loaned by LAPI ITB. Beside water treat- water tanks for emergency need of the no problem with labourers, though," he ment units, there was also aid in the form tsunami victims especially in the refugee said of chemicals for water purification and camps. Besides, emergency repairs to The removal of the debris was han- Percik 5 May 2005
  7. 7. M AIN REPORT Illustrative Garbage Handling Condition dled by the armed forces together with other agencies and institutions. "They Location of TPA Kampung Jawa (3 km from the centre of city of Banda Aceh Space area 12 ha (combined with wastewater treatment installation) are cleaning the debris and at the same Management Technology Controlled Landfill locating dead bodies buried under the Manpower 353 people, consisting of: devastated construction," he explained. 1) 300 field workers The method proved very effective because 2) 45 casual workers the whole area was divided in zones of 3) 8 government employees 4) 40 persons missing operation. But because of its size the Contribution No payment for household, commercial/stores Rp operation itself took a long time to finish. 75.000 per year One month after the disaster the garbage Transport Facility cleaning was still unfinished, all because Bulldozer 3 ea. severely damaged of the extent of the area. Dump Truck 14 ea. severely damaged, 3 ea.slightly damaged Pick up 16 ea. - 13 ea. lost; 3 ea. slightly damaged The debris from various parts of the Armroll Truck 6 ea. all are severely damaged city was dumped at a final disposal Container 40 ea. in bad shape ground (TPA). Because of the amount it Service coverage The entire city took a large space. The TPA which ope- Source: Aceh Natural Disaster Rehabilitation Progress Report rates under open dumping technology D. G. Kotdes, Dept Publ. Works, 23 Febr. 2005 could not hold all the garbage sent into it. This happened with TPA Kampung Jawa, Before the disaster the access to sani- the toilets and septic tanks were Banda Aceh. Besides being too small, the tation and septic tank was relatively satis- destroyed. In urban areas with waste- TPA was also hit by the tsunami. The factory. Based on provincial record, the water treatment installations had these workshop and heavy equipment to sup- access of urban citizens to household toi- facilities inactivated. port the operation were severely dama- let is 76,68 percent. In the city of Banda This condition necessitates construction ged. "It is estimated 10-20 ha of additio- Aceh 95,50 percent of the population in of emergency toilets in refugee camps. nal space is needed for this TPA," said 89 kelurahans has household toilets, 2 Helps came in the form of knocked down Saefuddin. kelurahans have public toilets and 2 other toilets and waste truck. These facilities were During the emergency response the kelurahans are without toilets. donated by the government and some Banda Aceh City Cleaning Agency main- The damage to kabupatens/kotas that donor volunteers. The establishment of tained three garbage handling priorities. used to have no wastewater treatment these toilets have been instrumental to the First, the refugee concentration camps facility has caused the houses including prevention of diseases that are common in where most of the population were tem- any disaster stricken area, particularly porarily dwelling. Second, the market cholera and diarrhoea. place. Third, expatriate housing area. This is to make the guests live relatively City Drainage conveniently. To handle the vast amop- During the emergency The tsunami has made vast areas of unt of waste materials the employees of the city under stagnant water. City the Cleaning Agency had to work long response money was no drainage ditches are disfuctioned because hours in shifts. problem because finan- they are clogged with sediment, sand or During the emergency response cial assistance kept flow- debris. Some drainage network is even money was no problem because financial damaged beyond recovery. This condi- assistance kept flowing in. The fund ca- ing in. The fund came tion has made 90 percent of the drainage me from UNICEF and UNDP. But that from UNICEF and UNDP. ditches of Banda Aceh and Meulaboh are was only during the emergency response. But that was only during out of function. The question is what will happen after To prevent damage to land and out- that. "What is certain is, our job is in- the emergency response. break of diseases the government and creasing with the new duty cleaning The question is what will volunteers dried up inundated areas and drainage gutters around the settlement happen after that river estuaries. This activity became part areas," Saefuddin firmly said. of evacuation of victims from rivers and cleaning river body from sand brought in Wastewater by the tsunami. (mujiyanto) 6 Percik May 2005
  8. 8. M AIN REPORT Disaster Emergency Standard Operational Procedure Base Standard Garbage Handling Clean Water : Minimum Supply to Keep Alive 7 litres/person/day in Emergency Condition Minimum Supply to Maintanance 15-20 litres/person/day There are 4 steps in garbage handling: Food : Minimum Energy Needed 2.100 kkal/person/day 1. Preliminary EvaluationAt this stage it is necessary to map out the types Well Cleaning and Desinfection Household Scale Emergency of waste and their influence to the in Emergency Condition Dinking Water Treatment community, including the system There are 5 steps in dip well clean- 1. Coarse screening A piece of clean ing and desinfection after a disas- cloth may be used. It inludes ter. The steps are illustrated in the aeration process. following sketch: 2. Quick Response (1 month)Gathering together scattered litters and managing domestic and 1. Inventory taking of recoverable market wastes. Digging disposal pit wells 2. Storage and Sediment Settling for household with extra land space, This process can kill 50 percent of or construction of a community scale bacteria in one day temporary disposal ground 2. Cleaning the wells from debris and other pollutants, using pumps, and other tools. At this stage it is 3. Filtration, i.e. passing the water necessary to examine the turbidity through a porous medium such as 3. Medium Response sand, charcoal, and ceramic (6 months)Collection and construction level. Whether it has reached 5 NTU of final disposal facility and its m (normal turbidity unit). If not, the operating system. Including the trans- well must be recleaned. If yes, then portation arrangement, manpower, we may enter the following step. space area and community education 4. DesinfectionIt funtions to kill in waste management right form its pathogens such as virus, spores and source of origin. fungi. This can be done through adding chlorine or exposing the water under UV light (Sodis), or treatment with other types of chemical 4. Long term solution 3. Water desinfection using 1 litre of 0,02 percent chlorine for 100 litres of well water Service and Infrastructure Sanitarian and medical personnel Requirement for Refugee Camp for 10-20 thousand refugees: 1 toilet for one family (6-10 persons) Community Health: 10-20 4. Draining 1 tap for one community (80-100 Nurse: 1 persons) Doctor/Medical Asst.: 1-3 1 health centre for one camp Lab technician: 1 (20.000 people) Sanitarian : 2-4 5. Control of chlorine content. If the water still contains more than 1 hospital for more than 200.000 Traditional Midewife: 6-10 0,5 mg/l the well must be people Midewife: 3-4 re-drained. If less, the well 1 school for 5 thousand people Pharmacist: 1 is ready for use. 2 garbage bins for one community Asst Sanitation: 20 (80-100 people) Source: WHO Tenaga kesehatan dan sanitasi Percik 7 May 2005
  9. 9. M AIN REPORT Tsunami T SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA.COM sunami is a word bor- ple of minutes to several hours, and rowed from the Ja- the wavelength may extend up to panese. Tsu means har- hundreds of kilometres. However, bour and nami means wave. fishermen while in the sea may not The expression was created by feel anything because the height is Japanese fishermen who re- less than one metre. The waves are turned to harbour and found the under the surface with a mighty area around the harbour was force that will manifest itself as it damaged, although they did not hits a land. feel the waves while in the open The velocity of the waves varies sea. from 500 - 1.000 km/hr. The waves Tsunami is a natural phe- will be piling up when they approach nomenon consisting a series of shallow waters/beach lip producing waves when sea or lake water big waves at certain height and de- moves swiftly at a devastating vastating energy. This explains why speed. Earthquake, sliding of the damage was so severe. earth slab, volcano eruption, Tsunami cannot be defeated. and the impact of a meteoric What we can do is mitigation of its may cause tsunami. The dama- damage. In Japan, the government ge caused by tsunami ranges builds a 45 m high retaining wall to from inconspicuous up to major protect a densely populated coastal devastation. area. However, this still is no guaran- Most tsnunamis are gene- tee because sometimes the waves may rated by an earthquake below reach as high as 30 m like the one hap- the ocean bottom. But such an pening in Hokkaido. While to protect earthquake is too small to cause Protection wall against Tsunami in Japan human lives, there is a need for an an effect to the surface unless it early warning system. On the west is followed with a movement of the earth appears, the initial causes may be earth- coast of America, for instance, there is a crust. When the crust moves, it causes quake, or suboceanic volcanic eruption. warning that provides guidance to the pop- tsunami waves. Actually, through the In the open seas tsunami may last for ulation to run away when tsunami is about earth crust movement that a tsunami a considerable length of time, from a cou- to come. Source: Normal Situation Disturbance Coastal flooding Overlapping pri- mary waves Ebbing tide Speed reduction Fault Sinking Earthquake epicenter 1 3 5 Disturbance Propagation Flood tide Note: The forming of tsunami wave. Raising Earthquake epicenter 2 4 Source: 8 Percik May 2005
  10. 10. M AIN REPORT Imagining the Face of the Veranda of Mecca SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE Y unus is planning to rebuild his tsunami damaged home. The 50- year old man does not pay too much attention to the Aceh rehabilitation and reconstruction master plan. "For whatever it costs I must get back, that is where we used to live," says Yunus. He does not even care about similar disaster that may come at any time. "We live for and because of Allah, why should be afraid. When the time comes, we can die anywhere," he says further in his thick Acehnese dialect. Far away from Yunus refugee camp in Darussalam, Aceh Besar, men are busy formulating a master plan. In Jakarta there is a Nangroe Aceh Darussalam and Sumatra Utara Rehabilitation and Re- construction Planning Team (R3MAS). In Aceh alone a similar team was also established. They worked hard to have the job done within a three month period, right after the disaster. And it was right, at the end of March 2005, the Aceh reha- bilitation and reconstruction master plan Emergency toilets: To protect environmental sanitation, the government built emergency toilets was finalised and signed in spite of many who substantively disagree with it. ture that could immediately enhance b. Provision of assistance and prepara- The master plan is a product of a team Aceh and Nias community recovery tory activities related to rehabilita- working under the coordination by process; tion and reconstruction of housing Bappenas. The membership consisted of 2. Provision of basic infrastructure that and its basic support infrastructure agencies directly and indirectly related could effectively and efficiently sup- and facility for the victims of the dis- and is competent in the respective sectors port the social life and economic aster. such as BPPT and LIPI. The rehabilita- progress and capable of generating Tri Nugroho Utomo, Secretary Gene- tion is scheduled from this year right after the feeling of security from the threat ral of the Association of Indonesian the three month emergency response and of natural disaster. Sanitation and Environmental Engineers, will last till the end of 2006. This will be The policy to be applied will be: says that on average the damage areas are followed by the reconstruction period a. Priority is given to infrastructure and located 2 km from the coastline. The level which is estimated to last until the end of facility related to basic need and of damage graduates. "Some are totally 2009. As far as activity segmentation is logistic mobility. For this purpose damaged, some might be recovered for concerned, everything will be implement- the priority development will be settlement, on some precondition, of ed simultaneously depending on the placed on housing, drinking water, course. For istance, there must be some urgency and readiness. waste water management, garbage cleaning works to be done especially the According to the master plan the pur- handling, and rehabilitation of access surrounding areas, and there must be a pose of the housing and infrastructure to entry points such as strategically drinking water and sanitation facility rehabilitation and reconstruction are: located sea- and airports together because the tertiary pipe networks have Provision of housing and infrastruc- with their corollary road networks. been totally damaged and the water wells Percik 9 May 2005
  11. 11. M AIN REPORT SOURCE: MUJIYANTO are out of use," he said. Therefore, according to him, Aceh recovery will need to be based on a grand strategy. With this strategy in place it is possible for the community to develop its own site plan. "The principle is, infra- structure and facility development must involve the community. For as long as the communitys wishes comply with the grand strategy, there is no problem for the micro aspect to follow the community willingness. This will be superior and minimize conflict," he explained further. Strategy for WSS Sector Water supply and sanitation sector is not standing by itself. This sector is an integral part of the general infrastructure development. Spatial plan becomes sig- nificant in the rearrangement of WSS infrastructure and facility development in NAD. Drinking Water Taking Water: Refugees at Camp TVRI of Mata Ie are taking water supplied by PU The strategy for reconstruction of WSS infrastrucutre and facility is insepa- rable from housing and macro planning chosen. First, contracting system, consi- Godman, several donor countries are will- as stated in the spatial plan. For reloca- dering the large size of work to be done. ing to help in the operation of several tion of settlement areas, water supply Second, scattered system, for villages PDAMs. But only on temporary basis. facility must be made available prior to where the works are relatively smaller, "We will support them to get back to life construction of houses. One of the rea- applying community approach. and provide services to the community." sons is to make the place attractive to the The question is, how will the drinking relocated community. water infrastructure and facility develop- Garbage Handling For urban areas, the initial priority ment be financed? Up to now there is no Garbage problem in Aceh is not quite must be placed on rehabilitation and definite source of fund. There is a consi- different from other areas of Indonesia. reactivating the water treatment facility deration to provide O&M subsidy for the Beside the voluminous amount of domes- and its main distribution network, suffi- first year, because the demand for such a tic wastes, the tsunami disaster brought cient supply for the refugee concentra- cost cannot immediately be borne by a with it a gigantic amount of debris. Thats tion, and continued supply to areas not tariff structure. why its handling strategy is actually not hit by the disaster. The Executive Director of Perpamsi, too far different from waste material in Besides, the development will have to Drs. Godman Ambarita, Msi, said that he general. be based on community demand appro- will try to organize all donors, domestic as The handling method will be empha- ach, except for new resettlement areas well as foreign, to reactivate PDAM in sized on community participation where infrastructure development is laid Aceh. "I think it is about time for Aceh to approach, i.e. management effort starting down before houses are built following revive. You know that water service in from its source of origin through 3R the site plan. Aceh is extremely low because of internal (reduce, reuse and recycle) program. The As far as repairwork or construction is crisis. I think we have to take lessons community is directed towards capability concerned, there are two approaches to be from it," he concluded. According to and willingness to separate, process, re- 10 Percik May 2005
  12. 12. MA I N R E P O R T use, and collect the wastes. This process ten/Kota budget, grant and soft loan from is expected to generate additional income international organizations and donor and employment opportunity. Consi- countries, public companies (national as dering the relatively large scale of works well as regional), private sector and the involved the transport and final process- The estimated budget for community. ing activity will have to be done by a con- WSS, covering drinking In general the financial allocation po- tractor or conducted by the Cleaning licy is prioritized to rehabilitation. This is Agency. water, sanitation, garbage based on consideration that the benefit is With regard procurement of materi- handling and mikro already known from the very beginning als, there must be a specific policy for and it does not need any intricate procurement, distribution, construction draininage system reha- preparatory step. It is also assumed that and operation of materials and equip- bilitation and rehabilitation will not face land and envi- ment (heavy machinery, geo-textile, ronmental problem because the work and incinerator, etc.) especially when it must resonstruction is some- activity are located on the very place it be imported from other countries. where around used to be. According to record from the field, In terms of objectives, the drinking garbage handling costs will increase com- Rp 1,53 trillion. water and sanitation program is divided pared to it was before the disaster. In the The target beneficiaries into two categories. First, recovery activ- city of Banda Aceh for instance, the ities to the former level of service (i.e. regional Cleaning Agency is preparing are 366.323families before the tsunami), and secondly, itself to procure additional land area at of the cities and villages expansion of the service through upgra- Kampung Jawa TPA because the increas- ding of the facility or adding new con- ing amount of waste materials flowing in. struction. At the initial sage, the costs will be borne by by the central government as subsidy. Constraints Later on the community will participate The existing master plan was develo- through contribution of service fee for be paid from payment of tariff by those ped in a hurry. In less than 3 months. garbage cleaning. who benefit from the service. Admittedly or not, the base data and information used for the formulation Wastewater City Drainage were not sufficiently reliable to produce Wastewater management of resettle- The strategy for the rehabilitation and an academically and publicly accountable ment areas (with or without relocation) reconstruction works will be reactivating and integrated planning product. As an will be done through best practice, such the primary and secondary canals infrastructure planning norm requires, as city or communal scale wastewater through repairworks and reconstruction the preliminary field survey at a certain piping system. According to Nugroho, of the entirely damaged canals. Also, spe- level of accuracy as basis for decision this is high time to build an offside sani- cial attention will be paid on the integrity making, was not met. tation system. of city drainage with other flood control It is of no surprise, therefore, the Just like drinking water, the develop- systems. planners of the master plan took freedom ment approach should as far as possible to call the document as an indicative be conducted through community de- Financing planning. Thats why, decision making mand approach except in new resettle- The estimated budget for WSS, co- must be based on actual and more ment areas where infrastructure develop- vering drinking water, sanitation, detailed field data and information and at ment takes place before the houses are garbage handling and mikro draininage a sufficient coverage though balancing built. Community demand approach can system rehabilitation and resonstruction the demand dynamism and availability of be applied in villages. Whereas in urban is somewhere around Rp 1,53 trillion. resources. It should be reminded that areas the construction works are accom- The target beneficiaries are 366.323 fam- one should not act blindly following plished through contractual arrange- ilies of the cities and villages. The source something simply because the document ment. In the beginning the running cost of fund will be from APBN (national is called "master plan". Aceh does not is covered by a subsidy but later on it will budget), provincial budget, Kabupa- need fatamorgana! (mujiyanto) Percik 11 May 2005
  13. 13. ESTIMATED BUDGET REQUIREMENT FOR REHABILITATION AND RECONSTRUCTION WORKS IN ACEH AND NIAS Water supply : Rp 16.929.696.000 Water supply : Rp 192.128.911.000 Water supply : Rp 77.027.568.000 Sanitation : Rp 29.244.376.000 12 Sanitation : Rp 37.742.620.000 Sanitation : Rp 133.057.508.000 Wastewater : Rp 4.453.610.000 Wastewater : Rp 12.572.767.000 Wastewater : Rp Drainage : Rp 4.777.418.000 Drainage : Rp 14.277.508.000 Drainage : Rp 21.736.534.000 Sabang Total : Rp 55.405.100.000 Total : Rp 256.721.806.000 Total : Rp 252.084.865.000 Water supply : Rp 127.561.301.000 Water supply : Rp 108.261.696.000 Water supply : Rp 155.857.611.000 Sanitation : Rp 37.742.620.000 Sanitation : Rp 187.011.376.000 Sanitation : Rp 46.114.884.000 Banda Aceh Wastewater : Rp 12.572.767.000 Wastewater : Rp 28.479.860.000 Wastewater : Rp 15.361.724.000 Drainage : Rp 14.277.508.000 Water supply : Rp 187.603.022.000 Drainage : Rp 30.550.543.000May 2005 Aceh Besar Total : Rp Drainage : Rp 17.444.619.000 Total : Rp 354.303.475.000 Sanitation : Rp 55.507.662.000 Total : Rp 234.778.838.000Percik Wastewater : Rp 18.490.632.000 Drainage : Rp 20.997.776.000 M AIN REPORT Kota Total : Rp 282.599.092.000 Pidie Bireuen Lhokseumawe Water supply : Rp Aceh Utara Water supply : Rp Sanitation : Rp 4.367.875.000 Sanitation : Rp 43.528.476.000 Wastewater : Rp 4.960.114.000 Aceh Jaya Wastewater : Rp 14.500.143.000 Drainage : Rp 66.755.823.000 Drainage : Rp 16.466.217.000 Total : Rp 89.195.884.000 Hener Meriah Aceh Total : Rp 221.610.988.000 Timur Water supply : Rp 69.531.176.000 Water supply : Rp 21.490.544.000 Aceh Barat Sanitation : Rp Sanitation : Rp 7.158.899.000 Wastewater : Rp Kodya Langsa Wastewater : Rp 8.129.574.000 Aceh Tengah Drainage : Rp 19.621.115.000 Drainage : Rp 109.412.071.000 Total : Rp 227.551.741.000 Total : Rp Nagan Aceh Aceh Tambang Water supply : Rp Sanitation : Rp 19.859.392.000 Wastewater : Rp 6.615.532.000 Gayo Laues Drainage : Rp 7.512.532.000 Aceh Total : Rp 101.107.594.000 Barat Daya Water supply : Rp 59.725.948.000 Sanitation : Rp 17.411.112.000 Wastewater : Rp 5.799.965.000 Drainage : Rp 6.586.381.000 Total : Rp 89.523.406.000 Aceh Aceh Tenggara Water supply : Rp 32.576.557.000 Selatan Sanitation : Rp 9.638.696.000 Wastewater : Rp 3.210.829.000 Drainage : Rp 3.646.185.000 Water supply : Rp Total : Rp Sanitation : Rp 25.474.558.000 Water supply : Rp 72.260.630.000 Wastewater : Rp 8.486.048.000 Sanitation : Rp 21.380.352.000 Drainage : Rp 9.636.671.000 Wastewater : Rp Total : Rp 129.695.372.000 Drainage : Rp 8.087.890.000 Simeulue Total : Rp 108.851.064.000 Nias Water supply : Rp 199.713.360.000 Aceh Sanitasi : Rp 67.703.672.000 Singkil Wastewater : Rp 22.553.350.000 Drainage : Rp 25.611.357.000 Total : Rp 315.581.738.000 Water supply : Rp 134.347.808.000 Sanitasi : Rp 41.375.078.000 Source: BAPPENAS Nias Selatan Wastewater : Rp 13.782.806.000 Drainage : Rp 15.651.616.000 Total : Rp 205.157.309.000
  14. 14. I NTERVIEW Dr. Ir. Patana Rantetoding, MSc, FIHT Director General for Urban Planning and Rural Planning, Dept. of Public Works “The People must be Resettled”Wsasters? hat is the government plan to anticipate the recent di- I think the government is commited to reconstruct and rehabilitate Aceh. This of course includes the funding. I think there is a special governmentistitution reponsible for handling the after- Can you give the number of fundmath of a disaster. Department of Public that is needed to develop water sup-Works (PU), especially Directorate of Urban ply and sanitation facility?Planning and Rural Planning (TPTP) will If I say it now, it is too early. But theand always actively participate. The most result of survey, investigation and designprominent is usually the damage of water from consultants will describe in detail Dr. Ir. Patana Rantetoding, MSc., FIHTsupply facilities and infrastructures. Water the real demand of the the most needed immediately after thedisaster. Thats why it must be dealt imme- the field in water supply and sani- What kind of breakthrough thatdiately. Then followed by actions to deal tation development? had been done to overcome the li-with refugees, sanitation, wastewater, and The difficulty is only in the repairment mitations?solid wastes. Those are the rolls of PU. works. There is a lack of local capable man- Specifically for drinking water there are power in the area that we can mobilise. We several donor countries or international Does PU already have a guideline have to hire from somewhere else. institutions willing to help us. For example,to overcome an emergency situation? the Netherlands and Germany. I think the The government already distributes the Plan for the future, what does it government and the people of Indonesiatasks. There is the so called emergency res- look like? Is there any special policy? and other countries are deeply interested toponse. Who is to be foremost in emergency The policy is, the community must be rebuild Aceh. This is the most importantresponse, who is taking lead in rehabilita- resettled and together with it they will be factor in rehabilitating Aceh.tion and reconstruction, and so on. I think provided with water supply facility. Thisthis standard has been established since means their new settlement will have If there is a constraint, for instan-several years ago. water supply facility. ce a fund constraint, is there any anticipation for it? What has been done in Aceh Is it already included in the I am optimistic that the government isduring the emergency response? existing master plan? capable to fulfil the demand. Especially During the emergency response, in Yes. It is included. Master plan descri- with the help from the international com-dealing with the refugees, we have dis- bes among others, where housings are loca- munity. The problem is how we could dotributed water tanks to refugee camps, we ted and provided with water supply facility. the activities in Aceh properly and trans-also sent sanitation trucks. This as far as parently. That is the most important.water supply and sanitation is concerned. Does this mean there is alreadyIn the meantime we reconstruct water su- the necessary input how water sup- Beside physical development,plly installations in Banda Aceh and Meu- ply will be managed? will the government be willing tolaboh. Now we are constructing barracks This means, the master plan will be provide another assistance to makecomplemented with water supply and used as basis for drinking water service the community capable of buildingsanitation facilities. The barracks are ex- development. We have sent consultant its own water supply facility?pected to be functional for two years. The over there. Though presently is still Affirmative. We are committed thatdrinking water may come from various emergency response phase, we have star- all water supply services outside PDAMsources. If they are near a PDAM instal- ted with plans for rehabilitation. are to be built and managed throughlation, we make direct connection, other- empowerment of the community. This iswise we dig wells and build a pumping Can we finance the water supply exactly what we are doing right now. Allsystem. and sanitation development by our are conducted through community em- What are the obstacles met in self? powerment. (MJ) Percik 13 May 2005
  15. 15. I NTERVIEW DR. R.Hening Darpito, Director of Water Hygiene and Sanitation, Dept. of Health "Our Surveilance Is Operating"W hat has Depkes (Dept. of Health) been doing duringthe emergency response in Aceh? How can the ammonia problem be dealt with? The ammonia can be mini- Reducing the risk of extraordinary mized through nitrification.prevalence of contagious diseases,through provision of water supply and What more has beenimprovement of water quality. First we done?conducted rapid appraisal. Then provi- The agency for healthsion of water supply and application of has trained 30 sa-desinfectant. Also promotion and hygi- nitarians for Bandaene sanitation extension activities and Aceh and Kabu-water quality examination and control. paten Aceh Besar,Monitoring of water quality is conducted and trained 75by Department and Agency Health in col- cadres. Theylaboration with CARE. The problem with are present-it is the presence on nitrate, though still ly doingbelow the danger threshold. On averageis 14-15, while the standard quality is 50.Then nitrite, also below the standard. The SOURCE: MUJIYANTOfigure is 0,03-0,04 while the standard in 3mg/l. What is suprising is ammonia. It re-cords the highest mark. Ammonia is actual-ly a product of metabolism of agricultural andindustrial pollutants. Groundwater usuallycontains 0.2 mg/l of ammonia. It can reach 3mg/l in anaerobic condition. Over there in extension activities in the communities. back to their original quality.the disaster areas the groundwater contains 4 The extension is done by the cadres withmg/l ammonia. While the areas not affected backup from sanitarian and puskesmas. During the emergency responseby disaster the content is 1,2 mg/l. There has Soon the activities will be expanded to 21 there was no extraordinary situa-no reported toxicologic effect, though. kabupatens. Presently it is being done in tion. Why?Nevertheless, in the disaster areas the figure the refugee concentration camps invol- Our surveillance system is functi-exceeds the threshold of 1,5 mg/l. ving 10 sanitarians for each kabupaten. oning. Once there is a diarrhoea informa- There are also 1.000 cadres involved. tion, we take immediate action to localize Where does the ammonia come it, disinfection of the contaminationfrom? What lessons have been learned source, desinfection of the surroundings. It may come from the sea. Below the during the emergency response In the beginning we were worried aboutsurface it is anaerobic. regarding to matters that already the outbreak of several diseases such as undertaken? cholera, malaria, diarrhoea. But it didnt Will it diminish by itself or what? Water sources were wiped out, and in happen. I dont think it will completely dimi- a short time water was polluted. Waternish, because an unpolluted area also con- supply was provided by NGOs, our col- What are the constraints in deal-tains ammonia, but the content is below leagues from Kimpraswil (Settlement and ing with health during the emer-the threshold. For health it is not a pro- Regional Infrastructure), while we made gency response?blem. It is the community who brings it available desinfectant, that helped a lot. In the beginning the number of man-as an issue. And foreign aid. The existing water so- power was limited. In the first two weeks urces must be cleansed in order to bring it our colleagues from local government 14 Percik May 2005
  16. 16. I NTERVIEWwere still unstable because they were suf- improve health status of village commu- government ?fering from trauma. Slowly they began to nities through access to acceptable drink- Since last month the central govern-recover. ing water service. For the beginning 12 ment personnel assigned to Banda Aceh months starting in mid 2005 we will do have been functioning as facilitator. In How was the financial situation rehabilation activities. Then the next the beginning, the duties included every-during the emergency response? three years will be reconstruction stage. thing from spraying and so on. It is be- The present months are the time without The rehabilitation will be focused to vil- coming more selective now, facilitatingmoney. In December, end of the year all the lages where the facility damage is still the provincial personnel to strengthenbudget has been accounted for. In January, repairable. Temporary refugee camed. them in planning and its implementation.February and March there is no new fund. As for the cities, the work will wait till the We have improved their self reliance.The fund is bridged over by the Dept. of spatial plan is completed. In this case we Then we made plans together. We pre-Health. We are lucky we have public owned have requested permission to Bappeda pared the figures. We sent the planningcompanies such as Biofarma, Kimia Farma, (Regional Development Planning Agen- documents to the donor and the centralIndofarma that help us to supply chemicals cy) to be exempted from this require- government. Then together we put theand medicines. ment. The target is villages, the commu- plans into implementation. We were only nity not too heavily affected. In the futu- facilitating them. Though it should be What is the level of awareness of re it includes the communities that were step by step. Including later with CWSH.NAD community in terms of sanita- not directly hit by the tsunami, but was Of course the stages are not as strict astion in general? suffering the effect. We can start with they are with WSLIC-2 project. We have Mostly they do not have sufficient planning without waiting for spatial shorten the process because this is a grantcare about water quality, such as polluted plan. The activity will be in conforma- fund and does not need a counter budget.water. They use whatever water is avail- tion with WASPOLA philosophy, i.eable for daily consumption, but for drink- community based, strengthening regio- What about the budget for reha-ing they boil it first. But speaking of nal health services infrastructures in bilitation and reconstruction?clealiness, drainage, stagnant water all the provincial and district level, also for The grant will be fully utilized. I doare beyond their attention. This will be Puskesmas (Community Helath Cen- not know the design yet, whether theythe focus of our activity. ters). In its implementation we will hire will contribute in cash or inkind. But facilitators, conduct roadshow to the based on WSLIC and WASPOLA the in What is the plan for the future? villages, we making participatory rapid cash is only 4 percent. But the inkind For the future we are planning for appraisal, improvement/rehabilitation must come from the community, such aswater quality control, because it has been of water sources, then promotion and labour. They can do the construction bydone only in Banda Aceh and Kabupaten extension activities for behavioural themselves.Aceh Besar. We are working together change.with UNICEF to expand the coverage of For the reconstruction stage begin- Looking into the disaster do wewater quality control. We have made a ning from the second year, we will build need an SOP?check at 60 control points. WSS facility in villages, both the villages This disaster was beyond our capacity directly hit by tsunami and also the new to deal with. The magnitude was so big During the rehabilitation and villages. All applying community based that made us shocked. Then came localreconstruction stage? approach. Tentatively the locations will and foreign aid. We began to gain con- For rehabilitation and reconstruction include Aceh Jaya, Pidie, Bireun, Aceh trol. In the beginning it was a real mess.stage of course Dept. of Health, Bappenas Utara, Nagan Raya, and Nias. Covering From the point of view of the victims(Ministry of National Development Plan- approximately 500 villages. The problem there was no bureaucracy. Everythingning), Dept. of Public Work and Dept. of is, the capacity of kabupaten administra- was quick. Probably that was the reasonHome Affairs will develop community tion. They will play the key role in the why the global community said that Indo-based water supply and sanitation sys- community based development. And, the nesia was successful in overcoming tsunamitem. There is a grant fund from the go- community facilitator. And the capacity victims. But from the administration side, itvernments of UK, Canada and the of the community institution. In villages was a real mess. From national dignity weNetherlands. The grant will be chanelled directly hit by the disaster the communi- were deeply hurt, they just came in withouttrough CWSH project. The total amount ty is heterogenous. Some are new to the proper permission. This must be anticipa-is USD 16,5 million for a project duration area, and so on. ted in the future. There must be an SOP.of four years. The purpose is to minimize What measures are taken to We have had for smaller scale such as forwater borne or water related diseases and anticipate the law capacity of local drought. (mujiyanto) Percik 15 May 2005