Information Media for Water Supply and           Environmental Sanitation                                                 ...
F R O M E D I TO R                                                                                                        ...
Y O U R VO I C ERequest for Bibliography                                                              ILUSTRATION BY: RUDI...
MAIN REPORT                  Potret of WSS Sector in 2005            AWARENESS         IS STILL LACKING  Water supply and ...
MAIN REPORT                                                                                                               ...
MAIN REPORTpolio, dengue fever, avian flu, diarrhoea,   realistic. There are so many problems          their limited capac...
MAIN REPORT            National Policy for Institutionally Based                      WSS Development                One Y...
MAIN REPORT     On the other side, the capacity of the   cost more and more to produce drinking            Whether one adm...
MAIN REPORT                                                                        SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE                       ...
MAIN REPORT Portrait of WSS Working Group 2005                                                                            ...
MAIN REPORT                                                                                                               ...
MAIN REPORT    WASPOLA, From Principle to ActionT         he idea behind WSS sector poli-     PROPINSI                 KAB...
MAIN REPORT                                                                          SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE                    ...
MAIN REPORTtor. Along with it, and in order to main-      in the overcrowded tail car, that can        was visisted by mor...
MAIN REPORTexhibition held at Dept. Publ Works          AUGUST 2005                               Presentation of analytic...
MAIN REPORT         1,66 Villages Obtain Access to Clean           Water Service Through WSLIC-2                          ...
MAIN REPORTmunity. There are at least 1.931 school     sized post construction activities in             cated ones that a...
MAIN REPORT             Ir. Zainal L. Nampira, Chairman of CPMU WSLIC-2             Changes Cannot Be Identified From     ...
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005
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Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005

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Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From the Editor 1 Published by: Your Voice 2Working Group for Water Supply and Sanitation Main Report Advisor: Potret of WSS Sector 2005, Awareness is Still Lacking 3 Director General for Urban and Rural Development, Department of Public Works National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development One Year Waiting for Validation 6 Board of Trustee: Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Portrait of WSS Working Group 2005 9National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia WASPOLA, From Principle to Action 11 Director of Water and Sanitation, 1,66 Villages Obtain Access to Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Clean Water Service Through WSLIC-2 15 Department of Public Works SANIMAS: Towards a National Programme 18 Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Interview Community Empowerment, Ir. Basah Hernowo, Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas 20 Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Dr. I Nyoman Kandun MPH, Director General for Disease Control and Environmental Sanitation 22 Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Opinion Faithfully in Service for Eight Years 26 Board of Editor: Ismail, Johan Susmono, World Water Monitoring Day 28 Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Success Story Editor: WSLIC-2 of Jambearjo, Malang Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana,Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Rural Connection, Urban Management 30 Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti Kaleidoscope Design/Illustrator: Behaviour Change without Subsidy 32 Rudi Kosasih Adat Rule Does Not Work 34 Production: Builds Flying Toilets 35 Machrudin Only to Dig Excremetn Pit 36 Distribution: IATPI Clinic Agus Syuhada Wastewater from Wash- and Bathroom 37 Address: Around WASPOLA 38 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 Around WSS 41 http://www.ampl.or.id Website Info 48 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id Innovation oswar@bappenas.go.id Rahmat (Blessed) Water Converting Clean to Drinkable Water 49 Unsolicited article or opinion items Ceramic Water Filter 50 are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and Agenda 51 accompanied by identity. WSS Bibliography 52 This magazine can be accessed at Water Glossary 53 Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website at www.apml.or.id Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website http://www.ampl.or.id
  2. 2. F R O M E D I TO R SOURCE:GUSTOMI/JeLAJAHT ime seems to slip away so fast. Without we knowing it, we are about to pass 2005. In a mo-ment the new year of 2006 greets us.As usual we use the moment like thisas moment of contemplation, an eva-luation. What have done during theoutgoing year. What is the balancebetween the positive and the nega-tive? And for the government Happybureaucrat the question is how farhave they served the nation and thepeople? Lets us hope they were notenjoyong their handsome income for New Yeardoing nothing to the people who paythem. Of course we hope the bureau-crates at all levels have worked thebest they could do to serve the coun-try in accordance with the oath of 2006office. Dear Readers, at the year end likethis, Percik wont miss to present toyou the portrait of WSS developmentmanagement in Indonesia during theyear. In broad line of course. Theintention is, to provide us with learn-ing materials. We can learn fromboth successes and failures. Succes-ses can be replicated to a wider scale cated a hopeful signs. Yet the cove- this year. For this purpose we inter-in 2006. While failures we will learn rage of these projects is still quite li- viewed the Director of Humanto avoid it and make success in the mited, let alone reaching the far cor- Settlement and Housing, (Nationalfuture. ners of Indonesia. Development Planning Agency If we look into the progress in In this edition we present to you (Bappenas), the Director General for2005 and compare it with has been several successes in the project imple- Disease Control and Environmentaldone in 2004 we see no significant mentation. The expectation is this Sanitation, Department of Health, andchanges have been made. WSS deve- could be imitated by other regions. CPMU Chairman of WSLIC-2 project.lopment seems to make a stationary We dont miss to say that in the midst In essence, there are many things thatmovement. Cases that happened in of these successes we also include the must be done regarding WSS mana-2004 (see Percik December 2004) dark side and contraints as they hap- gement in Indonesia. Especially in con-seem to repaeat in 2005. From flood, pened in the field. These all are valu- nection with Indonesias willingness tocontagious diseases, final garbage able lessons learned that we must being burdened with MDGs target.disposal, pollution, WSS related hori- bear in mind. Isnt the wise used to Lastly, we hope the present Percikzontal conflict etc. did happen again. say: failure is the beginning of a suc- serves as an impulse to improvement.However, within the gloomy face one cess? These lessons are concocted in And we are also expecting feedback fromcannot deny that there is still a splin- several articles. One appears in kalei- the readers, fro the betterment of thister of hope. The projects that were doscope, in success story, and others magazine in particular and Indonesianput into test in 2005 indicated an on the main feature. WSS development in general. Let usexcellent result. Take a look at SANI- Dear readers, it might be worth- greet 2006 with optimism and care toMAS, WSLIC-2 and CLTS. Imple- while for us to know what the WSS the pepoles condition. Lets avoid happi-mentation of national policy for com- related policy makers think about ness at the expense of someone elsesmunity based development also indi- WSS development progress during misery. May God Bless us all. Percik December 2005 1
  3. 3. Y O U R VO I C ERequest for Bibliography ILUSTRATION BY: RUDIKOZ.COM advise us how to get them. Dear Editor, Rahayu Sri Pujiati, SKM, M.Kes I am a graduate of Environmental Community Health Study ProgrammeEngineering from ITB class of 1995 University of Jemberand Masters of Science from Tech- Jl. Kalimantan I/93 Kampusnische Universitaet Hamburg, Ham- Tegal Boto, Jember 68121burg, Germany. Presently I am wor- Phone. (O331) 322995 Fax. (0331) 337878king for my PhD from the same univer-sity. Request for Presently I am working on a study subscriptionin the area of susstainability assess-ments of sanitation especially for low Several times I read Percik maga-income urban communities in zine my instructor lent me. It containsIndonesia. The place presently under many insteresting materials and rele-study is Rungkut, Suarabaya. The aim vant to the subject I am studying. Howof the study is to propose an alterna- could I subscribe the magazine regu-tive solution to water pollution prob- larly?lems from human waste for lowincome community in the urban areas Nurul Ichsanof Indonesia. One of the alternatives is Jln. Banjarsari, Gg. Iwenisari No. 8ecosan (ecological sanitation), in Tembalang, Semarang 50275which domestic wastewater is dividedinto three categories, excrement(blackwater), urine (yellow water), and Wastewater, Methodology for Bulletin and CDother liquid waste (grey water). This Participatory Aproach assesment,system has long been developed in Proceeding of SANIMAS National Herewith I would request for free bu-Europe (Germany, Austria, Sweden). Seminar in Bali 2004), proceeding of lletins and CD related to WSS develop-My professor happens to be one of the National Seminar on World Water Day ment for additional collection of ourpioneers. 2004, Data Inventory and Evaluation library of the Faculty of Administration To implement it together with a of Urban Infrastructure Developemtn Sciences, University of Brawijaya.friend who atennd the same school Implementation 1992-2002, andcosntructed an Ecosan pilot plant at Wastewater management handbook) Andy Fefta WiajyaPusdakota Ubaya, an NGO concntrat- and others I wish to have the photo- Fac. Administration Scienceing on community empowerment. A copy. What is the best way for me to Univ. of Brawijayacollague in Pusdakota who attended a have them? Jl. MT Haryono No 163WSS Working Group seminar some Almy Malisie Malang - Jawa Timur, Indonesiatime ago lent me the seminar proceed- Surabayaing and Percik ed. June 2004. I am Thank you for all the attention paidquite interested with the information In need for books by the faithful Percik readers. For yourbacuse of relevance with my ongoing attention, Percik magazine is distributedstudy. I have managed to get most of I am an instructor of Community free of charge. We will send it to you whothe data in Percik of said edition from Health Study Programme of the have attached a complete address. Whilevarious internet sources, yet some University of Jember. Our Study for the bibliography, they are available inother are still lacking. For that purpose Programme is in need for books on very limited copies. Therefore, we willI would inquire how I could obtain sev- environment, and we have received help you as long as they are available ateral refereances from Percik bibliogra- the journal you sent us. We wish to sufficient copies. Otherwise, you will needphy? Beside the data presented there have the books in your website. I to duplicate them yourselves. Thank youare also several VCDs (such as NAP for would be thankful if you could again. (Editor) (Redaksi)2 Percik December 2005
  4. 4. MAIN REPORT Potret of WSS Sector in 2005 AWARENESS IS STILL LACKING Water supply and environmental sanitation is still being the national average 54,56 percent of families have a relatively acceptable considered as less important sector. This is evidenced drainage system, and 31,98 percent ha- from the level of attention to this sector and the impact ving no drainage system at all. Community access to WSS system is produced within one year. The hope for a change still rated low, especially for those living in remains a dream. villages. WSS service is not evenly di- stributed among regions and territories, and in many areas the distribution is inequitable between the rich and theY ear 2005 is coming to an end. on survey in 6 districts, local govern- poor. Efficiency in use of the existing WSS development seems to pass ment budget allocation for this sector is facility is only at 76 percent of the total just like that. No significant im- below 10 percent, some even close to capacity. This means 24 percent of theprovement has been made. We should zero. capacity is idle or lost, and boils down torealize, however, that other sectors are inefficient investment. This was becau-performing more or less the same, alias 2003 2004 2005 se of the top down approach of develop- LUMAJANG 0.56 5.56running idle. There are perhaps many ment in the past that made the invest- TAKALAR 1.15 0.01reasons for it, such as the government KUNINGAN 0.97 1.06 ment bigger than the actual demand.has only been newly formed, delay in SUBANG 1.33 1.37 The proportion of urban families withbudget flow, official or positional trans- SIKKA 3.06 0.85 septic tank and pit well systems com-fer in bureaucracy, and so on. SUMBA TIMUR 7.91 0.1 bined is relatively high, i.e at 80,5 per- Admittedly or not, this sector has cent (regardless of quality) (BPS, 2004).not been given the proper attention. Up to 73,13 percent of urban familiesThe central government budget for It is no wonder therefore that WSS that have toilets, and 16,9 percent usehousing and settlement is less than 10 service coverage does not move further communal or public toilet. While in vil-percent. We could then deduce how from the record of the previous years. lages the figure indicates 50 percent.much is from this percentage WSS -as Urban piped water service is 52 percent In such a condition, the environ-part of settlement development gets; and in villages 5 percent. The overall ment suffers from severe degradation.very small naturally. Whereas, it is esti- urban wastewater service, on site and This is because of rapid populationmated that WSS development through off site combined is 25,5 percent (taken growth, urbanization, and industrializa-2015 requires Rp 50 trillion budget if from the population of 399 urban cen- tion. Deterioration threatens manythe MDGs target is to be achieved. The ters). Solid waste management serves water catchment areas. Water sourcesregional attention is even worse. Based 32,1 of the population of 384 cities. At are polluted. This brings serious pro- Percik Desember 2005 3
  5. 5. MAIN REPORT SOURCE: MUJIYANTOblems to water supply. Water quality inseveral river basins is decreasing conti-nuously due to domestic and industrialwastes, also from other human activitiessuch as mining and residual effect fromextensive use of pesticides. Pollution towater bodies caused by several reasonssuch dumping of wastewater hasreached an apprehensive stage. Ap-proximately 76 percent of 52 rivers ofJava, Sumatra, Bali and Sulawesi arehighly polluted with organic pollutants,and 11 main rivers are critically contam-inated with ammonium compound. These all are the the consequences ofmans failure to exploit nature in a wisemanner. Illegal logging goes freely un-restricted. No wonder if floods andlandslides are repeating the same placesas the previous years. Death tolls, wo-unded people and loss in properties areunavoidable. Groundwater exploitation and irre-sponsible dumping of industrial waste,especially in the urban areas, are com-mon practices without the least regard is well above the safe treshold (Suara ment.to environmental conservation and nat- Pembaharuan 18/11/2005). Lack community access is also theural carrying capacity. In Jakarta for The nature is also suffering more side effect of institutional and lawexample, groundwater extraction has because the burden of increasing piles enforcement related problems. The ins-exceeded 60 percent above the safe of solid waste. The garbage production titution responsible for WSS manage-treshold. As a consequence, in many growth rate is estimated at 1,49 percent ment is not performing sufficiently andplaces groundwater table has dropped per annum. For regions with sufficient is under capacity. Management, finan-as far as 5 meters. As a consequence of land space, it does not pose a problem at cing, human resources and institutionalpollution from industrial wastes in the least for the time being. In big cities, issues are all in a mess, God knowsnorthern part of the city, the economic solid waste is a real headache. Take a when to get unruffled. While lawvalue of river, i.e Ciliwung Dalam River look at Jakarta, the regional govern- enforcement is going meekly, if not sta-in Rorotan Marunda has been decreas- ment now is deeply perplexed, especial- tionary at all. Laws and regulations areing continuously. In terms of money the ly with TPST Bojong continuously being simple written documents. Environ-value in 2003 was Rp 1,094 billion, sev- denied by the local population, while mental degradation is proceeding freelyeral years after it will become Rp337 TPA Bantar Gebang cannot be used any unabashed.million. The decrease in water value more. Bandung is also suffering from This poor condition brings with it itsfrom 2003-2010 will adversely affect the same headache after the Lewigajah consequences. Action equals reaction,the life of shrimps, crabs, and cock- TPA disaster. The regional autonomy so the the law of relativity says. If thereleshells will become endangered with apparently gives birth to regional ego- is no significant reaction in WSS deve-mercury poisoning from the river. In ism, paying no respect to the interest of lopment, the expected reaction will2010 when the cadmium content in the larger communities. On one side, never come up, in other words stagnan-groundwater of the area exceeds the safe the communitys awareness to 3R cy. And that is better still, the real facttreshold, underground water of the area (reuse, reduce, recycle) principle is lack- is that community health condition -asis not drinkable any more. Then in ing. They still dont care to this dirty it relates to WSS service provision- is2028, water cannot be used for agricul- material. The community attitude getting worse. This is evidenced fromture any more because mercury content towards hygienic life needs improve- the incidence of several diseases such as 4 Percik December 2005
  6. 6. MAIN REPORTpolio, dengue fever, avian flu, diarrhoea, realistic. There are so many problems their limited capacity.and cholera. The last disease was wide- this nation faces. In a messy system Based on UNSFIR study (2003) In-spread recently silently missed publica- such it is, the decision makers -inclu- donesia can only reach the reduction bytion. In general, of 175 nations of the ding the parliament- prefer more realis- half the population presently is withoutworld, Indonesia is placed 112 in health tic issues where the result is readily vis- access to water supply and basic sanita-condition. Fadillah Supari, the Minister ible. This of course is different from the tion in 2040. It is estimated that 24of Health says this is a poor position, impact of WSS development which is provinces are unable to reach the targetthough it is slightly better than before. not instant and the impact is visible only in 2015. This condition is open wide in front after a long time. Financial support for There is a paradox between targetof us. We cannot put the blame singly this sector cannot always be expected, and process. On one side, the govern-on anyone for it. Everyone is to share even from the private sector considering ment is putting stronger emphasis onthe responsibility. One cannot deny, the amount needed. While the rich WSS development through communityhowever, that all this time the commu- nations, that should have been alloca- empowerment approach, which natural-nity is not sufficiently SOURCE: MUJIYANTO ly takes a longer timestrengthened in handling to accomplish. On theWSS development so that other side, MDGs tar-a sustainable WSS service get is brought into thesystem has never been mainstream that mustmade into living reality. be reached in orderOn the other hand, the that Indonesia won thegovernment personnel reputation as a suc-are still maintaining their cessful nation by theproject oriented way of international commu-thinking and consider the nity. It is therefore notpeople are a mere stupid impossible that thelot. Incompetence also project oriented way ofinfected the bureaucrates thinking in order toso that in absence of reach the target will befunding, no job could reactivated. What istake place and no atten- certain, with or withouttion could be paid to the target, the people needpeople they are supposed access to water supplyto serve. Incompetence is and sanitation servicea chronic disease this in order to improvenation suffers from. their well being. And this needs the governments manage-Challenges ting 0.1 percent of their domestic prod- ment and seriousness as the mandatory Indonesia has been caught within ucts, no one can expect they would keep to run the management of the state.MDGs trap. Indonesia, in this case the their promise. This needs a clear vision and missiongovernment, is compelled to implement Again the people have to carry addi- that does not depend on other nation orthe agreement made in Johannesburg. tional burden, in spite of their economic international organization. Breakthro-In WSS sector, Indonesia has to reduce difficulty. A new development strategy ugh and creativity is being awaited byby half, in 2015, the proportion of popu- came into practice, called empower- the people. Therefore the governmentlation without access to water supply ment. The community has been consi- must be strong enough to improve itselfand basic sanitation facility. The dered powerless. Therefore, the com- to prevent it being steered by outsidersassumption is, this achievement will sig- munity with its limitation is stimulated with hidden agenda.nificantly influence the improvement of to become capable to develop itself. The The population yearns for drinkingcommunity well being. government -paid handsomely from the water and hygienic environment for qu- From the community point of view peoples tax- will act as facilitator. The ality life. This is not an empty illusion.the government determination is supe- people are facilitated to help the govern- When can this be made a reality?rior. The problem is, whether that is ment to achieve MDGs target in spite of mujiyanto Percik December 2005 5
  7. 7. MAIN REPORT National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development One Year Waiting for ValidationT he national policy for communi- SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE ty based WSS development has been implemented for twoyears. Though it hasnt spread to allregions, the field trial so far has indica-ted a hope for WSS development in thefuture. However, this policy is notenough to cover the management ofWSS development in general. This isbecause with the policy is limited tosmall scale demand which may be lesseconomical. The demand for WSS service is con-siderably large. In this connection wehave no choice but to orient the ma-nagement to the institutionally based.The big demand will naturally call forlarge scale mobilization of resources,human resources, finance, technology,and others. For that reason, the govern-ment is designing a national policy forinstitutionally based WSS development. As an initial preparation, the formu-lation process is already completed. At towards community welfare. The objec- 6 Establishment of inter-regional andthe end of December 2004 the draft was tives are i) increase in access, ii) effec- cross-sectoral coordination in WSSready for revision. Yet up to the end of tive use, and iii) guaranteed sustainabil- Management.2005 the draft has not been signed. ity. The general policy of WSS sector The general policy is then deducedThere are many constraints over there. development includes the following: to sectoral policy consisting of four sec-This is quite natural considering this 1. Priority to the poor families. tors ie. drinking water, wastewater,policy links many sectors and many 2. Maintaining a balance between solid waste, and drainage."interests". There are still many issues demand for WSS development andrequiring clarification. environmental carrying capacity. Drinking Water What is certain is that this policy is 3. Involving the participation of all Drinking water service is currentlyexpected to serve as directive for all stakeholders. in a very limited coverage. This is onlystakeholders to lead their activity 4. WSS Management that exercises an in urban areas. But the urban poor, tho-towards achieving WSS management optimum entrepreneurship and cost se who live in the slum areas are alwaysobjectives, ie. improved community recovery principles. in want. They have to spend more mo-health and supporting economic growth 5. Effective law enforcement. ney relative to the size of their income. 6 Percik December 2005
  8. 8. MAIN REPORT On the other side, the capacity of the cost more and more to produce drinking Whether one admits it or not theenvironment to provide clean water is water and to restrore water resources community as the waste producer doesdecreasing steadily. Though it is renew- quality. not care to what has been done. This isable, water resources availability for Besides, there is presently no plan- made even worse with the fact that thedrinking purpose is a problem for most ning standard applicable to wastewater community lacks the access to wastewaterof the service providers. In the mean- treatment, either for a single housing handling service. Even with one who hastime, the demand for drinking water is area or a municipality scale so that the performane of the providing institutionincreasing due to population growth many of the waste treatment falicities is wanting. Government care is lascking.and changes in lifestyle. are inferior and do not meet the This is evidenced from lack of government PDAM that is supposed to serve the required environmental safety stan- budget and lack of law and regulation go-community is unable to meet the expec- dard. verning this sector.tation both in terms of water quality and Pollution of water body for various Overcome the abovementionedquantity. The public company is suf- different reasons, especially from waste- problems, the polcy for wastewaterfering from internal problems such as water has reached an apprehension treatmen inclues the following:management, tariff, and regulatory level. 76,2 percent of 52 rivers on Java, 1. Promote the integration of regulationaspects. And the role of the private sec- Sumatra and Sulawesi are heavily pol- on drinking water and wastewatertor so far has not been visible. luted with organic pollutants, and 11 management. For all the above conditions the po- major rivers are heavily polluted with 2. Wastewater management is orientedlicy for drinking water includes: ammonium compounds. Major rivers of to raw water conservation.1. Gradual increase in service coverage the urban are generally polluted to an 3. Improvement of community access to and improvement from clean water extent that BOD exceeds 34,48 percent acceptable level of wastewater facility. into drinking water quality. and COD 51,72 percent above treshold 4. Priority service is to be given to poor2. Increase of access to drinking water values. Approximately 32,24 percent of communities. service with priority to low income piped water samples and 54,16 percent 5. Wastewater management be under- communities and areas that are with- of non piped samples contain E.coli bac- taken by a specically appointed insti- out access to such a service. teria. tution.3. Consumenrs involvement to promote quality of service. SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE4. Drinking water consumption control through regulation and tariff instru- ments.5. Improvement of government, com- munity and business community con- trol in raw water management.6. Application of sound management and cost recovery principles.7. Improvement of investment opportu- nity.Wastewater Article 40 of Water Resouces Lawstipulates the requirement for an inte-gral management of drinking water andwastewater. But up to now there is nomeeting of mind regarding wastewatermanagement. Drinking water supply isstill oriented to raw water treatment todrinking water. But without consideringthe waste produced from drinking wateruse that causes pollution to raw watersource. If this tendency continues it will Percik December 2005 7
  9. 9. MAIN REPORT SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE Application of cost recovery principle, step by step. Effective law enforcement. Drainage Up to now there is no clarity whe- ther a drainage system in Indonesia is oriented only to avoid rainwater inun- dation or it also includes disposing wastewater into a mixed system. It often happens a drainage system is also used for wastewater, especially grey water, drainage though the systyem is not designed for a mixed system. A mixed system without proper palnning tends to cause pollution of water body in the downstream area. Many drainage system development, by the govern- ment, proivate, or the community, does not follow the existing master plan, and in several cities such a master plan entirely unknown. Besides, attention to drainage issue is not based on program approach, more ofteen than not it is based on casuistic approach and an area development often does not follow a6. Improvement of the role of govern- faces many problems consisting of insti- spatial planning wth regards flow pat- ment, community and private sector tutional, regulatory, and financing. tern and infiltration capacity. in wastewater treatment. Similar with wastewater, solid waste has Drainagwe also faces funding, law7. Application of cost recovery principle not been given sufficient attention it enforcement, and institutional prob- gradually in wastewater management. deserves. However, some hope may lems. Government attention arises8. Effective law enforcement to prevent come from the community because indi- when in response to a consequence. pollution of water sources. viduals and group have in reality capa- Considering the above the policy ble of initiating individual and neigh- related to dainage sector includes:Solid Waste bourhood scale waste management sys- 1. Determine the authority in drainage Indonesian population growth is tem. It is now up to us how to promote handling by the government, private1,49 percent a year and logically this 1. existing potential. the sector and the community dependingbrings an increase of garbage produc- The policy related to solid waste sec- on the drainage system hierarchy.tion up to 2-4 percent per annum. The tor consists of: 2. Establishment of integrated drainageincrease in volume is also followed with 2. Reduce as much as possible waste system management to maintain ba-composition and characteristics of solid production right from its initial lance in water regime.waste in line with industrial growth and source. 3. Priority to the poor community andcommunity consumption pattern. 3. Promote community role and partici- tickly populated sectors in drainage The increase in garbage production pation as partners in waste material managemetn and handling.is not followed with the availability of 4. handling. All sectoral policies, drinking water,garbage handling facility so that the Strengthening Solid waste manage- wastewater, solid waste and drainageremaining untended garbage turns to 5. ment institution. system are to be deduced into moresource of environmental pollution. Development partnership with the detailed implementation strategies.Another difficulty faced by the regional 6. private sector. Socialization process has been under-government is the limited space for final Improvemetn Ste by Step level of taken through talk show in TV. Now wedisposal ground (TPA). This sector 7. service towards a natioan standard. are waiting for the validation. (MJ) 8 Percik December 2005
  10. 10. MAIN REPORT Portrait of WSS Working Group 2005 SOURCE:WSST he WSS Working Group in 2005 has fcosed its activity in public campaign and operationaliza-tion of the national policy for communi-ty based WSS development in theregions and completion of the nationalpolicy for institutionally based WSSdevelopment. The public campign is directed toimpart a better understanding to allWSS development stakeholders aboutthe basic principles underlying thenational WSS development policy andto increase their care and participationin the development of this sector. Someof the public campaign activities areundertaken through publication ofPercik magazine, website maintenance,electronic mailing list and WSS newslet-ter, poster and leaflet printing and dis-tribution, exhibition, and talk show inelectronic media. The talkshow hasbeen done through cooperation withtwo TV stations, TVRI and Metro TV, In 2006 the WSS Working ProAir Technical Training.discussing about National Policy for Group has been instrumental WSLIC-2 Post Construction TechnicalInstititutionally Based WSS Develop- in formulating a cooperation Training.ment. MPA-PHAST Training and its agreement between the Translation of the national policy for Application in Planning andcommunity based WSS development Government of Indonesia with Monitoring for Community Basedinto regional level operation has been Plan International, an inter- WSS Projectsundertaken through several activities, national non government 3. Cordination in the Implemen-such as: organization. This coopera- tation of Community Based WSS1. Workshop tion represents one of the Development with Program Workshop on National Policy for Partners efforts for active involvement Community Based WSS Development 4. Field Trial of Community-Led in 7 provinces. of all stakeholders in WSS Total Sanitation Approach Workshop on Operationalization of development The field trial was conducted in National Policy for Community Based cooperation with WASPOLA in 6 loca- WSS Development in the regions for WSS Development in WSLIC-2 pro- tions, namely Lumajang, Muaro Jambi, NGO partners and the involved go- ject sites. Sambas, Bogor, Muara Enim and vernment agencies. Workshop for Operationalization of Sumabawa. CLTS approve works excel- Workshop on National Policy for the National Policy for Community lently in improving community habit Community Based WSS Development Based WSS Development in the trowrds hygiene behaviour. Yet, some in CWSH project sites. regions. of the areas also met with difficulties in Workshop for socialization of the 2. Training the trial. The factors influencing suc- National Policy for Community Based WSS Technical Training. cess and failure of the approach lie with Percik December 2005 9
  11. 11. MAIN REPORT FOTO:MUJIYANTOthe support from the local communityyleaders. In 2006 the WSS Working Grouphas been instrumental in formulating acooperation agreement between theGovernment of Indonesia with PlanInternational, an international non gov-ernment organization. This agreementis summarized into a MoU signed by theDeputy for Infrastructure, Bappenasand Country Director of Plan Inter-national Indonesia on 19 October 2005.This cooperation represents one of theefforts for active involvement of allstakeholders in WSS development. The activity related to formulation ofNational Policy for Institutionally BasedWSS Development has finalised draft 3revision 3. Socialization of the latestdraft has been made to echelon 1 offi-cials of Directorate General Bangda,Directorate General PMD, DirectorateGeneral Disease Control and ous skills and knowledge needed forEnvironmental sanitation and Ministry replication of the approaches that haveof Environment. in 2006, will start with been tried sucessfully in the previous communication strategy years, such as CLTS and SANIMAS.Plan for 2006 Workshop of Communication formulation to be In 2006 the WSS Working Group Strategyworkplans include public campaign, initiated with It has been realized that the successoperationalization of National Policy for a workshop to determine in implementing National Policy forWSS (Community as well as Institu- the communication WSS Development is highly influencedtionally Based) WSS Development and model as a base for by application of an effective policyformulation of the related guidelines. In communication strategy communication strategy, in 2006, will2006 the public campaign will follow start with communication strategy formu- development for Nationalalmost exactly what has been done in lation to be initiated with a workshop tothe previous year. This activity consists Policy for (Community determine the communication model as aof publication of Percik magazine, web- and Institutionally Based) base for communication strategy develop-site maintenance, electronic mailing list WSS Development. ment for National Policy for (Communityand WSS newsletter, poster and leaflet and Institutionally Based) WSS Deve-printing and distribution, exhibition, lopment. Policy formulation activity willand talkshow in electronic media. be directed to produce various implemen-Hopefully that in 2006 Percik publica- ed to build a better understanding, con- tation and technical guidelines and CWSHtion volume could be increased. This is sultation and supervision of policy technical modules. Year 2006 will be thein line with the increasing demand to implementation within the framework first year for realization of cooperationthis magazine. of central, provincial and kabupaten between the government and Plan Operationalization of National Policy level WSS Working Groups. International. The scope of the cooper-for WSS Development will be conducted Training ation will include field trial of thethrough several means such as: In 2006 ttraining agenda will be ori- nationa Policy for WSS development, Coordination Meeting on National ented to capacity improvemen of the training, resource centre development Policy for WSS Development actors in operationalisation of National and development of communications This coordination meeting is intend- Policy for WSS Development, and vari- strategy. (AK)10 Percik December 2005
  12. 12. MAIN REPORT WASPOLA, From Principle to ActionT he idea behind WSS sector poli- PROPINSI KABUPATEN commitment. The basic policy princi- cy reform was developed under SUMATERA BARAT SAWAHLUNTO SIJUNJUNG ples developed within the framework of KOTA PAYAKUMBUH the premise of increasing an TANAH DATAR equity, and commitment to change,improved and well targeted WSS service BANGKA BELITUNG BANGKA SELATAN from provider to facilitator, should be BANGKA BARATcoverage. The importance of a more KOTA PANGKAL PINANG honestly and openly translated into theefficient, well targeted, poverty orien- BANTEN LEBAK implementation of WSS sector develop-ted, improved community participation, PANDEGLANG ment, by the central and regional go- KOTA TANGERANGgender sensitive, are a few of the under- JAWA TENGAH KEBUMEN vernments.lying principles upon which the WSS PEKALONAGN GROBOGANsector policy reform rests. Since its con- NUSA TENGGARA BARAT LOMBOK BARAT Capacity Improvement, Demandception in 1998, WASPOLA (Water and LOMBOK TIMUR for WSS Development SUMBAWASanitation Policy Formulation and SULAWESI SELATAN PANGKEP From the experience obtained fromAction Planning) has been promoting TAKALAR facilitating policy development in theacceleration towards that reform. SELAYAR regions, especially in the context of WSS GORONTALO GORONTALOThough in the beginning this sectoral BONE BOLANGO policy reform, human resources capaci-policy reform concept was not familiar ty improvement becomes an intrinsicwith the bureaucrates, especially with policy reform is important, first WSS demand within the reform itself.lack of nationally developed lessons development is often understood as Sustainable development and demandlearned to use as reference, yet the WSS facility development subsidy, se- responsive approach are among thereform process still proceeds and cond the budget for WSS developmentis important themes that call for strongobtains multipartite support. Six go- quite limited therefore it is necessary undertanding and sectoral commit-vernment departments involved in its invite support fron non government se- ment. In 2005 WASPOLA has facilita-development pleaded commitment for a ctor. WASPOLA facilitation support in ted interaction between the governmentcommunity based WSS development. the policy implementation, in this con- and the community for the purpose of In 2005 being the second year of text is bridging out transfer of know- exploring and sharing of informationWASPOLA-2 after WASPOLA-1 was ledge and information in order that the about WSS service development at thecompleted in 2003, has printed reform service is not limited to facility con- field level. The outcome is a growingtints to WSS development policy that is struction, but more than that, it is sus- care and attention from within the go-now proceeding in the path of a dynamic tainability. Sustainability begins from vernment agencies, promoting appreci-coordination process. change in paradigm leading to sustained ation of community participation and development covering institutional-, growth of community self reliance inReform and Policy Implemen- financial-, social-, technological- and envi- WSS service management.tation ronmental aspects. Besides, WASPOLA Sustainable WSS service related In 2005 the National Policy for support is also made available to develop- issues are often voiced out by WSSCommunity Based WSS Development ment of synergy between government development actors in the regions.was put into implementation in 21 and non government so that WSS ser- Regional working group identificationkabupatens of 7 provinces. (see table 1) vice development could proceed as com- of drinking water supply related aspects Several experiences have been mon commitment and multipartite in some kabupatens, have identifiedobtained from the implementation in involvement. The involvement leads to several sustainability determining vari-the 21 kabupatens. The experience from development of common responsibility ables, and their interlinkages. As anWSS development up to now can be for investment and O&M costs. Some of example, in a visit to 4 villages ie.used as strong reason for conducting examples of development initiated by Talamelito, Molintogupo, Tangga Jaya,policy reform. Malfunctioning of facili- demand driven and demand responsive- and Illoheluna, all in Kabupaten Boneties, inefficient and mistargeted devel- ness approaches have indicated that Bolango, widely different variables wereopment are among the examples. At there is a hidden potential within the identified. It was found that technologyleast there are two things noted why community, financial, capacity and choice was not followed with institu- Percik December 2005 11
  13. 13. MAIN REPORT SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE technical assistance in the regional WSS strategy plan formulation gained a warm appreciation from the regional working groups. This strategy plan was developed within the framework of long term and medium term regional strate- gy plan formulation. The formulation of vision, mission and identification of internal/external factors, formulation on mandate, SWOT analysis, strategiis- sues, and formulation of strategic pro- grammes are several of the materials that must be well understood in a stra- tegy planning formulation. Direct and extensive involvement of stakeholders is a charcteristics that WASPOLA intends to promote in many of the regions. The regions with a strategy plan will be more advenced in developing a comprehen- sive WSS development strategy plan as it relates to MDGs target achievement, and opportunity to multipartite strate-tional management, financial manage- base development, while at the central gic partneship. Placement of WSS asment and environmental protection, it level, this is done a comprehensive priority will save the regions fromwas also found that WSS service sus- study to identify WSS service related unnecessary social investment due totainability was vulnerable to "personal problems especially in this era of decen- negative impact brought by poor drink-policy", or behaviour of village adminis- tralization. All these activities, under- ing water and environmental sanitationtration officer. In the village of Lonuo, taken by the regions and the central service.once appraised for its exemplary WSS government, have produced importantservice management is now at the brink lessons learned for WSS service provi- Institutionally Based Policy, Inof failure because of malfunctioning sion in the future, through reform in Response to Marketmanagement institution. In this context institutional, financial, and regulatory Being part of policy reform, thethe regional government should take a aspects. availability of a policy for WSS servicecloser look at the problem and later pro- provision by an institution is deemedvide technical assistance how to Steps Leading to WSS Priority necessary. PDAM condition, almost allimprove the situation. Similar case hap- The lack of community access to over the country, is not directly correlat-penes in several kabupatens and WSS service in infrastructure develop- ed with improvement of access to drink-WASPOLA keeps on trying to promote ment is identified as a consequence of ing water. Data from PU indicate thatan improvement process. In addition to lack of support to this sector. Most of water supply of the urban is approxi-participatory approaches, which was the regions, even the central, do not mately 39 percent, while PDAM oper-introduced by WASPOLA through place WSS in any development priority, ates in 306 kabupatens (70 percent) ofMPA-PHAST training to enable the at least in the amount of budget alloca- Indonesia. This indicates the PDAMregional working groups analyse the tion, clarity of institution, and availabil- provides very small service coverage,community level problems and issues. ity of capable human resources. In se- and it does not have the capacity to veral regionas, the regioan strategy increase the coverage. This does notAnalysis of WSS Service plan, WSS is menytioned as a scion of include the outstanding payables that WASPOLA is supporting the stake- some component, such as housing or are their main trouble for almost all theholders in conducting evaluation on health. In this conext, preparation of public companies. According to aWSS service provision. At the regional WSS developemtn strategy plan record collected by an NGO in Solo,level, this activity can be undertaken becomes part of the effort to make WSS there are presently 23 PDAMs that arethrough a field observation and data- a development priority. WASPOLAs ready for a cooperation with private sec-12 Percik December 2005
  14. 14. MAIN REPORTtor. Along with it, and in order to main- in the overcrowded tail car, that can was visisted by more than 200 gueststain a favourable investment climate never reach the status of the other cars discussing a wide variety of WSS relatedand at the same time to guarantee ser- in front of it. This kind of combination issues.vice to low income community it is ne- model will produce a sector trailing farcessary to build a comprehensive policy behind, yet overburdened with too 2005 SOME OF WASPOLAand capable of accomodating various many a problem. This is clearly evi- ACTIVITIES IN 2005different interests. This is the challenge denced from the meager budget alloca-that the government is trying to answer tion set aside by the regional gover- JANUARY 2005through formulation of a national policy ments for sanitation development. In Preparation of WASPOLA supportinstitutionally based WSS development. this context, WASPOLA promotes the design in facilitating WSLIC andWASPOLAs effort to facilitate this changing of sanitation development CWSH projects policy development;process has been exerted since 2003 concept. Through CLTS (Community- Rationalization of WASPOLAand more intensively during 2004- Led Total Sanitation) approach sanita- Workplan 2005;2005. The involvement of various seg- tion development is oreinted more to Preparatory activity for CLTS Fieldments: government, private sector, change of attitude, so that the govern- Trial.NGOs, universities, and professional ment will no longer act as supplier, andassociations has been obvious. The the community the beneficiary. This FEBRUARY 2005institutionally based policy has been change of insight will lead to change in Workshop for consolidation of opera-formulated more comprehensively and behaviour and finally stimulates tionalization of National Policy foris built on a stronger structure and con- demand and innovation. In SANIMAS Community Based WSS Develop-ceptional framework. It is divided into (Sanitation by the Community) commu- ment, on 15-17 February in Surabaya;general and sectoral policies: drinking nity involvement and participation Workshop on communications starte-water, sanitation, solid waste and stimulates the growth of sense of gy development, on 17 February indrainage. However, as a procwess this belongingness and willingness to pay. Surabaya;policy needs support and acceptance Two of the many sanitation develop- Kick off CLTS approach field trial inextensively from every segments of the ment principles introduced by WASPO- Indonesia.community, especially the regional go- LA intends to improve the situation sovernments and the private sector, so that sanitation is no longer placed as the MARCH 2005that it could be immediately imple- rearmost overcrowded car. Evaluation of provincial preparednessmentable. In connection with MDGs for the operationalization of thetarget achievement, the government Promotion and Partnership, National Policy; Roadshow ofmust as soon as possible invite the coo- Efforts to Achieve Success National Policy for Institutionallyperation of those that care to WSS ser- Policy as a mental product and a Based WSS Development at thevice development, especially the private process must be continuously promoted Ministry of Environment, 29 March;sector and at the same time create a and disseminated in order to gain public Field activity for analytical study onconducive environment required by in- acknowledgement. WASPOLA and WSS service in the era of decentraliza-vestors so that partnership could be WSS Working Group are now together tion;developed. in this line of activity. Involvement of Seven participants representing WSS many parties, local, national, regional, Working Group and WASPOLASanitation, the Passenger Packed and international is on-going, to build attended Water Week Conference inTail Car inquisitiveness, care, commitment and Washington, 28 Feb-3 Mar; Sanitation, for as long as it is treated finally partnership. Together with ka- Presentation of National Policy foras a separate scion from water supply bupaten and provincial working groups WSS Development in Indowater sem-development, it will remain to behave the Policy has been disseminated to inar and exhibition, 30 March.like an ancient overcrowded wagon local and regional level stakeholders.train moving shakily pulled by an Partnership with NGOs, universities, APRIL 2005 nunderrated engine. It will always fall private sectors being build to create WASPOLA and WSS Working Groupbehind water supply. If the engines are synergy and capacity support. Some of participation in WSP retreat meetingto be combined, sanitation and water the activites supported by WASPOLA, at Guilin, China, 4-6 April;supply should be united as an integral have produced impressive results, such WASPOLA and WSS Working Grouppart, yet in reality, sanitation is placed as evidenced in 2 exhibitions, the stand participation in World Water Day Percik December 2005 13
  15. 15. MAIN REPORTexhibition held at Dept. Publ Works AUGUST 2005 Presentation of analytical study ofoffice compound, Jakarta. Visited by Worshop on operationalization of the WSS service delivery in the era ofmore 200 visitors; National Policy, Hotel Permata Alam decentralization.Participation in the launching of Puncak;National Partnership for Water Coordination meeting on policy im- OCTOBER 2005Protection, 28 April. plementation for WSS Working MPA-PHAST Orientation Training for Groups of Indonesian Eastern region, Provincial and Kabupaten levelMAY 2005 held in Makassar; Working Groups in Bandung;Dissemination of the National WSS Roadshow of Community Based Workshop Training on WSLIC sus-Development Policy in Province of Development Policy to provincial policy tainability strategy for West and EastBanten; makers of NTB, Gorontalo, and Banten; Indonesia regions, in Padang andCLTS training for members of WSS SSWAF seminar and exhibition in Bali. Surabaya respectively;Working Group, CWSH and WSLIC Roadshow of Community BasedProjects in Lumajang, 2-5 May Sanitation, for as long as it is Development Policy to provincial po-CLTS training for regional WSS licy makers of Sumatra Barat atten- treated as a separate sector fromWorking Group in Sumabawa, 9-12 ded by Deputy Governor, Chairman ofMay; water supply development, it will Kabupaten/Kota Bappedas, Govern-Preparation of CLTS Training work- remain to behave like an ancient ment Agencies, community leaders,plan in the regions. overcrowded wagon train moving WSS Working Group and WASPOLA; shakily pulled by an underrated Roadshow of Institutionally Based PolicyJUNE 2005 engine to DG. PMD of Dept. Home Affairs;Training on the preparation of WSS WSS Network and Partnership Meetingstrategy planning in two regions of held at Hotel Kartika Chandra Jakarta;Indonesia, held in Maassar and Meeting to discuss implementation ofPuncak, respectively; SEPTEMBER 2005 a study on donor harmonization;CLTS Training in Sambas; WASPOLA coordination team mee- Meeting with SIDA (Swedish Interna-Final preparation of SANIMAS ting attended by Director of Housing tional Development Agency), a donor;Outcome Monitoring Study (SOMS) and Settlement Systems, Bappenas, Workshop for developing WASPOLAimplementation; WSS Working Group. AusAID, WSP- Workplan 2006, held at Interconti-Discussion meeting on Global PSP EAP, and WASPOLA; nental Hotel.Review, as part of enrichment of insti- SSWAF seminar and exhibition intutionally based development issues, Bali; NOVEMBER 2005held in Jakarta; Workshop on synergy of WSS devel- WASPOLA Mid term review;Field activity of analytical study on WSS opment activities at regional level; Study visit to Australia by WSS Workingservice in the era of decentralization; Workshop on operationalization of Group and WASPOLA, for enrichmentInitiation of WSS partnership, Policy for project partners and NGOs, of institutional policy development;through cooperation between the go- at Hotel Satelit Surabaya; Workshop on WSS Data in Province ofvernment and Plan International. Roadshow of Community Based Banten. Development Policy to provincial po-JULY 2005 licy makers of Jawa Tengah; DECEMBER 2005Roadshow of Community Based Roadshow of Community Based De- WASPOLA Mid term review;Development Policy to provincial po- velopment Policy to kabupaten level Workshop on WSS data development bylicy makers of Bangka Belitung; policy makers of Pandeglang, Tange- the Provinces and Kabupatens;Interactive talkshow in radio, Radio rang and Lombok Barat; CLTS training for PCI (an NGO) atSonora Pangkal Pinang; Workshop training on CWSH Project Kabupaten Pandeglang;CLTS Training in Kabupatens Bogor, Strategy Planning for Kecamatan Finalising of WASPOLA Workplan 2006;Muara Enim, and Muaro Jambi; Facilitator Team; Facilitation for workshop on PlanPreparation WASPOLA six monthly Roadshow of Institutionally Based International (an NGO) workplan;report; Policy to Diretorate General for Facilitation of Workshop on data by WSSPreliminary discussion on Donor Disease Control and Environmental Working Group.Harmonization study. Sanitation, Dept. Health; (dormaringan h. saragih)14 Percik December 2005
  16. 16. MAIN REPORT 1,66 Villages Obtain Access to Clean Water Service Through WSLIC-2 SOURCE: HARTONO KARYATIN The village community were helping each other in com- munal activity building clean water supply facility. Not less than 1,66 million of low income village commu- nity members have had additional water supply from WSLIC-2W hat would it look like life without water. Life will not continue because water isthe origin of life. Unfortunately, in spiteof water is abundant in the world, thereare still who have difficulty in obtaining Minister of Health, Dr Siti Fadilah Supari opens a public faucet at the hamlet of Montor Lekong, the vil- lage of Aikmel Utara, Lombok Timur. Chairman of CPMU WSLIC-2, Zainal I Nampira and Aikmel Utara vil-it. They spend most of their time to take lage headman are watching. The visit was made on 14 July 2005water. They are poor because they donot have time to do productive activity. construction. The activity is entirely 1.605 villages (80 percent) and villagesTheir time is spent for water taking. implemented by the community accom- that have completed MPA-PHAST 1.450 The village community can now be panied by Community Facilitator Team (73 percent), community implementa-proud of themselves. They have mana- (CFT), which was elected democratically tion team (CIT) established 1.439 (72ged to work hand in hand to overcome by the community, from and for the percent), and community workplantheir common problem, making water community. The community also con- (CWP) already submitted 1.311 (66 per-supply facilities close to their homes. tributes 20 percent from the CWP value cent) and approved 1.160 (58 percent).They even worked voluntarily day and (approximately 195-250 million per vi- There are 681 villages (34 percent) com-night to make their dream come true. llage). The government facilitates this pleted with water supply facility con-Their effort was not in vain. Now, community activity and provides a co- struction. The overall implementationapproximately 1,66 village inhabitants unter part budget 8 percent from the has reached 48 percent. From theare enjoying their fruit of hard work in CWP value, through national and WSLIC-2 supervision mission VIII (30WSLIC-2 project. regional budget mechanisms. The May-13 June 2005) the World Bank WSLIC-2 or Water Supply for Low remainder, 72 percent, is a subsidy from gives a rating "satisfactory" to WSLIC-2Income Communities Phase 2 is a water a non interest soft loan from the World performance.supply and environmental sanitation Bank (IDA Credit) and grant fund from Water supply is an intermediateactivity designed for low income com- the Australian government through objective for WSLIC-2. The project ismunities living in rural area. This proj- AusAID. designed to improve health status, pro-ect represents the manifestation of part- Project Management Report (PMR) ductivity and well being of the lownership activity between the community is a quarterly report submitted to the income communities of the villages.and the government. This activity be- World Bank and cross-sectoral agencies Together with the water supply facilitylongs entirely to the community. The members of the Board of Directors. The several other hygiene behaviour relatedcommunity plans the activity by deve- PMR up the third quarter (Jul-Sep activites are also introduced in the com-loping a Community Workplan (CWP), 2005) indicates an access to 1,66 million munity and in public schools. Throughimplementing, supervising, and mana- population (47 percent of 3,5 popula- these activities the principles of hygieneging the facility after completion of the tion). Other data indicate short list of behaviour are introduced to the com- Percik December 2005 15
  17. 17. MAIN REPORTmunity. There are at least 1.931 school sized post construction activities in cated ones that are sold in the store.health units activities were conducted order to maintain sustaianbility. Local Puskesmas (Community Healthby primary schools within the WSLIC-2 institutions from sub districts to district Centre) and its sanitarian will be pro-implementation areas. One of the acti- even the provincial levels are to be pro- vided for with budget allocation for pro-vities is eradication of worm disease. moted to take a more active participa- motional and facilitation activities. A The benefit of additional access to tion. capacity improvement programme forwater supply has been enjoyed in 5 WSLIC-2 management have taken the sanitarians will be made coveringprovinces, ie. West Sumatra, South several policies. The guidebook on CWP the subjects on MPA-PHAST, SanitationSumatra, Bangka Belitung, East Java formulation has been revised. Sani- Clinic, CLTS and PKA. Specifically forand NTB. The provinces of West Java tation related activities must be clearly Puskesman chief physician an orienta-and South Sulawesi joined WSLIC-2 reflected in the community developed tion training on sanitation cliniconly in 2005, and West Sulawesi will CWP. There must be integration approach. In WSLIC-2 implementationstart implementation in 2006. Thus the between saniattion activities at schools sites an integration of water supply andthree provinces havent had the benefit and in the community. The CWP deve- sanitation will be tried through the sa-of additional water supply. WSLIC-2 is loped by the community must include nitation Clinic. In CFT training andimplementaion sites are scattered in 8 water supply service covering at least 80 refresher course, the focus on sanitationprovinces, 35 districts, and 2.300 vil- percent of the local families. And the will be more emphasized.lages of the country. community shall have to plan when 100 To increase the intensity of health percent toilet use will be achieved. and hygiene development related activi-Future Plan Now it is already available the ties in school as well in the community a In 2006 WSLIC-2 plans an imple- Catalogue of Sanitation Option and sa- national level workshop on Exit Strategymentation in 610 villages. These vil- nitation flash cards. With this book se- for School Health Activity Unit andlages are scattered in 8 provinces and 35 veral choices of toilet technologies are Community Hygiene behaviour will bekabupatens. In the future WSLIC-2 will presented. With this communication conducted. This activity will be followedstrengthen health and sanitation related media the CFT (community facilitator up at the kabupaten level for dissemina-activities through hygiene behaviour team) can facilitate the community the tion and teacher orientation. Keca-changes within the community and the choose the most suitable toilet technolo- matan level personnel shall be improvedschools. This is one of the follow up gy according to the wishes and financial to support hygiene behaviour pro-actions as recommended by WSLIC-2 capacity. The choices covers the sim- gramme in schools (as post constructionsupervision mission VIII conducted last plest, ie. one that is prepared by the package). Support to the activity willJune. The management also empha- community itself till the most sophisti- also be developed through promotion media development, from the national, SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE provincial and district levels. CLTS (Community-Led Total Sa- nitation) field trials have been under- taken in several WSLIC-2 and non WSLIC-2 districts and have proven sat- isfactory. CLTS approach will be taken into WSLIC-2 implementation. For this purpose a series of CLTS training work- shops will be conducted for provincial and district level facilitators and an ori- entation for sub district level facilita- tors. In villages, the implementation will be oriented to CLTS facilitation. Through CLTS approach, hopefully, a significant change to the habit of defe- cating in the open will take place. Hopefully. (Hartono Karyatin, Media & Communictions Specialist WSLIC-2)16 Percik December 2005
  18. 18. MAIN REPORT Ir. Zainal L. Nampira, Chairman of CPMU WSLIC-2 Changes Cannot Be Identified From Physical Aspect OnlyW SOURCE: MUJIYANTO hen WSLIC was first introdu- ced a negative reaction was instantly displayed by the localgovernments. They strongly doubted theWSLIC concept and questioned the validi-ty of community empowerment conceptinvolving the poor families to contribute.How in the world could the poor to con-tribute. And besides, the local govern-ments were also in doubt if the communitycapable of managing the subsidy. Theywere worried the fund would leak withouttrace. Those were two aspects the localgovernments worried about. Once the local government offered asolution by transfering the fund throughdistrict mechanism. This means the fundis not channeled directly to the communi-ty, rather it goes to the local government. nal and community capacity building,The local government does the ma- improvement of hygiene behaviour, provi-nagement on behalf of the community. After it had been running for sion of water supply and environmentalWhile we want this money directly fun- approximately two years sanitation, and project management.neled down to the hands of the community since 2002-2003 the project Based on evaluation conducted by theand the community will then manages World Bank mission, Midterm Review Te- was able to impart a neweverything from planning, implementation am, Technical Audit Team, Output Moni-up to preparation of the accounting report. understanding to the gov- toring Study Team and economic impact After it had been running for approxi- ernments and other stake- study, there is nothing unusual has happe-mately two years since 2002-2003 the holders. Bupatis started ned. From the health aspect this project hasproject was able to impart a new under- willing to inaugurate a proj- produced a significant improvement to co-standing to the governments and other ect and handed it over to mmunity health, and from the technical as-stakeholders. Bupatis (Mayor) started pect the construction has met the standard. the communitywilling to inaugurate a project and handed What should also be taken into consi-it over to the community. Process of deration for the future implementation arechange cannot be seen from physical WSLIC exercises accountability princi- more attention be paid on improvement ofaspect only. Even internally within the ple. The Community Facilitator Team that monitoring quality, tendering process andDept. Health it was rather difficult in the operates without any salary but is required more definite property ownership.beginning. to be transparent and is audited by an inde- In East Java and West Java, the regio- Now in 2005, the program responsibi- pendent auditor. This is the first project nal governments have planned WSLIC pro-lity for implementation is relinquished that audits the community. gramme expansion to several districts thatfrom the central to kabupaten level. The From our experience contruction of have never had this project. We are notprocess starts from the bottom. We want physical facility is relatively easy. The ca- going to implement the project, replicate itto combine both top down and bottom up pacity of each of the line agencies is promi- and stop there, but more than that, we wantapproaches in order to build the local go- nent and immeasurable. WSLIC has lear- to sustain it. What would it mean a develop-vernments sense of belonging. ned four main lessons, they are institutio- ment without sustainability? (MJ) Percik December 2005 17

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