Key Indicators for Asia and Pacific 2012. 43rd Edition

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Key Indicators for Asia and Pacific 2012. 43rd Edition

  1. 1. Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012 KEY INDICATORSKey Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012, the 43rd edition of this series, is a statistical data book KEY INDICATORSpresenting economic, financial, social, and environmental indicators for the 48 regional members of theAsian Development Bank (ADB). This issue of Key Indicators presents in Part I a special chapter—GreenUrbanization in Asia—followed by statistical tables in Parts II and III with short, nontechnicalcommentaries on economic, financial, social, and environmental developments. for Asia and the Pacific Part II comprises the first set of statistical tables and commentaries, which look at the MillenniumDevelopment Goals and progress in the region toward achieving key targets. The second set of tables inPart III is grouped into seven themes, and provides a broader picture of economic, financial, social, and 2012environmental developments. This publication aims to present the latest key statistics on developmentissues concerning the economies of Asia and the Pacific to a wide audience, including policy makers,development practitioners, government officials, researchers, students, and the general public. This year,ADB also publishes the second edition of the Framework of Inclusive Growth Indicators, a specialsupplement to Key Indicators.About the Asian Development Bank for Asia and the PacificADB’s vision is an Asia and Pacific region free of poverty. Its mission is to help its developing membercountries reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people. Despite the region’s manysuccesses, it remains home to two-thirds of the world’s poor: 1.8 billion people who live on less than$2 a day, with 903 million struggling on less than $1.25 a day. ADB is committed to reducing povertythrough inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration. Based in Manila, ADB is owned by 67 members, including 48 from the region. Its main instrumentsfor helping its developing member countries are policy dialogue, loans, equity investments, guarantees,grants, and technical assistance. 2012 SPECIAL CHAPTER: Green Urbanization in AsiaAsian Development Bank6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City1550 Metro Manila, Philippineswww.adb.org Printed on recycled paper. Printed in the Philippines
  2. 2. © 2012 Asian Development BankAll rights reserved. Published in 2012.Printed in the Philippines.ISBN: 978-92-9092-816-4Publication Stock No. FLS124810-3Cataloging-In-Publication DataAsian Development Bank. Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012.Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2012.1. economic indicators 2. financial indicators 3. social indicators 4. energy and environmental indicators5. millennium development goals 6. infrastructure indicators 7. governance indicatorsI. Asian Development Bank.The views expressed in this book do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of theAsian Development Bank (ADB) or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent.ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts noresponsibility for any consequence of their use.By making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area, or by using theterm “country” in this document, ADB does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or otherstatus of any territory or area.ADB encourages printing or copying information exclusively for personal and noncommercial usewith proper acknowledgment of ADB. Users are restricted from reselling, redistributing, or creatingderivative works for commercial purposes without the express, written consent of ADB.Asian Development Bank6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City1550 Metro Manila, PhilippinesTel +63 2 632 4444Fax +63 2 636 2444www.adb.org
  3. 3. iiiForewordThe 43rd ĞĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ;<ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮͿ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐƚŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ Ă ƐĞƚ ŽĨ ĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞ ƐŽĐŝĂů͕ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ͕ ĮŶĂŶĐŝĂů͕ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů͕ ĂŶĚ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵDevelopment Goals (MDGs) indicator series for the 48 regional members. The Key Indicators providesĂ ƟŵĞůLJ ĂŶĚ ƌĞůŝĂďůĞ ƐŽƵƌĐĞ ŽĨ ĚĂƚĂ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŵĂŬĞƌƐ͕ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƉƌĂĐƟƟŽŶĞƌƐ͕ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽĸĐŝĂůƐ͕ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĞƌƐ͕ ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ƉƵďůŝĐ͘ &Žƌ ƚŚĞ ƐĞĐŽŶĚ LJĞĂƌ͕ ƚŚĞFramework of Inclusive Growth Indicators supplements the main Key Indicators ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ŽŶ ͞ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͟ ƚĂĐŬůĞƐ ƚǁŽ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐͶĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ƌĂƉŝĚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ƵƌďĂŶƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjŝŶŐ Ăƚ Ă ƉĂĐĞ ĨĂƐƚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ĂŶLJ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ƌĞƐƵůƟŶŐ ŝŶ ĂŶ ƵŶƉƌĞĐĞĚĞŶƚĞĚŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ĂŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ĚĞŶƐĞůLJ ƉŽƉƵůĂƚĞĚ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJ͕the region will be confronted with even greater environmental challenges that are already serious,ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͕ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ͕ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĚŝŽdžŝĚĞ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ͕ ĚĞƉƌŝǀĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͕ĂŶĚ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƐ͘ Ƶƚ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŵĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƌŝƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵŝĚĚůĞ ĐůĂƐƐĂŶĚ ƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ ŽǁŶĞƌƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ƐĞĐƚŽƌ͕ ĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ĨĞƌƟůŝƚLJ͕ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂůĂƩĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŵĞĐŚĂŶŝƐŵĂƌĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĨŽƌ ĂƩĂŝŶŝŶŐ Ă ǁŝŶͲǁŝŶ ƐĐĞŶĂƌŝŽ ŽĨ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͘,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ ŵĂLJ ďĞ ŝŶƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ ƚŽ ƌĞĂĐŚ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ͕ ĐĂƌĞĨƵůůLJĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĞīĞĐƟǀĞ ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ĂƌĞ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ĂůƐŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐƐƵŐŐĞƐƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶ ƚŽ ĞŶƐƵƌĞ Ă ŐƌĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉĂƚŚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮ clearly describes AsiaĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ĂƐ ŝƚ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐ ŝƚƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƌĞĐŽǀĞƌLJ͕ ĐĞŵĞŶƟŶŐ ŝƚƐ ĐůĂŝŵ ƚŽ ƚŚĞůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ŐƌŽƐƐ ĚŽŵĞƐƟĐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŶŽǁ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƐ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ Ă ƚŚŝƌĚƚŽ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƚŽƚĂů ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ͘ dŚƌĞĞ LJĞĂƌƐ ďĞĨŽƌĞ ƚŚĞ D ĚĞĂĚůŝŶĞ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƌĞĚƵĐĞĚŚƵŶŐĞƌ ĂŶĚ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŵĞĞƚ ŝƚƐ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ĨŽƌ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŐĞŶĚĞƌ͘ dŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŚĂƐ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵůůLJ ƌĞĚƵĐĞĚ ŝƚƐ ƐůƵŵ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝƚ ŚĂƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ŝƚƐ ƚĞƌƌĞƐƚƌŝĂů ĂŶĚ ŵĂƌŝŶĞprotected areas. dŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ƐƟůů ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐ͕ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͘ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ŶĞĞĚƐ ƚŽ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůŝƐƐƵĞƐ͕ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ĨŽƌĞƐƚ ĐŽǀĞƌ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ K2 ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ƚŽ ĂƩĂŝŶĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘ DŽƐƚ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞĚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĨƵĞůƐ͘ ĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĨŽŽĚ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ŝŶŇĂƟŽŶ͕ ŵŽƌĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĂƌĞ ƉƵƚ Ăƚ ƌŝƐŬ ŽĨ ĨĂůůŝŶŐ ŝŶƚŽ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͕ ƉƵƫŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŐĂŝŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŚĂƐ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ ŝŶ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƉĞƌŝů͘ DŽƌĞŽǀĞƌ͕ DƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ŽŶ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ĐŚŝůĚ ĂŶĚ ŵĂƚĞƌŶĂů ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ŵĞƚ ďLJ ŵĂŶLJ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ƐŽŵĞ ŚĂǀĞ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ ƐƵďƐƚĂŶƟĂů ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͘ ĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƌĞŵĂƌŬĂďůĞ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐ͕ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ƌĞŵĂŝŶ͕ ĂƐ ŶĞǁ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐ ĞŵĞƌŐĞ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ŽƵƌhope that the Key Indicators ƐĞƌŝĞƐ ǁŝůů ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƚŽ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŝƐƐƵĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƐƚƌŝǀĞ ƚŽƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ƐŽƵŶĚ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞ ĚĂƚĂ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐĞĚ ǁŝĚĞůLJ͘ DĞĂŶǁŚŝůĞ͕ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐ ƚŽǁŽƌŬ ǁŝƚŚ ŽƵƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͛ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ƚŽ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĂŶĚ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨƚŚĞŝƌ ŽĸĐŝĂů ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĨŽƌŵ Ă ƐƵďƐƚĂŶƟĂů ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͘ Haruhiko Kuroda Haruhiko Kuroda President
  4. 4. vAcknowledgmentsThe ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ;ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮͿ was prepared by theDevelopment Indicators and Policy Research Division of the Economics and Research Department,under the overall supervision of Douglas H. Brooks. ƵĂŶŐŚƵĂ tĂŶ ĂŶĚ DĂƩŚĞǁ ĂŚŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚĞĐŚŶŝĐĂů ĂŶĚ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ĨƌŽŵ /ǀĂ ^ĞďĂƐƟĂŶ͕ĞƌŶĂĚĞƩĞ ĂůĂŵďĂŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ƌŝƐƟŶĞ :ŽLJ ƌŝŽŶĞƐ͕ ǁƌŽƚĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ŽŶ ͞ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶŝŶ ƐŝĂ͟ ;WĂƌƚ /Ϳ͘ dŚĞ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ ƵŶŝƋƵĞ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶĞĞĚ ƚŽĂĚĚƌĞƐƐ ƌĞƐƵůƟŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ďĞŶĞĮƚĞĚ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůLJ ĨƌŽŵ ďĂĐŬŐƌŽƵŶĚƉĂƉĞƌƐ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĞĚ ďLJ ĞďŽƌĂŚ ĂůŬ͕ :ĂŶ ƌƵĞĐŬŶĞƌ͕ ^ƵƌĞŶĚĞƌ ƵŵĂƌ͕ ůŝĐĞ DĂƌƚŚĂ ĞĞ͕ DĂƌŬDŽŶƚŐŽŵĞƌLJ͕ ĂůĂ ^ĞĞƚŚĂƌĂŵ ^ƌŝĚŚĂƌ͕ ŽŶŐ ^ƵŶ͕ :ŝŶŐ :ŝŶŐ zĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ^ŝƋŝ ŚĞŶŐ͘ sĂůƵĂďůĞ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƟŽŶƐǁĞƌĞ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ ďLJ ƌƚƵƌ ŶĚƌLJƐŝĂŬ͕ DĂƌŝĂ ^ŽĐŽƌƌŽ ĂƵƟƐƚĂ͕ ŽƵŐůĂƐ ƌŽŽŬƐ͕ EĂƚĂůŝĞ ŚƵŶ͕ :ĞƐƵƐĞůŝƉĞ͕ ĂƵƐŚĂů :ŽƐŚŝ͕ ŝŶĚƵ ŽŚĂŶŝ͕ ĂůŝƐĂLJ DĂůŝŐĂůŝŐ͕ ŶŶŝĞ DĂƚĂŶ͕ ŚĞůůĂŵ WĂůĂŶLJĂŶĚLJ͕ ƵŶƚƵƌ^ƵŐŝLJĂƌƚŽ͕ ^ƵƉĂĐŚŽů ^ƵƉĂĐŚĂůĂƐĂŝ͕ ĂŶĚ :ƵnjŚŽŶŐ ŚƵĂŶŐ͘ tĞ ĂƉƉƌĞĐŝĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶƐ ďLJ ŐƵƐƟŶ ƌĐĞŶĂƐ͕ ^ĞŬŚĂƌ ŽŶƵ͕ ŶĂŶĚ ŚŝƉůƵŶŬĂƌ͕ ZƵĚŽůĨ ƌĂƵĞŶĚŽƌĨĞƌ͕ LJƵŵŝ ŽŶŝƐŚŝ͕ DŝĐŚĂĞů ŝŶĚĮĞůĚ͕dŽďLJ DĞůŝƐƐĂ DŽŶƐŽĚ͕ ŝǁĞƐŚ E͘ ^ŚĂƌĂŶ͕ :ĂŵĞƐ ^ƉĞŶĐĞƌ͕ DĂƩŚĞǁ dƵƌŶĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ :ĞīƌĞLJ Ădž ŝŶ ƚŚĞƚǁŽ ǁŽƌŬƐŚŽƉƐ ĐŽŶĚƵĐƚĞĚ ĨŽƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ͘ :ŝŶŐŵŝŶ ,ƵĂŶŐ͕ ĞĂ ^ƵŵƵůŽŶŐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŵŝŶŐ ŚŽƵ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ ďĂĐŬŐƌŽƵŶĚ ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ͘ DŝĐŚĂĞů ƌĂĚLJ ĂŶĚ ŚĞŶ ŝƵ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͘WĞƚĞƌ EĞǁŵĂŶ ǁĂƐ ƚŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ ĞĚŝƚŽƌ ĨŽƌ WĂƌƚ /͘ :ŽƐĞ ,ĞƌŵĂŶ ZĂŵŽƐ ĂŶĚ ŶŐĞů sŝůůĂƌĞnj ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚǀĂůƵĂďůĞ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ĨŽƌ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŵĂƉƐ ƵƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ͘ tĞ ĂƉƉƌĞĐŝĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƟŶƵŝŶŐ ĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂŶŬ͛Ɛ ; Ϳ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐŚĂƌĞĚ ĚĂƚĂ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƐ͘ tĞ ĂůƐŽĂĐŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ŽĨ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚ ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟǀĞ ĂŶĚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ŽĸĐĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞŝƌĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ŝŶ ĐŽůůĞĐƟŶŐ ĚĂƚĂ ŽŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘ Glenita Amoranto, Barbara Dizon, Nalwino Billones, Eileen Capilit, Modesta de Castro, AnnaŚƌŝƐƟŶĞ Ğ WĂĚƵĂͲƵƌĂŶƚĞ͕ :ŽƐĞƉŚŝŶĞ ĞƌƌĞ͕ ĂƌĞŶ ŝƌƐŚĂŶ͕ ƵŐĞŶŝĂ Ž͕ WĂŵĞůĂ ĂƉŝƚĂŶ͕ ĞŶũĂŵŝŶEĂǀĂƌƌŽ͕ DĞůŝƐƐĂ WĂƐĐƵĂ͕ ĂƵƌĂ WƌĂĚŽ͕ ĞĂ ZŽƚĂŝƌŽ͕ /ǀĂ ^ĞďĂƐƟĂŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ƌŝĐ ^ƵĂŶ ĐŽŵƉŝůĞĚ ĂŶĚĂŶĂůLJnjĞĚ ĚĂƚĂ ĨƌŽŵ ǀĂƌŝŽƵƐ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƚŽ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚGoals (MDGs), regional trends and tables, and country tables. They also wrote the analysis of keyDƐ ;WĂƌƚ //Ϳ ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƚƌĞŶĚƐ ;WĂƌƚ ///Ϳ͘ ƌƚƵƌ ŶĚƌLJƐŝĂŬ͕ EĂƚĂůŝĞ ŚƵŶ͕ ĂƵƐŚĂů :ŽƐŚŝ͕ ĂůŝƐĂLJ ^͘DĂůŝŐĂůŝŐ͕ ŚĞůůĂŵ WĂůĂŶLJĂŶĚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ƵŶƚƵƌ ^ƵŐŝLJĂƌƚŽ ƌĞǀŝĞǁĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĂůLJƟĐĂůƌĞƉŽƌƚƐ͘ DĂƌŝĂ ^ŽĐŽƌƌŽ ĂƵƟƐƚĂ ĂůƐŽ ƌĞǀŝĞǁĞĚ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ŬĞLJ ƚƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ DĂ͘ EŝŵĨĂ DĞŶĚŽnjĂ ǁĂƐthe economics editor for Parts II and III. dŚĞ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉŝůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ Ăůů ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ǁĞƌĞĐŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƚĞĚ ďLJ ĂůŝƐĂLJ ^͘ DĂůŝŐĂůŝŐ͕ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĞĚ ďLJ ĂƌďĂƌĂ ŝnjŽŶ ĂŶĚ WĂŵĞůĂ ĂƉŝƚĂŶ͘ :ŝůů ĂůĞ ĚĞ sŝůůĂand Guia De Guzman were the copy editors. Francis Manio designed the cover. Rhommell Rico didƚŚĞ ŐƌĂƉŚŝĐƐ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ůĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƚLJƉĞƐĞƫŶŐ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ ƚĞĐŚŶŝĐĂůƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ Ăůů ĚŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ͘ :ŽĞ DĂƌŬ ĂŶĂďĂŶ ŚĞůƉĞĚ ŝŶ ƚLJƉĞƐĞƫŶŐ͘Ma. Roselia Babalo and Clarita Dalaguit-Truong rendered secretarial and proofreading services. ^ĞĂŶ ƌŽǁůĞLJ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ŝůĚĂ EĂŶƋƵŝů͕ ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĞĚ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͘ tĞƚŚĂŶŬ ƚŚĞ KĸĐĞ ŽĨ /ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ^LJƐƚĞŵƐ ĂŶĚ dĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĨŽƌ ĚĂƚĂďĂƐĞ ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ džƚĞƌŶĂů ZĞůĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ŽŐŝƐƟĐƐ DĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ hŶŝƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ KĸĐĞŽĨ ĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟǀĞ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƟŵĞůLJ ĂŶĚ ƐŵŽŽƚŚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ Key/ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮ. Changyong Rhee Chief Economist
  5. 5. viiContents Foreword.................................................................................................................................................................. iii Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................................................... v ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů WĂƌƚŶĞƌƐ .................................................................................................................................................. xvi Guide for Users ....................................................................................................................................................... xxi Highlights ...................................................................................................................................................... xxviiPART I – SPECIAL CHAPTERƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ^ƉĞĐŝĂů ĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ hƌďĂŶ ƌŽǁƚŚ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ............................................................................................................... 4 ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů /ŵƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ............................................................................................... 9 hƌďĂŶ ŝƌ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ............................................................................................................................. 11 Greenhouse Gas Emissions ............................................................................................................................ 13 ĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ůĞĂŶ tĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ........................................................................................................... 14 Resilience to Climate Change ......................................................................................................................... 15 ŽƐƐ ŽĨ EĂƚƵƌĂů ĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ĂŶĚ ŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ .................................................................................................... 19 Urban Slums and Urban Poverty.................................................................................................................... 19 ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͗ dŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƵnjŶĞƚƐ ƵƌǀĞ............................................................ 19 dŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͲhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ EĞdžƵƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ....................................................................................................... 21 hƌďĂŶ ŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶ ,ĞůƉƐ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞ ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ................................................................................ 22 DĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ZĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ZŝƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ DŝĚĚůĞ ůĂƐƐ ĂŶĚ WƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ KǁŶĞƌƐ ............................................ 24 ĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ƩĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ ............................................................................ 25 YƵĂŶƟĨLJŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͲhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ EĞdžƵƐ ........................................................................................ 26 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 28 WŽůŝĐLJ KƉƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ƌĞĞŶ ŝƟĞƐ .............................................................................................................................. 28 ŶŚĂŶĐŝŶŐ ĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ĂŶĚ ŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ ......................................................................................................... 29 WƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ EĞǁ ƌŽŶƟĞƌƐ............................................................................................................................... 34 WƌŽƚĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ WŽŽƌ ........................................................................................................................................ 38 Finance, Transparency, and Accountability .................................................................................................... 38 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 40 DĂũŽƌ ŝŶĚŝŶŐƐ ĂŶĚ ŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶ.............................................................................................................................. 40 ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ......................................................................................................................................................... 42
  6. 6. viii ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ dĂďůĞƐ dĂďůĞ ϭ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĞǀĞů ĂŶĚ ŚĂŶŐĞƐ ;ĂĐƚƵĂů ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚͿ....................................................................... 4 dĂďůĞ Ϯ hƌďĂŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ Ăƚ ZŝƐŬ ŽĨ ŽĂƐƚĂů ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ ďLJ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ϮϬϬϬ .......................................................... 15 dĂďůĞ ϯ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĂ Ăƚ ZŝƐŬ ŽĨ ŽĂƐƚĂů ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ͕ ϮϬϬϬ ...................................................................... 16 dĂďůĞ ϰ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĂ Ăƚ ZŝƐŬ ŽĨ /ŶůĂŶĚ ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ͕ ϮϬϬϬ ........................................................................ 16 dĂďůĞ ϱ dŽƉ ϰϬ ƐŝĂŶ ŝƟĞƐ;хϭ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ ŝŶ sƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŽĂƐƚĂů ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ ................................. 17 dĂďůĞ ϲ dŽƉ ϰϬ ƐŝĂŶ ŝƟĞƐ;хϭ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ ŝŶ sƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ /ŶůĂŶĚ ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ .................................. 17 Table 7 The Environmental Kuznets Curve for Asia ......................................................................................... 21 Table 8 United States Imports of High-Tech Green Equipment (%) ................................................................. 23 dĂďůĞ ϵ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƌŽǁƚŚ ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ................................................................................................. 25 dĂďůĞ ϭϬ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ZĞƐƉŽŶĚĞŶƚƐ͛ tŝůůŝŶŐŶĞƐƐ ƚŽ ^ƵƉƉŽƌƚ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů WƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ................................ 26 dĂďůĞ ϭϭ dŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ DŽĚĞů............................................................................................... 27 Table 12 Water Pricing ...................................................................................................................................... 31 ŝŐƵƌĞƐ ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ EƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ zĞĂƌƐ ĨƌŽŵ ĂďŽƵƚ ϭϬй ƚŽ ϱϬй hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ....................................................................... 5 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ hƌďĂŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ;ŵŝůůŝŽŶƐͿ .................................................................................... 5 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ hƌďĂŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ϭϵϱϬʹϮϬϭϬ............................................................................................ 5 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů ^ŚĂƌĞƐ ŽĨ ůŽďĂů hƌďĂŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ ........................................................................ 6 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ ĞǀĞů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ďLJ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ;йͿ ..................................................................................................... 6 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ EƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ DĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ .......................................................................................................................... 7 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ^ŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ĂƌŐĞƐƚ ŝƟĞƐ ŽĨ /ŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ϮϬϬϵ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ .......... 9 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ dŽƉ Ϯϱ ŝƟĞƐ ZĂŶŬĞĚ ďLJ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĞŶƐŝƚLJ͕ ϮϬϬϳ ............................................................................... 9 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϵ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĞǀĞůƐ͕ ^ƵďƌĞŐŝŽŶ ;йͿ ............................................................................................. 10 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϬ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĞǀĞůƐ͕ ^ĞůĞĐƚĞĚ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;йͿ ........................................................................... 10 Figure 11 Urban and Rural Inequality in Asia (%) ............................................................................................... 10 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϮ dŚĞŌ ZĂƚĞ ǀĞƌƐƵƐ ĞǀĞů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͗ ůŽďĂů ĂƚĂ ......................................................................... 11 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϯ /ŶƚĞŶƟŽŶĂů ,ŽŵŝĐŝĚĞ ZĂƚĞƐ ŝŶ ^ĞůĞĐƚĞĚ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ .............................................................................. 11 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϰ ŝƟĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ WD10 above 100 μg/m3, 2008–2009 ................................................................................. 12 Figure 15 PM10 Kernel Density, 2008–2009 ........................................................................................................ 12 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϲ dŽƚĂů ^ƵƐƉĞŶĚĞĚ WĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞƐ Ăƚ DĂŶŝůĂ ^ŝƚĞƐ ..................................................................................... 12 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϳ dŽƉ ϱ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŝŶ dŽƚĂů K2 Emissions in 2008 .................................................................................. 13 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϴ K2 Emissions (t/capita) ..................................................................................................................... 13 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϵ sƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ /ŶůĂŶĚ ;ƚŽƉͿ ĂŶĚ ŽĂƐƚĂů ;ďŽƩŽŵͿ ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ .............................................................. 18 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϮϬ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ Ăƚ ZŝƐŬ ŽĨ ŽĂƐƚĂů ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ ................................................................................................ 19 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϭ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ Ăƚ ZŝƐŬ ŽĨ /ŶůĂŶĚ ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ ................................................................................................. 19 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϮϮ ^ĐĂƩĞƌƉůŽƚ ŽĨ K2 Emissions (t/capita) and GDP Per Capita (in 2005 PPP) ........................................ 21 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϯ WƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ K2 ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ ............................................................ 21 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϰ W WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ϭϵϴϬʹϮϬϭϬ ; ůů ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ƐŝĂ͕ ADB Developing Member Economies) ................................................................................................ 22 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϱ /ŶĨĂŶƚ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ZĂƚĞ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ tŽƌůĚ͕ ϭϵϱϱʹϮϬϭϬ ................................................. 23 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϲ ĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ZĂƚĞƐ ǀƐ͘ ĞǀĞů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ................................................................................... 25 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϳ ZĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ WƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ .................................................................... 25 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϴ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ǀƐ͘ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͕ ϭϵϴϬʹϮϬϭϬ ................................................................................. 26 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϵ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ................................................................................. 27 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯϬ /ůůƵƐƚƌĂƟǀĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƵƌǀĞ ..................................................................................... 28 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯϭ ^ŚŝŌ ŝŶ ŝƩĞĚ WD10 ŝŶĞ ŝŶ WZ ŝƟĞƐ ................................................................................................. 32 ŽdžĞƐ Box 1 Metros Moving People in Delhi and Shanghai ............................................................................................ 14 Ždž Ϯ ƐƟŵĂƟŶŐ ZŝƐŬƐ ŽĨ /ŶůĂŶĚ ĂŶĚ ŽĂƐƚĂů ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ ......................................................................................... 15
  7. 7. Contents ŝdž Box 3 The Environmental Kuznets Curve .............................................................................................................. 20 Ždž ϰ DĂůĂLJƐŝĂŶ ĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ......................................................................................................................... 24 Ždž ϱ ƵƐ ZĂƉŝĚ dƌĂŶƐŝƚ͗ dŚĞ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ tĂLJ ŝŶ ŚŵĞĚĂďĂĚ .................................................................................. 34 Box 6 From Waste to Energy in Singapore ............................................................................................................ 34 Box 7 Kawasaki Eco-Town ..................................................................................................................................... 36 Ždž ϴ ^ŵĂƌƚ ƌŝĚ ŶĞƌŐLJ ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ................................................................................................................... 37 Box 9 Small-Scale Energy Systems: Garment Factories in Bangladesh ................................................................. 37 Ždž ϭϬ ĞůŚŝ͛Ɛ ^ŚŝŌ ƚŽ ŽŵƉƌĞƐƐĞĚ EĂƚƵƌĂů ĂƐ .................................................................................................... 37 Box 11 Kampung Code River: Upgrading a Slum .................................................................................................... 39 Box 12 Restoring the Cheonggyecheon River ......................................................................................................... 40PART II ʹ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ dƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ dĂďůĞƐ /ŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ....................................................................................... 49 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ ƵƚŽī sĂůƵĞƐ ĨŽƌ ^ĞůĞĐƚĞĚ D /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ..................................................................... 51 Table 2. Millennium Development Goals Progress Tracking ........................................................ 52 ŽĂů ϭ͗ ƌĂĚŝĐĂƚĞ džƚƌĞŵĞ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĂŶĚ ,ƵŶŐĞƌ............................................................................................... 54 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϭ͘ ͗ ,ĂůǀĞ͕ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ whose income is less than one dollar a day.................................................................... 62 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘Ϯ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϭ͗͘ ĐŚŝĞǀĞ ĨƵůů ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀĞ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĚĞĐĞŶƚ ǁŽƌŬ ĨŽƌ Ăůů͕ including women and young people .............................................................................. 63 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϯ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϭ͗͘ ,ĂůǀĞ͕ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŚŽ ƐƵīĞƌ ĨƌŽŵ ŚƵŶŐĞƌ .................................................................................................. 64 ŽĂů Ϯ͗ ĐŚŝĞǀĞ hŶŝǀĞƌƐĂů WƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ.................................................................................................. 65 Table 2.1 Target 2.A: Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling ........................................... 69 ŽĂů ϯ͗ WƌŽŵŽƚĞ ĞŶĚĞƌ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ŵƉŽǁĞƌ tŽŵĞŶ ................................................................................ 72 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϯ͘ ͗ ůŝŵŝŶĂƚĞ ŐĞŶĚĞƌ ĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƚLJ ŝŶ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĂŶĚ ƐĞĐŽŶĚĂƌLJ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ƉƌĞĨĞƌĂďůLJ ďLJ ϮϬϬϱ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶ Ăůů ůĞǀĞůƐ ŽĨ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ŶŽƚ ůĂƚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ϮϬϭϱ........................... 76 ŽĂů ϰ͗ ZĞĚƵĐĞ ŚŝůĚ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ....................................................................................................................... 78 Table 4.1 Target 4.A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, ƚŚĞ ƵŶĚĞƌͲĮǀĞ ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ƌĂƚĞ .......................................................................................... 82 ŽĂů ϱ͗ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞ DĂƚĞƌŶĂů ,ĞĂůƚŚ .................................................................................................................. ϴϯ Table 5.1 Target 5.A: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, ƚŚĞ ŵĂƚĞƌŶĂů ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ƌĂƟŽ ........................................................................................... 88 dĂďůĞ ϱ͘Ϯ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϱ͗͘ ĐŚŝĞǀĞ͕ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐĂů ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƌĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀĞ ŚĞĂůƚŚ .......................... 89 ŽĂů ϲ͗ ŽŵďĂƚ ,/sͬ /^͕ DĂůĂƌŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ KƚŚĞƌ ŝƐĞĂƐĞƐ.................................................................................. 91 dĂďůĞ ϲ͘ϭ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϲ͘ ͗ ,ĂǀĞ ŚĂůƚĞĚ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ ĂŶĚ ďĞŐƵŶ ƚŽ ƌĞǀĞƌƐĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƉƌĞĂĚ ŽĨ ,/sͬ /^ ĂŶĚ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϲ͗͘ ĐŚŝĞǀĞ ďLJ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐĂů ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƚƌĞĂƚŵĞŶƚ ĨŽƌ ,/sͬ /^ for all those who need it ................................................................................................. 96 Table 6.2 Target 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases .............................................................................. 97 ŽĂů ϳ͗ ŶƐƵƌĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ^ƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ................................................................................................... 99 Table 7.1 Target 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources ..................... 106 Table 7.2 Target 7.B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĂƚĞ ŽĨ ůŽƐƐ ...................................................................... 108
  8. 8. dž ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ dĂďůĞ ϳ͘ϯ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϳ͗͘ ,ĂůǀĞ͕ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƐĂĨĞ ĚƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ .................................... 109 dĂďůĞ ϳ͘ϰ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϳ͗͘ LJ ϮϬϮϬ͕ ƚŽ ŚĂǀĞ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůŝǀĞƐ of at least 100 million slum dwellers ............................................................................ 111 ŽĂů ϴ͗ ĞǀĞůŽƉ Ă ůŽďĂů WĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ ĨŽƌ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ................................................................................ 112 Table 8.1 Target 8.A: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, ŶŽŶͲĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƚŽƌLJ ƚƌĂĚŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĮŶĂŶĐŝĂů ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ......................................................... 117 Table 8.2 Target 8.B: Address the special needs of least developed countries ........................... 118 Table 8.3 Target 8.C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing states .............................................................................. 120 DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ ʹ ŝŐƵƌĞƐ ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϭ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝǀŝŶŐ ŽŶ ĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ Ψϭ͘Ϯϱ Ă ĂLJ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϬʹϮϬϬϯͿ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϲʹϮϬϭϬͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ ....................................................................................................... 55 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘Ϯ ŶŶƵĂů WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ WŽŝŶƚ ŚĂŶŐĞ ŝŶ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝǀŝŶŐ ŽŶ ĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ Ψϭ͘Ϯϱ Ă ĂLJ ;ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐͿ .................................................................................... 55 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϯ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝǀŝŶŐ ŽŶ ĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ΨϮ Ă ĂLJ͕ ϭϵϵϱ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϴʹϮϬϬϵͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ....... 56 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϰ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ WĞŽƉůĞ ;ŝŶ ƚŚŽƵƐĂŶĚƐͿ ŝǀŝŶŐ ĞůŽǁ ΨϮͲĂͲĂLJ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ŝŶĞ ŝŶ ^ĞůĞĐƚĞĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ......... 56 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϱ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĂƉ ZĂƟŽƐ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϬʹϮϬϬϯͿ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϲʹϮϬϭϬͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ .................................... 57 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϲ ^ŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ WŽŽƌĞƐƚ YƵŝŶƟůĞ ŝŶ EĂƟŽŶĂů /ŶĐŽŵĞ Žƌ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ͕ ϭϵϵϲʹϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ ................................ 57 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϳ ŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚͲƚŽͲWŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ZĂƟŽ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ....................................................................................... 58 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϴ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ WŽŝŶƚ ŚĂŶŐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚͲƚŽͲWŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ZĂƟŽ ĨƌŽŵ ϭϵϵϭ ƚŽ ϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ............... 58 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϵ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŵƉůŽLJĞĚ WĞŽƉůĞ ŝǀŝŶŐ ĞůŽǁ Ψϭ͘Ϯϱ Ă ĂLJ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϭʹϮϬϬϮͿ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϲʹϮϬϬϵͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ ....................................................................................................... 59 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϭϬ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ KǁŶͲ ĐĐŽƵŶƚ ĂŶĚ ŽŶƚƌŝďƵƟŶŐ ĂŵŝůLJ tŽƌŬĞƌƐ ŝŶ dŽƚĂů ŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϬʹϮϬϬϳͿ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϭʹϮϬϬϵͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ ..................................................................... 59 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϭϭ WƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ hŶĚĞƌǁĞŝŐŚƚ ŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ƵŶĚĞƌ ŝǀĞ zĞĂƌƐ ŽĨ ŐĞ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϴϵʹϮϬϬϱͿ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϵʹϮϬϭϭͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ ....................................................................................................... 60 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϭ dŽƚĂů EĞƚ ŶƌŽůůŵĞŶƚ ZĂƚĞ ŝŶ WƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ĞůŽǁ ϵϱй͕ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ;йͿ..................................... 66 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘Ϯ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ WƵƉŝůƐ ^ƚĂƌƟŶŐ ƌĂĚĞ ϭ tŚŽ ZĞĂĐŚ ƚŚĞ ĂƐƚ ƌĂĚĞ ŽĨ WƌŝŵĂƌLJ͕ ϭϵϵϵ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϬϵ Žƌ EĞĂƌĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ .......................................................................................................... 66 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϯ ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ ZĂƚĞ ĞůŽǁ ϵϱй ŵŽŶŐ ϭϱͲϮϰ zĞĂƌͲKůĚƐ ďLJ ĞŶĚĞƌ͕ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ;йͿ ................................... 67 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ͘ϭ ĞŶĚĞƌ WĂƌŝƚLJ /ŶĚĞdž ŝŶ WƌŝŵĂƌLJ͕ ^ĞĐŽŶĚĂƌLJ ĂŶĚ dĞƌƟĂƌLJ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ϮϬϭϬ Žƌ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌƐ ................. 73 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ͘Ϯ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ tŽŵĞŶ ŝŶ EŽŶĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĂů tĂŐĞ ŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ͕ ϮϬϭϬ Žƌ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ........................... 74 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ͘ϯ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ^ĞĂƚƐ ,ĞůĚ ďLJ tŽŵĞŶ ŝŶ EĂƟŽŶĂů WĂƌůŝĂŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ϮϬϬϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϮ Žƌ EĞĂƌĞƐƚ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ . 74 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϭ hŶĚĞƌͲŝǀĞ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ZĂƚĞ͕ WĞƌĐĞŶƚ ZĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ........................................... 79 Figure 4.2 Under-Five and Infant Mortality Rates, 1990 and 2010 ...................................................................... 80 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϯ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ϭͲzĞĂƌͲKůĚ ŚŝůĚƌĞŶ /ŵŵƵŶŝnjĞĚ ŐĂŝŶƐƚ DĞĂƐůĞƐ͕ ϭϵϵϬ Žƌ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ ..................................................................................................... 80 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϭ DĂƚĞƌŶĂů DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ZĂƟŽ͕ ϭϵϵϬ͕ ϮϬϬϬ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ;ĚĞĂƚŚƐ ƉĞƌ ϭ͕ϬϬϬ ůŝǀĞ ďŝƌƚŚƐͿ ....................................... 84 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘Ϯ DĂƚĞƌŶĂů DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ZĂƟŽ͕ ϭϵϵϬ͕ ϮϬϬϬ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ;ĚĞĂƚŚƐ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ ůŝǀĞ ďŝƌƚŚƐͿ ................................... 84 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϯ ŝƌƚŚƐ ƩĞŶĚĞĚ ďLJ ^ŬŝůůĞĚ ,ĞĂůƚŚ WĞƌƐŽŶŶĞů͕ ŶŶƵĂů WĞƌĐĞŶƚ ŚĂŶŐĞ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ........ 85 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϰ ŶƚĞŶĂƚĂů ĂƌĞ ŽǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ŝǀĞ ŝƌƚŚƐ͕ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ................................................. 85 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϱ ĚŽůĞƐĐĞŶƚ ŝƌƚŚ ZĂƚĞ͕ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŶŶƵĂů ŚĂŶŐĞ͕ ϭϵϵϬ Žƌ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ..................... 86 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϲ ŽŶƚƌĂĐĞƉƟǀĞ WƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ ZĂƚĞ͕ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŶŶƵĂů ŚĂŶŐĞ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌƐ ........................... 86 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘ϭ ,/s WƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ ;WĞƌĐĞŶƚ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ϭϱʹϰϵ zĞĂƌƐͿ͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϬϵ ................................................ 91 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘Ϯ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ĚǀĂŶĐĞĚ ,/s /ŶĨĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ŶƟƌĞƚƌŽǀŝƌĂů ƌƵŐƐ͕ ϮϬϬϵ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ................................................................................................... 92 Figure 6.3 Change in Tuberculosis Incidence Rates, 1990 and 2010.................................................................... 93 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘ϰ WƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ dƵďĞƌĐƵůŽƐŝƐ͕ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ................................................ 93 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘ϱ ĞĂƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ dƵďĞƌĐƵůŽƐŝƐ͕ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ........................ 94 Figure 7.1 Percentage of Land Area Covered by Forest, 1990 and 2010 ........................................................... 100 Figure 7.2 Percentage of Protected Terrestrial and Marine Areas, 1990 and 2010 ........................................... 101
  9. 9. Contents džŝ Figure 7.3 Percentage Change of Per Capita Emissions of Carbon Dioxide, 2009 compared with 1990 ........... 101 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϰ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ hƐŝŶŐ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ tĂƚĞƌ ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ;Žƌ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ;Žƌ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ .............................................................................. 102 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϱ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ hƐŝŶŐ ŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ ŽĨ ƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ tĂƚĞƌ͕ ϮϬϭϬ............................... 102 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϲ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ hƐŝŶŐ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ;Žƌ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ;Žƌ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ .............................................................................. 103 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϳ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ hƐŝŶŐ ŝīĞƌĞŶƚ dLJƉĞƐ ŽĨ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ........................... 103 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϴ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ hƐŝŶŐ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ hƌďĂŶ ĂŶĚ ZƵƌĂů͕ ϮϬϭϬ ;Žƌ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ ............................................................................................. 104 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϵ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ^ůƵŵ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ;й ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϬϵ ........................................ 104 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϭ K ĂŶĚ KĸĐŝĂů ůŽǁƐ ĨƌŽŵ ůů ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƚŽ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ h^Ψ ;ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚͿ ...................................................................................................... 113 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘Ϯ ŽŶŽƌ ůůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ ĂƐŝĐ ^ŽĐŝĂů ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͕ ϮϬϬϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ;ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ K Ϳ .............................. 113 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϯ dŽƚĂů ĂŶĚ hŶƟĞĚ ŝůĂƚĞƌĂů K ͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ h^Ψ ;ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚͿ ................................................... 114 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϰ ^ŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ hŶƟĞĚ K ƚŽ dŽƚĂů K ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ.................................................................................... 114 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϱ Ğďƚ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ ZĂƟŽ͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ................................................................................................... 114 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϲ dŽƚĂů džƉŽƌƚƐ͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ h^Ψ ;ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚͿ ............................................................................... 115 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϳ K ZĞĐĞŝǀĞĚ ďLJ ĂŶĚůŽĐŬĞĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĂƐ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞŝƌ E/͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ .... 115 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϴ K ZĞĐĞŝǀĞĚ ďLJ ^ŵĂůů /ƐůĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ĂƐ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞŝƌ E/͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ ......... 116 Box 1 Millennium Development Goals ......................................................................................................... 49 Ždž ϲ͘ϭ /ŶĐŝĚĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ DĂůĂƌŝĂ͕ ϮϬϬϴ ;ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ ........................................................................ 94W Zd /// ʹ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů dƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ dĂďůĞƐ /ŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů dƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ dĂďůĞƐ ............................................................................................ ϭϮϯ WĞŽƉůĞ.......................................................................................................................................................... 125 WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭ DŝĚLJĞĂƌ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ;ŵŝůůŝŽŶƐͿ....................................................................................... 134 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘Ϯ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŝŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ;йͿ .................................................................................... 135 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϯ DŝŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ......................................................................................... 136 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϰ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐĞĚ Ϭʹϭϰ zĞĂƌƐ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ .................................................... 137 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϱ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐĞĚ ϭϱʹϲϰ zĞĂƌƐ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ .................................................. 138 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϲ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐĞĚ ϲϱ zĞĂƌƐ ĂŶĚ KǀĞƌ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ ......................................... 139 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϳ ŐĞ ĞƉĞŶĚĞŶĐLJ ZĂƟŽ .................................................................................................. 140 Labor Force and Employment dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϴ ĂďŽƌ ŽƌĐĞ WĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶ ZĂƚĞ ;йͿ................................................................................ 141 Table 1.9 Unemployment Rate (%)............................................................................................... 142 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭϬ hŶĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ ZĂƚĞ ŽĨ ϭϱʹϮϰͲzĞĂƌͲKůĚƐ ;йͿ ............................................................... 143 Table 1.11 Employment in Agriculture (% of total employment) .................................................. 144 Table 1.12 Employment in Industry (% of total employment) ....................................................... 145 Table 1.13 Employment in Services (% of total employment) ....................................................... 146 Poverty Indicators Table 1.14 Poverty and Inequality .................................................................................................. 147 Table 1.15 Human Development Index .......................................................................................... 148 Social Indicators Table 1.16 Life Expectancy at Birth (years) ..................................................................................... 149 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭϳ ŝƌƚŚƐ͕ ĞĂƚŚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ZĂƚĞƐ ................................................................................. 150 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭϴ WƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ŽŵƉůĞƟŽŶ ZĂƚĞ ;йͿ....................................................................... 151 Table 1.19 Adult Literacy Rate (15 years and over, %) .................................................................... 152 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϮϬ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ..................................................................................................... 153 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘Ϯϭ ,ĞĂůƚŚ ĂƌĞ ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ;ƉĞƌ ϭ͕ϬϬϬ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ ............................................................. 154 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϮϮ ƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ EƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ĚƵůƚƐ ŝǀŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ,/s ;ĂŐĞĚ ϭϱ LJĞĂƌƐ ĂŶĚ ŽǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚŽƵƐĂŶĚƐͿ .... 155
  10. 10. džŝŝ ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ĐŽŶŽŵLJ ĂŶĚ KƵƚƉƵƚ ................................................................................................................................... 156 EĂƟŽŶĂů ĐĐŽƵŶƚƐ dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭ ƌŽƐƐ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ WƌŽĚƵĐƚ Ăƚ WWW ;ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĚŽůůĂƌƐ͕ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ...................... 163 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘Ϯ W WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ Ăƚ WWW ;ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĚŽůůĂƌƐͿ ................................................. 164 Table 2.3 GNI Per Capita, Atlas Method (current dollars) ............................................................ 165 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϰ ŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ............................................................................. 166 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϱ /ŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ................................................................................. 167 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϲ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;й ŽĨ WͿ.................................................................................. 168 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϳ WƌŝǀĂƚĞ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ;й ŽĨ WͿ .............................................................. 169 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϴ ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ..................................................... 170 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϵ ƌŽƐƐ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ ĂƉŝƚĂů ŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ............................................................. 171 Table 2.10 Exports of Goods and Services (% of GDP) ................................................................... 172 Table 2.11 Imports of Goods and Services (% of GDP) ................................................................... 173 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϮ ƌŽƐƐ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ ^ĂǀŝŶŐ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ................................................................................ 174 Table 2.13 Growth Rates of Real GDP (%) ...................................................................................... 175 Table 2.14 Growth Rates of Real GDP Per Capita (%) ..................................................................... 176 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϱ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ZĞĂů sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;йͿ ...................................................... 177 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϲ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ /ŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ZĞĂů sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;йͿ ........................................................... 178 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϳ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ZĞĂů sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;йͿ ........................................................... 179 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϴ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů WƌŝǀĂƚĞ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ;йͿ ....................................... 180 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϵ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ;йͿ .............................. 181 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϮϬ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů ƌŽƐƐ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ ĂƉŝƚĂů ŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ;йͿ ....................................... 182 Table 2.21 Growth Rates of Real Exports of Goods and Services (%) ............................................. 183 Table 2.22 Growth Rates of Real Imports of Goods and Services (%) ............................................ 184 WƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘Ϯϯ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ WƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ /ŶĚĞdž ;йͿ ....................................................... 185 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘Ϯϰ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ DĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ WƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ /ŶĚĞdž ;йͿ ............................................... 186 DŽŶĞLJ͕ ŝŶĂŶĐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ WƌŝĐĞƐ ......................................................................................................................... 187 Prices Table 3.1 Growth Rates of Consumer Price Index (%) .................................................................. 193 Table 3.2 Growth Rates of Food Consumer Price Index (%) ......................................................... 194 Table 3.3 Growth Rates of Wholesale/Producer Price Index (%) ................................................. 195 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϰ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ W ĞŇĂƚŽƌ ;йͿ ............................................................................... 196 Money and Finance Table 3.5 Growth Rates of Money Supply (M2) (%) ..................................................................... 197 Table 3.6 Money Supply (M2) (% of GDP) .................................................................................... 198 Table 3.7 Interest Rate on Savings Deposits (% per annum, period averages) ............................. 199 Table 3.8 Interest Rate on Time Deposits of 12 Months (% per annum, period averages) .......... 200 Table 3.9 Lending Interest Rate (% per annum, period averages) ................................................ 201 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭϬ zŝĞůĚ ŽŶ ^ŚŽƌƚͲdĞƌŵ dƌĞĂƐƵƌLJ ŝůůƐ ;йͿ .......................................................................... 202 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭϭ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ ƌĞĚŝƚ WƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ ďLJ ĂŶŬŝŶŐ ^ĞĐƚŽƌ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ............................................. 203 Table 3.12 Bank Nonperfoming Loans (% of total gross loans) ...................................................... 204 Table 3.13 Growth Rates of Stock Market Price Index (%) ............................................................. 205 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭϰ ^ƚŽĐŬ DĂƌŬĞƚ ĂƉŝƚĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ........................................................................ 206 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭϱ ^ƚŽĐŬ DĂƌŬĞƚ ĂƉŝƚĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ........................................................................ 207 Exchange Rates dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭϲ KĸĐŝĂů džĐŚĂŶŐĞ ZĂƚĞ ;ůŽĐĂů ĐƵƌƌĞŶĐLJ ƵŶŝƚƐ ƉĞƌ Ψ͕ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞƐͿ............................ 208 Table 3.17 Purchasing Power Parity Conversion Factor ;ůŽĐĂů ĐƵƌƌĞŶĐLJ ƵŶŝƚƐ ƉĞƌ Ψ͕ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞƐͿ ............................................................... 209 Table 3.18 Price Level Indices ;WWWƐ ƚŽ ŽĸĐŝĂů ĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞ ƌĂƚĞƐ͕ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞƐ͕ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ с ϭϬϬͿ ....................... 210
  11. 11. Contents džŝŝŝůŽďĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ................................................................................................................................................ 211 Balance of Payments Table 4.1 Trade in Goods Balance (% of GDP) .............................................................................. 216 Table 4.2 Trade in Services Balance (% of GDP)............................................................................ 217 Table 4.3 Current Account Balance (% of GDP) ............................................................................ 218 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϰ tŽƌŬĞƌƐ͛ ZĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŽŵƉĞŶƐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐ͕ ZĞĐĞŝƉƚƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ............. 219 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϱ tŽƌŬĞƌƐ͛ ZĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŽŵƉĞŶƐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐ͕ ZĞĐĞŝƉƚƐ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ............ 220 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϲ ŽƌĞŝŐŶ ŝƌĞĐƚ /ŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ͕ EĞƚ /ŶŇŽǁƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ....................................................... 221 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϳ ŽƌĞŝŐŶ ŝƌĞĐƚ /ŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ͕ EĞƚ /ŶŇŽǁƐ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ...................................................... 222 External Trade dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϴ DĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ džƉŽƌƚƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ .................................................................................. 223 Table 4.9 Growth Rates of Merchandise Exports (%) ................................................................... 224 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϬ DĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ /ŵƉŽƌƚƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ .................................................................................. 225 Table 4.11 Growth Rates of Merchandise Imports (%)................................................................... 226 Table 4.12 Trade in Goods (% of GDP) ............................................................................................ 227 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϯ ŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ dƌĂĚĞ͗ DĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ džƉŽƌƚƐ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ŵĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐͿ ................ 228 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϰ ŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ dƌĂĚĞ͗ DĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ /ŵƉŽƌƚƐ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ŵĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚƐͿ .............. 229 /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ZĞƐĞƌǀĞƐ dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϱ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ZĞƐĞƌǀĞƐ ;ĞŶĚ ŽĨ LJĞĂƌ͖ Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ............................................................. 230 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϲ ZĂƟŽ ŽĨ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ZĞƐĞƌǀĞƐ ƚŽ /ŵƉŽƌƚƐ ;ŵŽŶƚŚƐͿ ................................................... 231 Capital Flows dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϳ KĸĐŝĂů ůŽǁƐ ĨƌŽŵ ůů ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƚŽ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ DĞŵďĞƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ............ 232 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϴ EĞƚ WƌŝǀĂƚĞ ůŽǁƐ ĨƌŽŵ ůů ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƚŽ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ DĞŵďĞƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ..... 233 Table 4.19 Aggregate Net Resource Flows from All Sources ƚŽ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ DĞŵďĞƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ............................................................. 234 External Indebtedness dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϮϬ dŽƚĂů džƚĞƌŶĂů Ğďƚ ŽĨ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ DĞŵďĞƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ .............................. 235 Table 4.21 Total External Debt of Developing Member Economies (% of GNI) .............................. 236 Table 4.22 Total External Debt of Developing Member Economies (% of exports of goods, services, and income) ............................................................. 237 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘Ϯϯ dŽƚĂů Ğďƚ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ WĂŝĚ ďLJ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ DĞŵďĞƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ....................... 238 Table 4.24 Total Debt Service Paid by Developing Member Economies (% of exports of goods, services, and income) ............................................................. 239 Tourism dĂďůĞ ϰ͘Ϯϱ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů dŽƵƌŝƐƚ ƌƌŝǀĂůƐ ;ƚŚŽƵƐĂŶĚͿ ...................................................................... 240 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘Ϯϲ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů dŽƵƌŝƐŵ͕ ZĞĐĞŝƉƚƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ................................................................... 241dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͕ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ .................................................................................................. 242 Transport Table 5.1 Road Indicators: Network ............................................................................................. 247 dĂďůĞ ϱ͘Ϯ ZŽĂĚ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ͗ sĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ............................................................................................. 248 Table 5.3 Road Indicators: Safety ................................................................................................. 249 Table 5.4 Rail Indicators ............................................................................................................... 250 Electricity dĂďůĞ ϱ͘ϱ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ WƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ ............................................................................... 251 dĂďůĞ ϱ͘ϲ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐ WŽǁĞƌ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ůĞĐƚƌŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ .......................................................... 252 ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ dĂďůĞ ϱ͘ϳ dĞůĞƉŚŽŶĞ ĂŶĚ /ŶƚĞƌŶĞƚ ^ƵďƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶƐ .......................................................................... 253ŶĞƌŐLJ ĂŶĚ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ .............................................................................................................................. 254 Energy dĂďůĞ ϲ͘ϭ W WĞƌ hŶŝƚ ŽĨ ŶĞƌŐLJ hƐĞ ;ĐŽŶƐƚĂŶƚ ϮϬϬϱ WWW Ψ ƉĞƌ ŬŝůŽŐƌĂŵ ŽĨ Žŝů ĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚͿ ...... 258 dĂďůĞ ϲ͘Ϯ ŶĞƌŐLJ WƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ;ŬŝůŽƚŽŶƐ ŽĨ Žŝů ĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚͿ.............................................................. 259
  12. 12. džŝǀ ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Table 6.3 Energy Imports, Net (% of energy use) ......................................................................... 260 Table 6.4 Energy Use (kilotons of oil equivalent) ......................................................................... 261 Environment Table 6.5 Agriculture Land Use (% of land area) .......................................................................... 262 dĂďůĞ ϲ͘ϲ ĞĨŽƌĞƐƚĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ ......................................................................................... 263 ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ ...................................................................................................................... 265 Government Finance Table 7.1 Fiscal Balance (% of GDP).............................................................................................. 271 Table 7.2 Tax Revenue (% of GDP) ................................................................................................ 272 Table 7.3 Total Government Revenue (% of GDP) ........................................................................ 273 Table 7.4 Total Government Expenditure (% of GDP)................................................................... 274 dĂďůĞ ϳ͘ϱ ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ŽŶ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ..................................................... 275 Table 7.6 Government Expenditure on Health (% of GDP)........................................................... 276 Table 7.7 Government Expenditure on Social Security and Welfare (% of GDP).......................... 277 Governance Table 7.8 Doing Business Start-Up Indicators ............................................................................... 278 dĂďůĞ ϳ͘ϵ ŽƌƌƵƉƟŽŶ WĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶƐ /ŶĚĞdž ....................................................................................... 279 ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů dƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ dĂďůĞƐ ʹ ŝŐƵƌĞƐ ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϭ ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ďLJ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ................................................................................ 125 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘Ϯ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŶŶƵĂů WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞ͕ ϭϵϵϬʹϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ............................................................... 126 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϯ dŽƚĂů ĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ZĂƚĞ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ Žƌ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ............................................................................ 128 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϰ ^ŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ hƌďĂŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ dŽƚĂů WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϱϬ ;йͿ ................................................ 129 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϱ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ďLJ ŐĞ ƌŽƵƉ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ........................................................................................................ 130 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϭ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ W Ăƚ WWW͗ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ tŽƌůĚ ĐŽŶŽŵLJ͕ ϮϬϬϬ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϭ ....................................... 156 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘Ϯ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ W Ăƚ WWW͗ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ϮϬϬϬ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϭ ........................................................................... 156 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϯ /ŶĚŝĐĞƐ ŽĨ WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϭ ;ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů ǀĞƌĂŐĞ с ϭϬϬͿ .............................................. 157 Figure 2.4 Real GDP Growth, 2010 and 2011 (%) .............................................................................................. 158 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϱ ,ŝŐŚĞƐƚ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů W ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĂƚĞƐƚ ŝǀĞ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ .................. 159 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϲ ŽǁĞƐƚ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů W ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĂƚĞƐƚ ŝǀĞ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ ................... 159 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϳ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ WĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů W ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĂƚĞƐƚ ŝǀĞ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ .............................................................................................................. 159 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϴĂ ŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ .......................................... 159 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϴď /ŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ............................................... 160 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϴĐ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ............................................... 160 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϵĂ WƌŝǀĂƚĞ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ .......................... 161 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϵď ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ......................................... 161 ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϵĐ ƌŽƐƐ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ ĂƉŝƚĂů ŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ........................... 162 Figure 3.1 Percentage Growth of Money Supply, 2010–2011 (annual percentage change) .............................. 187 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ͘Ϯ zŝĞůĚ ŽŶ ^ŚŽƌƚͲƚĞƌŵ dƌĞĂƐƵƌLJ ŝůůƐ͕ ϮϬϭϬʹϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ........................................................................... 188 Figure 3.3 Nominal and Ex-post Real Interest Rates on Short Term Treasury Bills, 2011................................... 188 Figure 3.4 Bank Non-performing Loans, 2009–2011 (% of total gross loans) .................................................... 188 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ͘ϱ /ŶŇĂƟŽŶ ZĂƚĞ͕ ϮϬϭϬʹϮϬϭϭ................................................................................................................. 190 Figure 3.6 All Items and Food Price Indices, 2011 (annual percentage change)................................................ 191 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϭ ƵƌƌĞŶƚ ĐĐŽƵŶƚ ĂůĂŶĐĞ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W ; ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŽĨ ĂƐƚ Ϯ zĞĂƌƐͿ ................................... 211 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘Ϯ ^ŚĂƌĞƐ ŝŶ dŽƚĂů tŽƌůĚ džƉŽƌƚƐ͕ ƐŝĂͲWĂĐŝĮĐ ǀŝƐͲăͲǀŝƐ ZĞŐŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ tŽƌůĚ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ...................... 212 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϯ ĞƐƟŶĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ DĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ džƉŽƌƚƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ................................ 212 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϰ dŽƉ ϭϬ ƐŝĂͲWĂĐŝĮĐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ dĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ džƉŽƌƚƐ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϬ ;Žƌ EĞĂƌĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ...................................................................................................... 212 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϱ dŽƉ ϭϬ ƐŝĂͲWĂĐŝĮĐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ dĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ dŽƵƌŝƐŵ ZĞĐĞŝƉƚƐ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W ; ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŽĨ ĂƐƚ dŚƌĞĞ zĞĂƌƐͿ ............................................................................................................ 213
  13. 13. Contents džǀ ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϲ dŽƉ ϭϬ ƐŝĂͲWĂĐŝĮĐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ dĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ tŽƌŬĞƌƐ͛ ZĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϬ ;Žƌ EĞĂƌĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ ĂŶĚ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ...................................................................................................... 213 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϳ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŝŶ DŝŐƌĂŶƚƐ͛ ZĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ͕ ϮϬϬϵ͕ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϭ ....................................................... 213 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϴ ŽƌĞŝŐŶ ŝƌĞĐƚ /ŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W ; ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŽĨ ĂƐƚ ϯ zĞĂƌƐͿ................................... 214 Figure 4.9 External Debt as a Percentage of GNI, 2000 and 2010 .................................................................... 214 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϭ ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ ZŽĂĚ EĞƚǁŽƌŬƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ;йͿ ........................................... 242 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘Ϯ ZŽĂĚ ĞŶƐŝƚLJ͕ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ................................................................................................................. 243 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϯ DŽƚŽƌ sĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ƉĞƌ ŝůŽŵĞƚĞƌ ŽĨ ZŽĂĚ͕ ϮϬϬϵ ................................................................................... 243 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϰ dŽƉ ϭϬ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ WƌŽĚƵĐĞƌƐ͕ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ ϮϬϬϵ ................................................................. 244 Figure 5.5 Sources of Electricity (Top Producers), 2009 .................................................................................... 244 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϲ WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐ WŽǁĞƌ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ;ŬtŚͿ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ƚŽ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌƐ .............................................. 244 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϳ ůĞĐƚƌŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ZĂƚĞ͕ ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ;ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ŬtŚͿ ............................................................................. 245 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϴ ŝdžĞĚ ƌŽĂĚďĂŶĚ ^ƵďƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ /ŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ............................................................... 245 Figure 6.1 Percentage Breakdown of Energy Use by Region, 2009 (kilotons of oil equivalent) ......................... 254 Figure 6.2 Net Energy Imports as a Percentage of Energy Use, 2007–2009 ..................................................... 255 Figure 6.3 Percentage Change in GDP per Unit of Energy Use between 2000 and 2009 .................................. 255 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘ϰ WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ ĂƌďŽŶ ŝŽdžŝĚĞ͕ DĞƚŚĂŶĞ͕ ĂŶĚ EŝƚƌŽƵƐ KdžŝĚĞ͕ ϮϬϬϱ ;ƚŽŶƐͿ ...................... 257 Figure 7.1 Fiscal Balance as a Percentage of GDP, 2010 and 2011 ................................................................... 265 Figure 7.2 Tax Revenue as a Percentage of GDP, 2010 and 2011 ...................................................................... 266 Figure 7.3 Total Government Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP, 2010 and 2011 ......................................... 266 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϰ ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ŽŶ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ,ĞĂůƚŚ and Social Security Welfare as a Percentage of GDP, 2011 ............................................................... 267 Figure 7.5 Cost of Business Start-up Procedure (% of GNI per capita)............................................................... 267 Figure 7.6 Days Required to Start Up Business, 2006 and 2011 ........................................................................ 268 Figure 7.7 Time and Cost Required to Start a Business, 2011 ........................................................................... 269 ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϴ ŽƌƌƵƉƟŽŶ WĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶƐ ^ĐŽƌĞƐ͕ ϮϬϭϭ................................................................................................ 269 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭ ĂƌŐĞƐƚ hƌďĂŶ ŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϮϱ ;ŵŝůůŝŽŶƐͿ ................................................................ 129 Table 1.2 Human Development Index, 2011 .................................................................................................... 132 Ždž ϭ͘ϭ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ WƌŽũĞĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ϮϬϭϬʹϮϭϬϬ .................................................................................................. 127 Ždž ϭ͘Ϯ KŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐŝŶŐ ......................................................................................................................... 131 Ždž ϭ͘ϯ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĞŶƐƵƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͗ Ŷ hƉĚĂƚĞ ......................................................... 133 Ždž ϯ͘ϭ DŽŶĞƚĂƌLJ WŽůŝĐLJ ƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ ŽĨ ^ĞůĞĐƚĞĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ........................ 189 Ždž ϯ͘Ϯ īĞĐƚ ŽĨ ŽŽĚ WƌŝĐĞƐ ƚŽ W/ ĂŶĚ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ........................................................................................... 191 Ždž ϲ͘ϭ ŽƐƐŝů ƵĞů ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ^ƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ ................................................................................................... 256 Ždž ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϭ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ WƌŽũĞĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ϮϬϭϭʹϮϭϬϬ ............................................................. 127 Ždž ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘Ϯ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ WLJƌĂŵŝĚƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ ϮϬϭϭ͕ ϮϬϱϬ͕ ĂŶĚ ϮϭϬϬ ............................................ 131 Ždž ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϯ ĞŶƐƵƐ ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ zĞĂƌƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ............................................................... 133 Ždž ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘ϭ ŽƐƐŝůͲĨƵĞů ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ^ƵďƐŝĚLJ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ^ƵƉƉůLJ ŽƐƚ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ..................................... 256 Ždž dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭ DŽŶĞƚĂƌLJ WŽůŝĐLJ ƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ ĂŶĚ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ hŶǁĞŝŐŚƚĞĚ /ŶŇĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͕ ϮϬϭϬʹϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ͘...................................................................... 189 Ždž dĂďůĞ ϯ͘Ϯ /ŵƉĂĐƚ ŽĨ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ ŽŽĚ WƌŝĐĞ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŽŶ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĨŽƌ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƐŝĂ ;ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ΨϭͲĂͲĚĂLJ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ůŝŶĞͿ ............................................................................................. 191 Box Table 3.3 Food Weights in CPI ....................................................................................................................... 191W Zd /s ʹ ĞĮŶŝƟŽŶƐ Millennium Development Goals ........................................................................................................................... 283 Regional Trends and Tables ................................................................................................................................... 293
  14. 14. džǀŝ ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Statistical Partners dŚĞ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ would not have been possible without ƚŚĞ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ͕ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶŬ ; Ϳ ĂŶĚ ŝŶ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů͕ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ŶŽŶŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐ͕ ǁŚŽ ƐŚĂƌĞĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĚĂƚĂ͕ ŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ͕ ĞdžƉĞƌƟƐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ͕ ŚĞůƉ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ͕ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŵĂŬĞƌƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĚĂƚĂ ƵƐĞƌƐ Ă ďĞƩĞƌ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ďĞƩĞƌ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĨŽƌŵƵůĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ ƚŚĞ quality of life of people around the region. Z/KE DDZ^ ĨŐŚĂŶŝƐƚĂŶ ĞŶƚƌĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ Da Afghanistan Bank Armenia Central Bank of Armenia EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ ƌŵĞŶŝĂ Australia Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences ƵƐƚƌĂůŝĂŶ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics Reserve Bank of Australia Azerbaijan Central Bank of the Republic of Azerbaijan ^ƚĂƚĞ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ŽŵŵŝƩĞĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ njĞƌďĂŝũĂŶ Bangladesh Bangladesh Bank ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Ministry of Finance Bhutan Ministry of Finance Ministry of Labor and Human Resources EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ƵƌĞĂƵ Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan ƌƵŶĞŝ ĂƌƵƐƐĂůĂŵ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Ministry of Finance Cambodia Ministry of Economy and Finance EĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶŬ ŽĨ ĂŵďŽĚŝĂ EĂƟŽŶĂů /ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ŚŝŶĂ͕ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ EĂƟŽŶĂů ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ĂŶŬ ŽĨ ŚŝŶĂ ^ƚĂƚĞ ĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŽƌĞŝŐŶ džĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŽŽŬ /ƐůĂŶĚƐ ŽŽŬ /ƐůĂŶĚƐ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞ Ministry of Finance and Economic Management ŝũŝ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Reserve Bank of Fiji
  15. 15. ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů WĂƌƚŶĞƌƐ džǀŝŝGeorgia Ministry of Finance of Georgia EĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶŬ ŽĨ ĞŽƌŐŝĂ EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞ,ŽŶŐ ŽŶŐ͕ ŚŝŶĂ ĞŶƐƵƐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ Hong Kong Monetary Authority/ŶĚŝĂ ĞŶƚƌĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ Ministry of Finance Reserve Bank of IndiaIndonesia Bank Indonesia ĂĚĂŶ WƵƐĂƚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟŬͲ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ ;ĨŽƌŵĞƌůLJ ĞŶƚƌĂů ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐͿ Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources PT Pertamina (Persero):ĂƉĂŶ ĂŶŬ ŽĨ :ĂƉĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ^ŽĐŝĂů ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ /ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞ :ĂƉĂŶ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ƵƌĞĂƵ Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry of FinanceĂnjĂŬŚƐƚĂŶ ŐĞŶĐLJ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ ĂnjĂŬŚƐƚĂŶ EĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶŬ ŽĨ ĂnjĂŬŚƐƚĂŶŝƌŝďĂƟ ŝƌŝďĂƟ EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞ EĂƟŽŶĂů ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ KĸĐĞKorea, Republic of Bank of Korea Ministry of Strategy and Finance ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ŽƌĞĂLJƌŐLJnj ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ EĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶŬ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ LJƌŐLJnj ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ŽŵŵŝƩĞĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ LJƌŐLJnj ZĞƉƵďůŝĐĂŽ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ĞŵŽĐƌĂƟĐ ĂŶŬ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂŽ WZ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ĂŽ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ƵƌĞĂƵ ;ĨŽƌŵĞƌůLJ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐͿ Ministry of FinanceMalaysia Bank Negara Malaysia ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Ministry of FinanceDĂůĚŝǀĞƐ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ EĂƟŽŶĂů WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ Maldives Monetary Authority Ministry of Finance and TreasuryDĂƌƐŚĂůů /ƐůĂŶĚƐ͕ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ WŽůŝĐLJ͕ WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞDŝĐƌŽŶĞƐŝĂ͕ ĞĚĞƌĂƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ KĸĐĞ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ͕ ƵĚŐĞƚ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ DĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͕ KǀĞƌƐĞĂƐ Development Assistance and Compact ManagementMongolia Bank of Mongolia EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů KĸĐĞ ŽĨ DŽŶŐŽůŝĂ
  16. 16. džǀŝŝŝ ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ DLJĂŶŵĂƌ ĞŶƚƌĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ DŝŶŝƐƚƌLJ ŽĨ EĂƟŽŶĂů WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ Nauru Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning EĂƵƌƵ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ EĞƉĂů ĞŶƚƌĂů ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Ministry of Finance Nepal Rastra Bank EĞǁ ĞĂůĂŶĚ DŝŶŝƐƚƌLJ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ZĞƐĞƌǀĞ ĂŶŬ ŽĨ EĞǁ ĞĂůĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ EĞǁ ĞĂůĂŶĚ WĂŬŝƐƚĂŶ DŝŶŝƐƚƌLJ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ īĂŝƌƐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Ministry of Finance WĂŬŝƐƚĂŶ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ;ĨŽƌŵĞƌůLJ ĞĚĞƌĂů ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐͿ State Bank of Pakistan Palau Bureau of Budget and Planning, Ministry of Finance Papua New Guinea Bank of Papua New Guinea Department of Treasury EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů KĸĐĞ Philippines Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Bureau of Local Government Finance Bureau of the Treasury Department of Budget and Management Department of Energy EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƟŽŶ ŽĂƌĚ EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞ ^ĂŵŽĂ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Central Bank of Samoa Economic Policy and Planning Division, Ministry of Finance Singapore Economic Development Board /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŶƚĞƌƉƌŝƐĞ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ Ministry of Finance Ministry of Manpower Monetary Authority of Singapore ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Solomon Islands Central Bank of Solomon Islands ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞ Sri Lanka Central Bank of Sri Lanka ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ĞŶƐƵƐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Taipei,China Central Bank of China Council for Economic Planning and Development ŝƌĞĐƚŽƌĂƚĞͲĞŶĞƌĂů ŽĨ ƵĚŐĞƚ͕ ĐĐŽƵŶƟŶŐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ

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