Urban Slum Improvements in Developing Countries: Policy and Strategy

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Key Note Speech to The Third International Seminar on Tropical Eco Settlements. Urban Deprivation: A Challenge to Sustainable Urban Settlements. The Seminar hold by The Center for Housing and Settlement, Ministry of Public Work, the Republic of Indonesia in Jakarta 31 )ct-2 Nov 2012.

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  • Urban Slum Improvements in Developing Countries: Policy and Strategy

    1. 1. KEY NOTE SPEECHTHE 3RD INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON TROPICAL ECO SETTLEMENTS. URBAN DEPRIVATION: A CHALLENGE TO SUSTAINABLE URBAN SETTLEMENTS Oswar Mungkasa Representing Deputy for Infrastructures Affairs National Development Agency Jakarta, 31 October 2012
    2. 2. Definition • People can be said to be deprived if they lack the types of clothing, housing, household facilities, fuel, environmental, educational, working and socialUrban conditions, activities and facilities which are customary orDeprivation at least widely accepted by the societies to which they belong. • People are in poverty if they lack the resources to escape deprivation. 2
    3. 3. The FactOver the last 2 • Around 3 billion people-centuries  virtually half of the world’sproportion of the total population –now liveworld’s population in urban settlements.living in urban • Population experts predictareas have that by the yearincreased from 5% 2030, around two-thirds ofto 50% the world’s population will live in cities. 3
    4. 4. The Fact• One of the most recognizable forms of urban deprivation is the formation and rapid growth of slum areas in almost all cities.• In 1990, there were nearly 715 million slum dwellers in the world. By 2000, the slum population had increased to 912 million. Today, around 1 billion or 33 per cent, of the world’s urban population resides in slums. One out of every three city dwellers lives in slum conditions• the slum population will reach 1.4 billion by 2020. 4
    5. 5. The Fact • 133 million people living in cities of the developing world lack durable housing;• in 2003, approximately 20 per cent of the developing world’s urban population –401 million people – lived in houses that lacked sufficient living area (with three or more people sharing a bedroom); 5
    6. 6. The Fact• getting water from a tap is a luxury enjoyed by only two-third of the world’s urban population; less than half of this group (46 per cent) have piped water within their dwelling; 10 per cent rely on public taps, while 8 per cent have access only to manually pumped water or protected wells; 6
    7. 7. The Fact• Over 25 per cent of the developing world’s urban population – or 560 million city residents – lack adequate sanitation;• A global survey in 60 countries found that 6.7 million people had been evicted from their homes between 2000 and 2002, compared with 4.2 million in the previous two years. 7
    8. 8. Issues the mobilization oflack of a political will the potentials andof the government to capacities of theaddress the issue in relateda sustainable and stakeholders, particullarge scale manner arly the community itselfthe lack or limited number of financingresources for home ownership 8
    9. 9. Issues to adopt an adequatesecurity of tenure also a approach to urban landfundamental challenge management. • demand for water cannot be satisfied by the locally available water resources • the discharge of insufficiently treated wastewater increases costs for downstream users and has detrimental effects on the aquatic systems; 9
    10. 10. The Issueshelping the poor to become moreintegrated into the fabric of urban society isthe only long-lasting and sustainablesolution to the growing urbanization ofpoverty. 10
    11. 11. Policies and strategies the non-physicaladdressing the issue of activities such as theslum areas need to be formulation of citysustainable, and as plans, roadsuch the applied maps, regulations andpolicies and strategies the provisions ofshould consider the employment shouldsocial, environmental also be a part of theand economic aspects. overall policies and strategies 11
    12. 12. Policies and Strategiesurban policy in the provision ofinfrastructure towards alleviating the urbandeprivation phenomena should have atleast 3 (three) characteristics:(a) area-based policies;(b) coordination among agencies (joint efforts or partnership);(c) community-based 12
    13. 13. Policies and Strategies• the local government need to have an integrated urban development strategies, encompassing physical, economic and social development, and Agenda 21 to provide an overall strategic approach• a long-term initiative needs to fully involve all stakeholders, first amongst them the slum dwellers and their organizations. 13
    14. 14. Policies and Strategies• improving the welfare of the poor through income generating programs and policies that support livelihood strategies,• Slum area management through upgrading programs is needed• local authorities need to be strengthened by providing them with the necessary resources and capacity to undertake a wide range of functions; 14
    15. 15. Policies and strategiesall cities should consider developing land-resourcemanagement plans to guide land-resourcedevelopment and utilization and, to that end, should: Encourage partnerships among the public, private and community sectors in managing land resources for human settlements development; Strengthen community-based land-resource protection practices in existing urban settlements; Accelerate efforts to promote access to land by the urban poor, including credit schemes for the purchase of land and for building/acquiring or improving safe and healthy shelter and infrastructure services; 15
    16. 16. Policies and Strategiesan integrated approach to urban watermanagement (IUWM) is necessary. AnIUWM approach involves managingfreshwater, wastewater, and storm water aslinks within the resource managementstructure, using an urban area as the unit ofmanagement. 16
    17. 17. Policies and strategiesSome key solutions for financing water andsanitation for the poor (Water and Sanitation forthe Urban Poor/WSUP); maximize local small-scale private-sector involvement in water and sanitation service provision. There is broad consensus that local small-private-sector entrepreneurs can make very important contribution to sustainable pro- poor services in urban communities. These smaller independent operators may perform auxiliary roles that large-scale service providers are unable to provide; 17
    18. 18. Policies and strategies introduce innovative water tariff systems that are ensure both financial sustainability and affordability for the poorest of the poor. Promote policies aimed at recovering the actual cost of infrastructure services, while at the same time recognizing the need to find suitable approaches (incl. subsidies) to extend basic services to all households; use water revenues to cross-subsidize sanitation: including sanitation charges in water bills; use output-based financing approaches: by making disbursement dependent on demonstrated delivery of infrastructures or services, international funders can ensure that funds are spent more efficiently. 18
    19. 19. Thank you 19

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