Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 6 October 2004

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Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 6 October 2004

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and From the Editor 1 Environmental Sanitation Your Voice 2 Advisor: Main Feature Director General for Urban and Drinking Water is Still a Dream 3Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement and Drinking Water Philosophy Enhances Improvement Within PDAM 7 Regional Infrastructure A Glimpse of Drinking Water and Sanitation Condition in Indonesia 8 Looking Into MDGs Drinking Water 10 Board of Head: Article Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Batam: Water Flows through the kiosks 13 National Development Planning Agency Water in Australia and Sustainable Development 15 Republic of Indonesia Privatization 17 Director of Water and Sanitation, Strategy in Improving Community Awareness 21 Ministry of Health Telescope Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, The Real Drinking Water 24 Ministry of Settlement and Regional CEO of PDAM Kota Bogor: It Can Be Expanded Further 25 Infrastructure ReportageDirector of Natural Resources and Appropriate Between A need and A Pity 26 Technology, Director General on Village and Interview Community Empowerment, CEO of Perpamsi: We Need Water Management Agency 28 Ministry of Home Affairs Book Info 31 Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Website Info 32 Environment Management, CD Info 33 Ministry of Home Affairs WASPOLA About Revision of Draft Document of National Policy for Chief Editor: Institutionally Based WSS Development 34 Oswar Mungkasa Facilitation of Implementation of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in the Regions 35 Board of Editor: Hartoyo, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, WSS About Poedjastanto World Water Monitoring Day 37 Editor: It Takes a Firm Commitment to Handle Leakages 38Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda World Habitat Day 2004 Seminar 39 Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Workshop on National Action Plan (NAP); Drinking water, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto Wastewater, Solid Waste 39 Presentation CLTS Concept 40 Design: National Workshop on Domestic Water Source Conservation 41 Rudi Kosasih Dissemination of Technical Guidelines for the Development of Production: Infrastructures in Agropolitan Areas and Environmental Sanitation in Machrudin the Western Regions 41 Interim Consolidation of WSLIC-2 Project 42 Distribution: Socialization of the Manual for the Management of Anggie Rifki Village Level WSS Facility 43 Handwashing Saves Lives 43 Address: WSS Monitoring Visit to Kabupaten Belitung 44 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat National Seminar for Socialization of Law No. 8/2004 45 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 SANIMAS of Balong Asri, Mojokerto is Well Maintained 46 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com Official Inauguration of WSLIC-2 Project in Kabupaten Kediri 47 redaksi@ampl.or.id ProAir Project Planning and Evaluation Meeting 47 oswar@bappenas.go.id Workshop for Improvement of Proposal for Sanitation Development Program in Indonesia 48 Unsolicited article or opinion items Workshop for Formulation of WASPOLA Workplan 2005 48 are welcome. Please send to our address Visitor e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accom- WSLIC-2 Has Changed Desa Pakel Into a Healthy Village 49 panied by identity. WSS Bibliography 50 Agenda 51 Glossary 52 Photo cover : www.firstsmilesolution.com
  2. 2. F ROM EDITOR Dear Readers, CARICATURE BY RUDI KOSASIH Percik is now coming back to greetyou. Two months have past and it seemsquite a long time. We hope this editionwill ease your feeling of longing. Happy Eid Mubarak 1425 H If in the last edition Percik brought toyou the solid waste issue, this time wepresent to you about drinking water.Why? Because this is very important.Water is a basic need for human life. Itsposition cannot be replaced by anythingelse. Are we aware of this? Unfortuna-tely, our attention to drinking water is notup to what it should be. Almost all regions of Indonesia have apublic drinking water company (PDAM),but almost all of them do not provide aservice in accordance with the title it car-ries, i.e. a public company producingdrinking water. What happens is, PDAMprovides its consumers with clean water. This of course is a new challenge forPDAM. Considering that the majority ofthe PDAMs are in debt. A sizeableamount of debt. Several others are strug-gling within the mesh of inefficiency andmismanagement. On the side of the coin,the demand for an improved service isbecoming inevitable especially due to thefact that Indonesia has committed itself filling the above demand, Percik took not appear in the way it used to be. Thereto the fulfillment of the targets as effort to interview Ridwan Syahputra is a rather long article about the Strategydeclared in Johannesburg Summit 2002 Musagani, Chairman of Persatuan Per- in Improving Community Awareness. Itdocument as a manifestation of the Mil- usahaan Air Minum Seluruh Indonesia discusses various different ways in how tolennium Development Goals. (Association of All Indonesian Drinking incite community awareness for water Somewhere in the document it is men- Water Companies, Perpamsi). Many resources conservation from various di-tioned that by 2015 half of the world popula- things about PDAM were brought to light, fferent angles and by different parties.tion currently are without access to safe drin- including his ideas about subsidy for We should also inform you that theking water must be relieved from the bur- drinking water just like it is with fuel oil. WSS Working Group has a lot of things toden. Then, in 2025 all of the world popula- Not less interesting is the experience do and this we accommodate in Abouttion must have access to safe drinking water. of PDAM Tirta Pakuan of the city of WASPOLA column. Other information To achieve these targets there must be Bogor, that has managed to develop a relates to article writing competition ona change in paradigm from clean water to drinking water service in the real sense of drinking water and environmental sanita-drinking water. This change in philoso- the meaning. Its product meets the tion management is now in evaluationphy will, according to Basah Hernowo, requirement to be taken as drinking wa- stage. Announcement of winners will bethe Director of Human Settlement and ter. It is in a small scale, though. Howe- made in November.Housing, Bappenas, have a significant ver, it is a pioneer to a service the commu- Lastly, we hope Percik will continueimpact not only on PDAM but also on the nity demands. as your reference in the subject of drin-drinking water consumers. Dear readers, king water and environmental sanitation. Then what position PDAM is in ful- This time the perspective column does Best regards. Percik 1 Oktober 2004
  3. 3. Y OUR VOICE P E R C I K A R To o N CARICATURE BY RUDI KOSASIH Want to get Percik PAiD yeah... AiD.. its FREE.. Let me introduce myself. My name is Kesit Kanigoro and currently working for ...P an NGO called World Vision Interna- ...PAi tional, Jakarta. I came to know about this D.. magazine from a friend who attended a meeting with several institutions last September. I find it quite informative that may help me in broadening my views about sanitation. It happens that I am be- ing assigned to deal with this program since recently, so that I have to learn a lot about drinking water and environmental sanitation. ....but how Please let me know how I may get this Costumer the service magazine. I have tried it through internet to public? where I have found the website, but still I ....??!!!...? have difficulty in downloading it. Where can I get the CD or the printed copy of this magazine. Thanks in advance. Kesit Kanigoro Jakarta 4. An executive and legislative hand- The real topic of the day Percik is obtainable at WSS Working book for the management of city waste Group Office or Percik Editorial Secre- material (In Indonesian). Depkim- Thank you very much for your kind atten- tariat at Jl. Cianjur No. 4 Menteng praswil, Directorate General for Urban tion by sending Percik of June edition to our Jakarta Pusat, every day during office and Rural Settlement Systems, 2003. office. This has served as a media for informa- hours. You may come in person or con- 5. Handbook for determining the tion sharing. As we went through it we must tact us through telephone. (Editor) standards for drinking water service. (In say that the magazine contains a rich variety Indonesian). Depkimpraswil, Directorate of information. For improvement we would General for Urban and Rural Settlement suggest that in the future editions, the refe- Want to get CD and Book Systems, 2003. renced themes consist of those that will be or 6. Guidelines for the management of being our common concern such as on To improve the library of the De- domestic solid and liquid wastes. (In In- drought as it is presently and possibly also partment of Environmental Engineering donesian). Directorate General for Urban flood threat in a few months to come, all in of the Technical Faculty, University of and Rural Settlement Systems, 2003. relation to WSS service at that specific time. Diponegoro, Semarang and to broaden On behalf of the students and our de- the students views we would appreciate it partment we would thank you in advance radi_az@plasa.com if you could send us some CDs and books your kind attention and cooperation. Bappeda Subang as the following: 1. Reducing Energy Cost in Municipal Ir. Syafrudin CES, MT. Thank you for the suggestion. We will try Water Supply Operations NIP 131 764 877 our best to continuously improve the contents 2. Water Supply and Sanitation for Dept. of Environmental Engineering of Percik magazine. Various inputs from the Small Towns and Multivillage Schemes, For the Dean of Technical Faculty, stakeholders, are too precious for the Proceeding International Conference. UNDIP progress of this magazine. We are even very 3. A managers handbook for the ma- Semarang pleased that the stakeholders all over the nagement of city waste material (In Indo- country are able to write some actual facts nesian). Depkimpraswil, Directorate Ge- We will do our best to help you from their own places, including their experi- neral for Urban and Rural Settlement according to the availability of the CDs ence related to WSS, for us to publish in Systems, 2003. and the books. (Editor) Percik. (Editor) 2 Percik October 2004
  4. 4. M AIN REPORT Drinking Water is Still a Dream W ater is life. The statement has SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA an every deep connotation, yet most of us and the govern- ment level decision makers are not aware of it. As evidence, lets take a look at the list of basic human need. It says food, clothing, and housing. Water is not included. Lets be more specific. We use to say sembako (sembilan bahan pokok, nine basic materials) as life sustaining materials, nether does it make any men- tion about water. If we try to ponder a while, we will find out that the role of clean/drinking water is indispensable. If we dont have rice, we may eat cassava, maize or others. If we dont have frying oil we can do away without it. But if we dont have water, what can we do with the sembako we have? It will become useless. At this time we do indeed find water everywhere. But does it meet the stan- dard quality for drinking/cooking? Wait a minute. If we use water unscrupulous- ly, instead of getting healthy one may turn into sickness. In 1855 Dr. John Snow, an epidemiologist, found out that cholera spread out together with depraved water. There was a close linkage between con- taminated drinking water with prevalence of cholera in England at that time. In 1880s Louis Pasteur developed the germ theory of disease that explained microbial infection of disease through water medi- um. A World Bank study (1992) revealed that diarrhoeal disease from taking water inseparable from the role of drinking water quence of Article 5 verse 4 of Law No. not worthy for dinking has caused the company (PDAM). Even for urban areas 5/1962 on the Regional Government death of more than 3 million people a PDAM is the backbone for drinking water Owned Companies which stipulates "The year, mostly children. This all shows us service. For this case, the main feature of this main production branches that are of the how important is water to health and life. edition will highlight the performance of most importance to the regions and that Drinking water is a basic human need. PDAM. govern the life of the people of the respec- The effort towards fulfillment the tive region is managed by the regional go- demand for drinking water service Background of PDAM Establishment vernment owned companies, the capital of including achievement of MDGs targets is The existence of PDAM is the conse- which is a separate asset of the region". Percik 3 October 2004
  5. 5. MAIN REPORT Total Number of PDAM Drinking Water Problems and Constraints Based on the latest data quoted from One cannot deny that PDAM provide a Terminology Perpamsi Directory 2000 there are 290 significant contribution to water service, PDAMs all over the country. Besides, there are at this time 6 private companies D rinking water is that with or without prior process meets health standard and can be taken yet the water quality is still far below the expected standard. It is even mispro- in operation, PT. Palyja and PT. Thames nounced as Bathing Water Producing Water Jaya which obtain a concession directly for drinking (potable) Company. from PAM Jaya; PT. Tirta Adhi Mulia in water. (Minister of Health PDAM effort to improve the quality of Bali, a joint venture with PDAM of Decision No. 907 Year 2002)Clean drinking water is very much constrained Kabupaten Badung providing services to water is water used for daily activ- by the scarcity of acceptable source of raw Nusa Dua Bali area; PT. Aditia Tirta ity that meets health standard and water, both in terms of quality as well as Batam, a joint venture between an can be taken for drinking after quantity. Although the Indonesian water Indonesian private firm with Biwater of boiling. In academic term clean reserve comprises 6 percent of the total England obtains a concession to provide water refers to water that is pro- global water or 21 percent of Asia Pacific service covering all Batam island from PT. duced from an engineering effort reserve (KLH, 2003), but water scarcity is Otorita Batam; PT. Dream in Ambon, is a of human and animal waste water getting more prominent from year to year. joint venture between PDAM Ambon with and of economic activity to make it At the national level, water availability is Drente of the Netherlands to provide worthy of recycling back into sur- sufficient but if we look into regions we services to the city of Ambon. face water. can see that Java-Bali and Nusa Tenggara areas are suffering from water deficit PDAM Service Coverage especially during dry monsoon. In urban areas the drinking water tion with access to service is 56,6 millions, A review on PDAM based on the num- service is provided by PDAM, whereas in consisting of 4.748 million home connec- ber of customers reveals that many PDAM the rural areas this is handled mostly by tions and 85.700 public hydrants. operates below the level of viable econom- the local community organization with However, there is only 20,3 percent of ic scale (approx. 10.000 subscribers). varying form from one place to another. the total PDAM with a service coverage There are only 14 PDAMs book 50.000 It is not surprising therefore, that the reaching 25 percent of the respective local customers, as compared to 168 compa- service coverage of the rural is currently population, of which 8,6 percent serves nies each with a total of below 10.000 cus- only to approximately 5 percent, while in up to 50 percent while the remaining 79,7 tomers. With such a small number of cus- towns and cities the level is now at 51,7 percent provides service to less than 25 tomers it is unlikely for a PDAM to oper- percent (BPS, 2000). The total popula- percent of the population. ate efficiently. One can be sure that the regional government has set aside a size- able amount of subsidy to keep PDAM P D A M S e r v i c e C o v e ra g e b y R e g i o n i n 2 0 0 0 operating. Based on PDAMs financial situation, (i) only 18 percent of them run profitably; (ii) 22 percent operate at a negative equi- ty; (iii) 44 percent set a tariff level below Percent PDAM Ready for drinking water Based on the latest data there are at least 4 PDAMs which produce Region ready for drinking water in Indonesia, i.e. PDAM Buleleng, PDAM Sumatera Lainnya Jawa - Bali Kalimantan Sulawesi Malang City, PDAM Medan, and PDAM Western Region Eastern Region INDONESIA Bogor City. But the coverage is still limited. Source: Infrastruktur Indonesia, Bappenas 2003 4 Percik October 2004
  6. 6. M AIN REPORT O&M costs; (iv) only 10 percent of the SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA PDAMs are in a favourable financial con- dition. The total PDAMs debts amount to at least Rp5 trillion from a principal of Rp3 trillion. Only 89 PDAMs are free from debt. The principle that places drinking water as a basic human need has imposed upon PDAM a social burden from the go- vernment. As a result the tariff level is decided more from the social and political aspects rather than technical and finan- cial. Revenue is negative because income from sales is lower than the production cost, the tariff does not reflect the princi- ple of cost recovery. On the one hand the tariff is decided not to cover the production costs, but on the other any proposal for tariff increase is always strongly counteracted by the community as well as the legislative. It seems this denial is because of the indi- fference in the part of the community and the legislative members. This can be explained from (i) the average family expenditure for drinking water is only as low as 2 percent of the total expenditure, (ii) drinking water consumption which is The formulation of the National Policy one of basic human need is not sensitive to a change in tariff level. for Institutionally Based Drinking Water It can be summarized that the poor Service Development which serves as PDAM condition is the result of several factors, namely (i) bureaucracy and an umbrella policy for PDAM management politician intervention in PDAM man- is in its final stage and is one part of the initial agement; (ii) incompatible law and reg- ulation; (iii) increasing difficulty in 100 day program of the obtaining and more costly treatment of Indonesia Bersatu Cabinet raw water; (v) high water loss rate; (vi) tariff level does not allow for covering production cost; (vii) lack of informa- tion to the customers and the legislative Policy for the Future Supply & environmental sanitation members regarding what the tariff A decision on drinking water policy is Development which serves as an umbrel- should be like; (viii)lack of technical not an easy thing to take. Why? Because la policy for PDAM management is in its and managerial capacity. this sector involves many stakeholders final stage. However, as in a book entitled The combined problems and con- with many different interests. And as we Infrastructures of Indonesia published by straints have made PDAM unable to pro- know, sector egoism is so thick in Bappenas in 2003, there are several rele- vide the best service. Never dream of pro- Indonesian government structure. At this vant policies, namely (i) the need for a vision of ready for drinking water (potable time the formulation of the National deregulation of laws in connection with water). Policy for Institutionally Based Water drinking water. In this case there is a Percik 5 October 2004
  7. 7. M AIN REPORT need for an improvement of the laws in relation to technical, institutional, finan- Big Rivers of Java Are Not Worthy of Raw cial, cooperation with private sector or Material for Drinking Water the community, hygiene standard and level of tariff. In addition, it is also neces- sary to improve the participation of busi- ness sector and the community in the development and management of drin- A ccording to the Environmental Control Office of the Province of West Jawa the rate of coli bacte- Cimanuk rivers have reached an apprehending level. Their water is no more worthy of a source for king water service through establishment ria contamination in Cisadane, drinking water. of a conducive business climate; (ii) not Ciliwung, Cileungsi, Citarum and Source: Kompas, July 8, 2003 less important is improvement in water resources and environmental protection efforts. Water resources protection should be done through multi-sector raw water is operated under the princi- management may have the freedom to involvement and inter-regional arrange- ple of optimum intake and most effi- run professionally without intervention ment through the establishment of water cient use of watershed resource; (iii) from bureaucracy or the politician. As board authority with members consisting with respect to restructuring on PDAM for the tariff, it must be reformatted to of representatives of all the stakeholders. management it is considered necessary take into account the principles of This effort has to be supported by a to make a regrouping of the agencies investment and operational costs viable program in nature conservation, responsible for developing and manag- recovery, social equity, sustainable ser- environment, and water resources to ing drinking water service into a vice, application of conservation cost order to sustain the availability of raw regional institution. Regulatory func- and consideration about water as an water. From the water use point of tion must be clearly separated from economic good. Besides, management view, the extraction and management operational function so that PDAM efficiency must also be made through minimizing technical as well as admin- SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA istrative leakages. In terms of invest- ment it is necessary to consider alterna- tive funding sources for drinking water development and management through an issuance of municipal bonds guaran- teed by the regional government or through sale of part of PDAM share to the business sector and the community; (iv) other policy includes cost sharing between different levels of government in the development and expansion of drinking water services; (v) it should reminded our obligation to formulate an action plan and investment planning in order to achieve the 50 percent po- pulation who must have access to drinking water in accordance with MDGs target. Considering all the constraints, is PDAM capable to make the dream to pro- duces the really potable water come true. It seems that for the time being it will remain a dream for all of us. (OM and MJ) 6 Percik October 2004
  8. 8. M AIN REPORT Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas "Drinking Water Philosophy Enhances Improvement within PDAM" D rinking water is human beings a users supervision, PDAM will improve its basic need. And this has been performance. As of the present condition, there since the Dutch colonial the company has no counter actor. time. But as we started with Pelita (Five Thus the philosophical change is deemed Year Development Plan) I and II, when quite necessary. Why? Because PDAM ma- we incessantly developing drinking water nagement is facing a dilemma. The former facilities, the concept about drinking Coordination Minister has issued a strategy water gradually shifted as we put too for improving PDAM condition, but still it much emphasis on physical aspect of the did not work because too many in- development. It is right, that in terms of terests are mingling in it. But physical development we are able to now if we directly compel reach the expected target, but PDAM to serve its users in terms of manage- with drinking water, ment we have failed every one will lis- to sustain the quali- ten and care. ty at drinking water With this standard. That was compulsion the time when the switch from drinking water to clean water took place. However, if we look back, the cost item differences bet- ween clean water and drinking water are not too significant. SOURCE: OM The difference may be in the management level, how to main- That is why it should be necessary to PDAM will have to take a look into its inter- tain drinking water quality and safely stress that water quality should be the nal condition, for example too many broken deliver it to users, e.g. through main- end goal in a drinking water service. pipes, poor administrative condition, thus it taining the pressure and prevent any loss If we compare with the US, what is becomes a necessity to call for an assistance during conveyance. considered as clean water is water is good for from the central government to work out an Actually with the drinking water phi- flowing back into any main water body. That improvement. Whether, for instance the losophy all parties are required to per- means it is free from any polluting agent. central government would be willing to faci- form excellently both the PDAM and the While safe drinking water is one which con- litate an additional budget request and users. For example, if there is a tariff tains contaminating agents below the tolera- improvement to the existing system. increase, that means the actual cost must ble level for human consumption. Thus one On the other hand the central govern- indeed be as much. Compare now with is for admission to body of water and the ment may also demand PDAM for an the clean water condition, sometimes it other for human body. excellence in the level of conduct and contains worm, dirt, etc., the customers With a clearly defined standard the management performance. The govern- are reluctant to accept any tatriff increase PDAM cannot play around anymore. The ment will also speak to its owner, i.e. the because the quality is poor. But if the rate of leakage which is currently reaching 35 regional government. Therefore, this can quality is comparable with the costly bot- percent must be prevented, otherwise the be considered as one of our efforts to tled water, it wont be difficult for the user users will claim: "You are selling drinking solve the problems in drinking water community to accept the tariff increase. water to us, but why is it not drinkable?" The service by PDAM. (MJ) Percik 7 October 2004
  9. 9. M AIN REPORT A Glimpse of Drinking Water and Sanitation Condition in Indonesia H uman Development Report 2004 collaboratively published by Bappenas, BPS and UNDP PRIORITY I PRIORITY III reveals a number of interesting facts Drinking water/sanita- Drinking water/sani- Poverty level above related to drinking water and sanitation. In reference with BPS data contained in tion condition below tation condition abo- the book the drinking water and sanita- average Indonesia average ve Indonesia average tion condition among different kabu- Poverty condition Poverty condition patens/kota and provinces can be made. The goals set in the MDGs have been below Indonesia ave- above Indonesia ave- commonly agreed. One of them is drin- rage rage king water and basic sanitation as Target #10 which states that half of the popula- tion proportion currently is without access to drinking water and basic sanita- tion shall have to be provided for with PRIORITY II PRIORITY IV Poverty level below such services in the year 2015. As we Drinking water/sanita- Drinking water/sani- know, pursuant to the MDGs document tion condition below tation condition abo- average the target for drinking water for Indonesia is 70 percent while for sanita- Indonesia average ve Indonesia average tion 63,5 percent levels. Poverty condition Poverty condition It should always be reminded howe- below Indonesia ave- above Indonesia ave- ver, that the target is countrywide and a rage rage national average, while the responsibility for drinking water and sanitation services management is with the kabupaten/city governments. More attention should be Drinking water/sanitation Drinking water/sanitation focused to drinking water/sanitation con- condition below average condition above average dition of the kabupatens/cities. As an illustration, although Indonesia meets the prescribed targets but as we go deep- er into the details we will find many of the kabupatens/cities with a poor drinking classification of kabupaten/city and paten/city leves. There are 13 provinces water/sanitation condition. province into four quadrants as presented which need serious attention in terms of Both from theoretical point of view as above. water and sanitation but only eight of well as empirical observation quality Through the above class distinction them are classified as priority one: NAD, improvement and availability of drinking one can decide the priority order for South Sumatra, Bengkulu, NTB, NTT, water and sanitation facilities will handling, priorities one to four. The Central Sulawesi, Gorontalo and Papua. increase welfare or in other words redu- regions which need the most serious The remaining four belong to those cing poverty. This article will try to illus- attention in terms of drinking water and whose drinking water needs a serious trate the drinking water and sanitation sanitation development are classified as attention but priority one is given to service in its relation with poverty at priority one. Lampung province. The are 6 provinces kabupaten/city level. Based on the above classification, with poor sanitation condition, the first The method applied will of course be there are several prioritized areas for priority in four, namely Central Jawa, the simplest but at least it will provide the dinking water, sanitation and combina- East Jawa, Southeast Sulawesi, and regional picture. The method employs a tion of both at provincial as well as kabu- Maluku. 8 Percik October 2004
  10. 10. M AIN REPORT PRIORITY PROVINCES FOR Households with access to sanitation facility, Households with access to drinking water DRINKING WATER by Province 2002 facility, by Province 2002 Lampung Central Java, Riau, Jambi, West East Java, Java. West Sumatra. Bali DKI Jakarta DKI Jakarta North Sulawesi DI Yogyakarta East Jawa PRIORITY PROVINCES East Kalimantan East Kalimantan Riau FOR SANITATION Lampung DI Yogyakarta Central Jawa North Sumatera Central Java, East Java, Lampung West Jawa* S.E. Sulawesi SE Sulawesi, Maluku North Sulawesi South Kalimantan Jambi North Sumatera West Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, Bali West Sumatera North Maluku West Java South Kalimantan East Maluku ** INDONESIA Maluku* South Sumatera* INDONESIA NTT Bengkulu PROVINCE PRIORITY PROVINCES FOR DRINKING Banten** South Sulawesi WATER AND SANITATION PROVINCE Central Kalimantan Lampung Central Jawa NTT NAD, South Sumatera, DIY East Jawa Jambi Bengkulu, NTB, NTT, North Maluku ** Nangroe Aceh Central Sulawesi, Bengkulu Bangka Belitung** Gorontalo, Papua West Sumatera NTB Nangroe Aceh West Kalimantan South Sumatera * S.E.Sulawesi West Jawa * South Sulawesi Central Sulawesi Babel, Banten, West North Sumatera, DKI Bangka Belitung** Banten** Kalimantan, Central Jakarta, South Kalimantan, Maluku Riau Kalimantan, South Kalsel, East Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Papua*** Sulawesi North Sulawesi Gorontalo** Gorontalo Papua*** Central Kalimantan NTB West Kalimantan There are 8 provinces which are not in the top priority in terms of drinking water and sanitation problem. Drinking water PERCENT PERCENT condition of West Sumatra, Central Java and East Java are not in top priority, simi- larly with sanitation in the provinces of Source: Indonesia Human Development Report 2004 Legend: Lampung, Riau, Jambi and West Java. * = Province which underwent a split If we want to go into more details, we ** = New province result from the split *** = Province with a new name can use this classification method for kabupaten/city condition. The result is illustrated in the following table: need a serious attention is more or less water supply and sanitation sector deve- similar to those with a relatively accept- lopment. The above illustration is made PRIORITY KABUPATENS/CITIES FOR able drinkling water and sanitation condi- as an attempt to provide a clearer picture DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION tion. In general, we can say that there are about the real condition of drinking water PRIORITY 87 kabupatens/cities which belong to top and sanitation service in the regions of I II III IV priority in solving their drinking water Indonesia and not as a national average . Drinking water and sanitation 87 37 27 79 and sanitation problem. There are 28 Hopefully this presentation will serve as Drinking water 28 40 31 15 which call attention for drinking water an input for the the effort in achieving the Sanitation 26 15 18 40 Total 141 92 76 134 only, similarly with 26 for sanitation only. MDGs target. However, the above priority ranking The complete result of by kabupa- should not be literally translated in a way ten/city drinking water and sanitation in From the above table it can be seen that once a region is not included in a Indonesia is accessible in WSS website that the total kabupatens/cities which priority is free from the obligation for www.ampl.or.id (OM) Percik 9 October 2004
  11. 11. M AIN REPORT A Closer Look into MDGs Drinking Water Why MDGs are so important? ply system includes pipe conveyed water reached through 2015. A simple computa- MDGs represent an agreement of the supply system, pumped up ground water, tion. world leaders to engage in a common effort protected pit well, protected water source, to solve the problems faced by the develo- rain water. What is our condition in terms of ping nations, such as poverty, illiteracy, MDGs development goals in 2015? hunger, high infant mortality rate, lack of How will the MDGs target achieve- At national level at this time (2002) 50 education, lack of access to drinking water ment be measured? percent of the population has the access to and sanitation service, and environmental First we have to agree on the propor- acceptable drinking water facility. This is degradation. tion of population with access to accept- still 20 percent to cover before we reached. The said problems cannot be solved able water supply system in 1990, that is Based on rough estimate, as stated in without any assistance and cooperation approximately 40 percent. This means Infrastructures of Indonesia (Bappenas) among the nations of the world. This con- that the remaining 60 percent is the pro- the annual investment requirement may science becomes the basic principle under- portion without such a facility. So that in reach Rp4-5 trillion. The available fund is lying the declaration of MDGs with a hope 2015, the additional proportion of popula- only Rp600 - 1.000 billion. To cover the to enable to unite the nations of the world tion with such an access is 30 percent (or in a war against the basic problems of half of 60 percent). This gives us a total of balance it is therefore necessary to look for human beings. 70 percent consisting of 40 percent from additional financial sources such as com- the initial number in 1990 plus additional munity contribution, private sector, grant Drinking Water Objective and Target 30 percent from the level that must be and overseas loan funds. in MDGs What needs a more serious attention is With 8 objectives and 18 targets of the that pursuant to the existing laws the MDGs Drinking Water and Sanitation is drinking water management responsibility directly linked with Objective 7 namely Common has been relinquished to the regional go- ensure environmental sustainability and misinterpretation re MDGs vernment. Thus in reaching the target the Target 10 Halve by 2015 the proportion of participation of the regional government is people without sustainable access to safe definitely unavoidable. drinking water & basic sanitation. U nconsciously there have been a common misinterpretation in our attitude towards MDGs, among others (i) MDGs is considered As we look more closely into drinking water service coverage of each kabupaten/- What are the indicators used in me- merely as a set of goals to be achieved. Actually the targets set forth in MDGS should be seen as city in Indonesia, we will find that many of asuring the performance for achie- a means to mold togetherness and common them are lagging far behind. For example, ving MDGs target? agreement among the world leaders in ways to there are 45 kabupatens/cities with service Each nation is given a flexibility to solve the basic problems of the developing nations. Togetherness and common agreement coverage of below 45 percent level. determine her own indicator for the target is the key; (ii) The drinking water and basic san- When in 2015 the average national we achievement. For Indonesia, and in accor- itation targets in MDGs are expressed in propor- reach 70 percent coverage, we will ask dance with "Progress Report on The tion rather than absolute number. This is pur- posely made in order to prevent any debate in about the possibility that there are still Milliennium Development Goals" publi- connection with population estimate in 2015; (iii) many regions are lagging far behind. It shed in February 2004, the indicator con- the estimate is based on the condition of 1990. sists of proportion of population with should be commendable that in achieving In the National Action Plan re Drinking Water the access to acceptable water supply facility. estimate is based on the data of 2000 as the the 70 percent target the condition of each There are 2 conditions to meet the year of reference; (iv) drinking water is not region be considered as far as possible, so defined in accordance with that of Ministry of requirements for acceptable water supply, that in 2015 when the national target is Health decision No 907 year 2000; each nation namely (i) water supplied through piping is given a freedom to define it in a more flexible achieved there are at the same time less system; (ii) a protected water source which manner. As it was mentioned earlier, the spirit of kabupatens/cities which are left too far togetherness and common agreement comes is located at least 10 metres from human behind. This complies with the spirit of first before anything else. (OM) waste disposal system (pit, septic tank, togetherness and common agreement of etc.). Therefore, an acceptable water sup- MDGs. (OM) 10 Percik October 2004
  12. 12. M AIN REPORT Drinking Water Service Coverage Rating By Kabupaten/City 2002 No. Kabupaten/City Coverage ( % ) No. Kabupaten/City Coverage ( % ) No. Kabupaten/City Coverage ( % ) 1 Kota Surabaya 98,2 61 Karanganyar 68,6 121 Lampung Tengah 59.3 2 Jakarta Utara 97,7 62 Tabanan 68,5 122 Kota Probolinggo 59.3 3 Kota Banjarmasin 95,4 63 Ngawi 68,2 123 Kota Gorontalo 59.3 4 Kota Pematang Siantar 94,6 64 Langkat 68,1 124 Kendal 59.0 5 Kota Solok 94,3 65 Kota Sabang 67,7 125 Madiun 58.9 6 Kota Balikpapan 93,0 66 Nganjuk 67,6 126 Tuban 58.9 7 Kota Sibolga 92,4 67 Kota Bandung 67,3 127 Purworejo 58.6 8 Kota Ujung Pandang 92,0 68 Timur Tengah Utara 66,9 128 Luwu 58.6 9 Kota Banda Aceh 90,7 69 Ponorogo 66,7 129 Kota Mojokerto 58.4 10 Kota Jayapura 90,5 70 Kota Denpasar 66,7 130 Mojokerto 58.2 11 Kota Tegal 89,3 71 Lamongan 66,6 131 Gowa 58.2 12 Kota Salatiga 88,6 72 Kota Bandar Lampung 66,1 132 Nias 58.0 13 Magetan 88,1 73 Gunung Kidul 66,0 133 Pesisir Selatan 58.0 14 Kota Bontang 86,9 74 Kota Padang 65,9 134 Bungo 58.0 15 Kota Buleleng 85,9 75 Lampung Timur 65,8 135 Jombang 57.8 16 Kota Magelang 85,4 76 Muaro Jambi 65,6 136 Bantul 57.7 17 Jakarta Pusat 85,3 77 Karangasem 65,6 137 Sleman 57.6 18 Gianyar 84,7 78 Tabalong 65,6 138 Kota Kediri 57.6 19 Kota Samarinda 84,3 79 Kota Pangkalpinang 65,3 139 Sumedang 57.4 20 Kota Tanjung Balai 84,1 80 Kota Surakarta 65,3 140 Probolinggo 57.1 21 Kota Padang Panjang 83,4 81 Lumajang 65,3 141 Tapin 56.9 22 Jakarta Barat 82,9 82 Kota Sukabumi 65,0 142 Pasir 56.8 23 Kota Pasuruan 82,3 83 Tulungagung 64,8 143 Muna 56.8 24 Kota Bukit Tinggi 81,7 84 Magelang 64,7 144 Kota Yogyakarta 56.7 25 Rembang 80,9 85 Kota Pare-Pare 64,6 145 Banggai 56.5 26 Kota Kupang 80,2 86 Gresik 64,1 146 Tana Toraja 56.5 27 Kota Semarang 79,8 87 Malang 63,6 147 Halmahera Pusat 56.5 28 Kota Medan 79,7 88 Pacitan 63,4 148 Bengkayang 56.4 29 Kota Manado 79,0 89 Kendari 63,4 149 Kota Bekasi 56.1 30 Kota Sorong 79,0 90 Bekasi 63,1 150 Deli Serdang 56.0 31 Kota Bitung 78,2 91 Kupang 63,1 151 Bolaang Mongondow 56.0 32 Kota Payakumbuh 78,1 92 Pamekasan 62,9 152 Pangkajene Kepulauan 55.8 33 Ngada 78,1 93 Kota Cilegon 62,6 153 Bengkulu Utara 55.7 34 Kota Cirebon 77,9 94 Minahasa 62,4 154 Kota Banjar Baru 55.7 35 Kota Ternate 77,9 95 Aceh Tenggara 62,3 155 Jakarta Timur 55.4 36 Kota Kendari 77,7 96 Banggai Kepulauan 62,1 156 Kota Mataram 55.4 37 Pati 76,9 97 Solok 62,0 157 Alor 55.2 38 Sumba Timur 76,4 98 Wonogiri 62,0 158 Kota Binjai 54.9 39 Kulon Progo 76,3 99 Temanggung 61,8 159 Boyolali 54.3 40 Sidoarjo 76,0 100 Kota Malang 61,8 160 Dompu 54.3 41 Kota Ambon 75,5 101 Lima Puluh Kota 61,6 161 Cilacap 54.0 42 Kota Baru 74,6 102 Bangli 61,6 162 Sumbawa 54.0 43 Kota Madiun 74,3 103 Maluku Tengah 61,6 163 Pandeglang 53.9 44 Klungkung 74,1 104 Trenggalek 61,5 164 Kota Depok 53.8 45 Kota Batam 73,4 105 Asahan 61,3 165 Lampung Selatan 53.5 46 Batanghari 73,0 106 Karo 61,3 166 Kota Bogor 53.5 47 Kota Sawah Lunto 72,8 107 Kerinci 61,3 167 Jember 53.5 48 Kota Palembang 72,7 108 Jembrana 60,7 168 Buton 53.5 49 Wonosobo 72,4 109 Pasaman 60,5 169 Enrekang 53.3 50 Bangkalan 72,2 110 Sragen 60,4 170 Pinrang 53.1 51 Semarang 71,6 111 Purwakarta 60,3 171 Ende 53.0 52 Kota Jambi 70,8 112 Bengkulu 60,2 172 Poso 52.9 53 Badung 70,7 113 Rejang Lebong 60,1 173 Tenggamus 52.8 54 Sampang 70,4 114 Blitar 60,1 174 Maluku Tenggara Barat 52.6 55 Grobogan 70,0 115 Sukoharjo 60,0 175 Aceh Tengah 52.4 56 Aceh Utara 69,9 116 Tanah Datar 59,9 176 Sanghite Talaud 52.4 57 Purbalingga 69,9 117 Kediri 59,9 177 Sinjai 52.1 58 Soppeng 69,6 118 Sumenep 59,8 178 Labuhan Batu 52.0 59 Jepara 69,0 119 Banyumas 59,5 179 Maros 52.0 60 Blora 68,8 120 Siak 59,3 180 Simeuleu 51.8 Percik 11 October 2004
  13. 13. M AIN REPORT No. Kabupaten/City Coverage ( % ) No. Kabupaten/City Coverage ( % ) No. Kabupaten/City Coverage ( % ) 181 Demak 51,8 241 Kotawaringin Barat 43,4 301 Kota Dumai 32,6 182 Tebo 51,3 242 Bulukumba 43,2 302 Aceh Selatan 32,4 183 Kota Metro 51,3 243 Cirebon 43,0 303 Aceh Barat 32,4 184 Majalengka 51,2 244 Toli-Toli 43,0 304 Serang 31,7 185 Pidie 50,9 245 Paniai 42,9 305 Way Kanan 30,9 186 Wajo 50,6 246 Polewali Mamasa 42,8 306 Ketapang 30,7 187 Klaten 50,5 247 Indramayu 42,5 307 Bulungan 30,6 188 Simalungun 50,3 248 Sorong 42,2 308 Mimika 30,6 189 Banjarnegara 50,3 249 Soralangun 42,1 309 Aceh Besar 30,5 190 Kolaka 50,3 250 Cianjur 42,1 310 Toba Samosir 30,1 191 Bima 50,2 251 Padang Pariaman 42,0 311 Jeneponto 29,6 192 Kutai 50,2 252 Bondowoso 42,0 312 Bengkalis 29,2 193 Kutai Timur 50,2 253 Mamuju 42,0 313 Aceh Singkil 29,1 194 Sindenreng Rappang 50,1 254 Lombok Timur 41,9 314 Puncak Jaya 29,1 195 Kampar 49,9 255 Berau 41,9 315 Tapanuli Selatan 28,5 196 Tulang Bawang 49,9 256 Jakarta Selatan 41,8 316 Mandailing Natal 28,1 197 Sukabumi 49,9 257 Situbondo 41,8 317 Lampung Barat 27,9 198 Tanah Laut 49,9 258 Subang 41,7 318 Rokan Hulu 27,8 199 Bangka 49,6 259 Sumba Barat 41,3 319 Barito Kuala 27,4 200 Pemalang 49,6 260 Lahat 41,1 320 Kapuas 26,9 201 Kota Tebing Tinggi 49,4 261 Musi Banyuasin 41,0 321 Tanjung Jabung Barat 26,8 202 Lampung Utara 49,3 262 Dairi 40,8 322 Kutai Barat 26,0 203 Kudus 49,3 263 Garut 40,8 323 Boalemo 25,9 204 Lombok Tengah 49,3 264 Pekalongan 40,8 324 Biak Numfor 25,2 205 Merangin 49,0 265 Hulu Sungai Tengah 40,7 325 Sintang 24,7 206 Brebes 48,7 266 Natuna 40,4 326 Barito Utara 23,6 207 Bojonegoro 48,5 267 Manggarai 40,3 327 Sanggau 22,1 208 Tangerang 48,5 268 Buoi 40,3 328 Merauke 21,1 209 Hulu Sungai Utara 48,4 269 Batang 40,2 329 Kapuas Hulu 19,6 210 Maluku Tenggara 48,4 270 Kota Palangkaraya 40,2 330 Landak 19,4 211 Morowali 48,3 271 Tapanuli Tengah 40,1 331 Selayar 19,2 212 Kota Pekalongan 47,9 272 Kuningan 40,0 332 Kota Pontianak 14,5 213 Tapanuli Utara 47,7 273 Buru 39,8 333 Sambas 13,5 214 Pelalawan 47,7 274 Jayapura 39,7 334 Manokwari 13,3 215 Luwu Utara 47,7 275 Aceh Timur 39,4 335 Kepulauan Mentawai 11,8 216 Hulu Sungai Selatan 47,5 276 Kepulauan Riau 39,4 336 Yapen Maropen 10,4 217 Pasuruan 47,3 277 Maluku Utara 39,3 337 Malinau 9,1 218 Banyuwangi 47,2 278 Sawah Lunto / Sijunjung 39,0 338 Pontianak 7,7 219 Agam 47,0 279 Kuantan Sengingi 38,9 339 Nabire 7,6 220 Tegal 46,8 280 Rokan Hilir 38,8 340 Indragiri Hilir 4,3 221 Sikka 46,5 281 Bandung 38,8 341 Tanjung Jabung Timur 1,1 222 Fak Fak 46,5 282 Banjar 38,8 223 Belitung 46,3 283 Muara Enim (Liot) 38,6 INDONESIA 55,2 224 Lembata 46,3 284 Barru 38,6 225 Flores Timur 46,3 285 Jayawijaya 38,4 226 Bone 46,1 Source: 286 Indragiri Hulu 38,3 227 Kebumen 45,9 287 Timur Tengah Selatan 38,1 Human Development Report 2004, 228 Bireuen 45,6 288 Ogan Komering Hilir 37,7 Bappenas -- BPS -- UNDP 229 Kota Tangerang 45,2 289 Donggala 37,7 230 Ciamis 44,9 290 Kota Tarakan 36,5 * Kota = city 231 Ogan Komering Ulu 44,8 291 Tasikmalaya 36,4 232 Kota Blitar 44,8 292 Gorontalo 36,2 233 Lombok Barat 44,6 293 Kota Palu 36,0 234 Musi Rawas 44,1 294 Bantaeng 35,9 235 Bogor 44,1 295 Kotawaringin Timur 35,7 236 Majene 44,1 296 Takalar 35,1 237 Bengkulu Selatan 43,9 297 Nunukan 35,0 238 Kota Pekan Baru 43,8 298 Lebak 34,8 239 Karimun 43,6 299 Karawang 34,6 240 Belu 43,6 300 Barito Selatan 32,8 12 Percik October 2004
  14. 14. A RTICLE BATAM: Water Flows Through the Kiosks SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE *) By Tri Dewi Virgiyanti I n Batam, water is not a simple affair. An island located to the east of Sumatra, Batam has a very limited natural water source. There is no river to fulfill water need for its 600 thousand inhabitants. This natural condition which enhan- ces the Authority of Batam to make 6 man-made lakes to capture rainwater. PT. Adhya Tirta Batam (ATB), a private company, processes the rainwater into raw water to fulfill the need of the popu- lation. PT. ATB is a joint venture between a British company, Cascal, and local busi- ness firms Bangun Cipta Kontraktor and Syabata Cemerlang, operating water sup- ply service to the costumers homes. Not all of the population may have access to water service, however. A local regulation prohibits ATB to provide home connections to illegal squatters, known locally as ruli or rumah liar. A new prob- lem instantly arises. It is because not less than 80 thousand people who live as ille- gal squatters need water as anyone else. Actually the ruli dwellers have tried to for instance if the missing production cost Authority decided to establish water solve their water requirement problem is imposed upon the customers. Besides, kiosks in the vicinity of ruli areas. In the through construction of rain water catch- water quality and its pressure tends to beginning there are 8 kiosks built. The ers and buy water from water lorries. drop because of the pipe leakages. kiosks were given to certain parties to Unfortunately, the water quality is inferi- Realizing the above problem, ATB and manage. Of this is not arbitrarily given to or and cannot be used as drinking water. Batam Authority worked together to find any one. At least one must meet 2 quali- This is because the lorries take their water its solution. Minimizing NRW is not the fications for water kiosk management. from the drainage canal. As a result, only consideration. It also includes clean First, it must be legal institution, such as water stealing activities came into reality. water requirement of the ruli dwellers. a cooperative, so that the institution can The ruli dwellers make illegal connec- Though the live in an area illegally they be a regular ATB subscriber. Secondly, tions or puncture holes to the pipes in are also contributing to Batam economy. the management must have a support order to get water. They mainly profess as labourers, securi- from the surrounding ruli dwellers. The This activity causes ATB a consider- ty personnel, are in a sense having a rela- management personnel are elected from able financial loss because after a short tively high purchasing power. Their within the community. This is to prevent while the amount of non revenue water average monthly income varies between any future conflict and to guarantee that (NRW) reached a level of more than 30 Rp. 600 thousand to Rp. 1,5 million. the community will buy water from the percent. Production costs cannot be co- On the one hand they have to serve kiosk. vered from the customers payment the water requirement of the ruli dwellers Water kiosks are made from used con- because a considerable amount of water -because this is the best solution to the tainers and are connected to ATB water is lost. In the meantime, the water stea- water stealing- on the other there is a re- conveyance system. These kiosks are equ- ling is potential to bringing an additional gulation to prevent provision of water to ipped with water meter and a regulating cost to the ordinary customers. Imagine the ruli areas. Finally ATB and Batam tap. The kiosks are made portable, to be Percik 13 October 2004
  15. 15. A RTICLE easily movable to other location if neces- community welcomes the kiosks with sat- could find the best solution to the prob- sary. isfaction. They are happy because with lem of the illegal settlement problem. An agreement is made between ATB the establishment they can get quality The existence of the water kiosks and and the management that binds both par- water at a more reasonable price. With the profit collected for water sale can be ties. It contains among others, the ma- this their health condition improves and used for ruli community empowerment nagement obligation to maintain the life is more comfortable, and as a result program to live legally and improve their kiosk and make a regular payment to the number of settlers is growing. There welfare. If the water kiosk is proven suc- ATB. The management is also made res- are less skin and abdominal diseases now cessful, other towns and cities in In- ponsible for water distribution to the local than there were before. donesia with a similar problem may learn community. Only the surrounding com- Of course there are several other fac- from Batam how to provide access to munity is entitled to buy water from a tors to be monitored in the management water for illegal squatters of city slum kiosk. This is to prevent any sale to out- of the kiosks so that the continuity of the dwellers. siders such as to water lorries. kiosks in the future would indeed provide Staff, Directorate of Human Settlement In terms of tariff, the water kiosks are access to an acceptable clean water service and Housing, Bappenas and Member, charged with the lowest tariff level by to all Batam population and the Authority WSS Working Group ATB. But the management may sell at a higher price. However, the kiosks cannot arbitrarily ask any price they like. The price must be previously agreed between the management and ruli community. Therefore, establishment of such Unfortunately, the standard is based on water kiosks needs a further study, the price set by water lorry, which whether it is beneficial to ATP and both notwithstanding is expensive, than the kiosk water sale price is higher compari- the communities, the ruli dwellers and son to the ATB price. This condition may the ordinary customer cause inequity in profit distribution, community. because the management may collect a relatively big profit from the sale. Their SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE monthly turnover may reach Rp. 90-95 million. The kiosk is charged at Rp. 3.000 per m3 by ATB and the kiosk sells it at Rp. 12.500 - 25.000 to the community. The average family expenditure for water varies between Rp. 15.000 to Rp. 250.000 a month. Therefore, establishment of such water kiosks needs a further study, whether it is beneficial to ATP and both the communities, the ruli dwellers and the ordinary customer community. It should be noted that, with the kiosk establish- ment there are protests voiced out from the ordinary customer community, espe- cially with regard the minimum tariff. Besides, there is a complaint that the kiosk implies an acknowledgement for the existence of the illegal settlements, a nag- ging headache for Batam Authority. On the other hand, the majority of ruli 14 Percik October 2004
  16. 16. A RTICLE Water in Australia and Sustainable Development W ater is an endless topic of dis- *) regional governments alike put into effect cussion. This is because water By Iwan Juwana restriction in the use of water. This is a vital and irreplaceable restriction obligation is binding and is need for human life. Every nation has its time to get drinking water directly from supported by a number of reliable sup- own experience regarding water manage- the tap. The biggest financial demand is port instruments. The support instru- ment. Some are successful, while others for pipe network and its maintenance, ments consist of among others a control meet with a certain level of failure. One of because in reality most PDAMs and other system and law enforcement effort. As an those which is sufficiently successful is drinking water companies in Indonesia example, a prohibition to using of tap Australia, our neighbouring nation. have met the standard drinking water water for car washing during daytime. There are several differences between requirement as set forth by ministry of When the said regulation is in effect, du- Australia and Indonesia. First, is in drin- health and WHO. One of the closest ring daytime control officers are moving king water distribution. Like other deve- examples, there was once an Indonesian around the area to see to it that no one is loping nations, it is easy to get drinking TV coverage featuring a drinking water running against the regulation. If some- water in Australia. Domestic drinking company on the island of Batam, PT. one is caught running against the regula- water facility is guaranteed potable, Adhya Tirta Batam (ATB). It was shown tion the control officer would undoubted- drinkable directly from the faucet. The in the feature, several employees of the ly take a fine from him at an amount in same with public facilities such as park, company took a drink directly from the accordance with the regulation. There is school, office building and other public tap. However, one can be sure that none no compromise, or bargaining for any facilities are supplied with drinking water of ATB customers would dare to do the misconduct. And also the mass media, facility. Water taps are located every- same in their own homes, especially those when water restriction is effect, the televi- where, all provides potable water. This is which are located far from the processing sion, radio, newspapers are providing a why most people, including tourists and facility. Because, the farther is the home widespread announcement to the com- international students, always bring with from the processing facility the longer is munity at large. There is no reason for them water bottle anywhere they go. the pipe network through which the water anyone to be uninformed about the regu- These bottles are refilled with drinking flows, in some location may pass a rusty lation in effect. At a certain stage, the water from the public faucets. pipe. awareness of the importance of function From environmental point of view, of water within the community, govern- this is quite commendable because there There are several differences ment and other actors in Australia has will be less bottles to be dumped into the between Australia and reached such a high standard, especially surroundings. This means a less burden Indonesia. First, is in drinking when compared to Indonesia. Then what to the community or the regional govern- water distribution. Like other is the underlying principle for the aware- ment in solid wastes recycling work. And developing nations, it is easy ness action? seen from the customers point of view, to get drinking water in From the authors observation, the this represents a significant saving for basic reason for the growth of awareness Australia. Domestic drinking drinking water expenditure. As we all of the importance of water resources is water facility is guaranteed know, the expenditure for drinking water the sustainable development concept. is never small. Even, at an equal volume, potable, drinkable directly The federal government of Australia has the price for water is higher than that of from the faucet. exerted a sufficient effort to explain the petrol. sustainable development into five pillars However, one cannot deny that the The second significant difference or five principles. The first principle is investment for the construction of drin- relates to water restriction that is in effect known as precautionary principle. This king water facility, its distribution sys- during certain period in almost all over principle emphasizes that if an activity is tem, and maintenance of up to potable Australia. In facing a long dry season to produce an environmental impact, water quality in Indonesia will need a big which is evidenced from the drop in water then there must be an immediate precau- amount of money. Indeed, it seems that level at the reservoirs, the main water tionary plan to prevent the impact to hap- this nation will have to dream for a long source of Australia, the national and pen without waiting for any scientific cer- Percik 15 October 2004
  17. 17. A RTICLE tainty. In water management, for exam- SOURCE: WWW.CSIRO.AU ple, if it is known that the main water source is a reservoir and its condition is going down, then one of precautionary measures is water restriction to activities that needs a large quantity of water. This measure is necessary although there is no specific study to explain the direct rela- tion between watering plants to decrease in water level in reservoirs. The second principle, intragenera- tional equity. It means that it is necessary to build an awareness that aside from we ourselves who need water there at the same time 6 billion human beings who are in need for water. If the water wasting ha- bit for secondary even tertiary need is let loose it is obvious that it will adversely affect water availability of the 6 billion people. Implanting of such awareness and empathy to the equals will greatly affect someone in using water. The third principle, intergenerational equity. It has been frequently mentioned in conference, seminar and scientific dis- cussions about the paradigm that has to be kept in mind: the environment is not inherited by the grand parents and it is entrusted by our grandchildren, the com- ing generations. In water use, it is not In water use, it is not allowed to fulfill allowed to fulfill the present generation the present generation only, only, but must also consider what will but must also consider what will happen happen with the next generations. In sus- with the next generations. tainable development concept, the next generation shall have to receive at the same natural resources as do the present generation. It is not wise if we inherit an environment that is inferior than its pres- caused by the production activity was not turbed by the water taking activity. ent condition. calculated into the price. For instance, Well, with the principles compiled by The fourth, biodiversity conservation. when we buy a car, the pollution caused various elements of the community and also As it relates to water source management, by the car is not included in the price. The applied systematically with a strict control it should always be borne in mind that price of a car is determined by the spare has so far produced a significant impact to water is not only need by human species, parts, costs for experts, mechanics, and the environmental quality improvement in but at the same time also it is also vital for marketing as well as other variables, but Australia. What about Indonesia? the life of flora and fauna. never an environmental impact variable. Graduate of Environmental Management *) The final principle is environmental Another example, when we buy bottled Program, NSW Univ., Australia. economic internalization. Up to this time water, the price does not include the da- Currently a teaching staff at the Environmental there have been many cases when buying mage to the water source, nor taking into Engineering Dept., National Institute a product, the environmental impact account the flora and fauna that are dis- of Technology, Bandung 16 Percik October 2004

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