FUTURE OF URBAN WATER MANAGEMENTKala VairavamoorthyUNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA + GWP
Water Security - Good News & Bad NewsGood News‘Open the loop’ - linear supply and disposalGood News• Upper income countrie...
Bad News – External pressuresmake the future difficult• Entire earth system is changing!
The Urban Arithmetic for 2050• 155,000 persons per day155,000 persons per day• 90% in developing countries• ~90% in urban ...
Opportunity to do Things DifferentlySource: UN (2003)G
Asia has fastest growing economies(World Bank, 2012)
Window of Opportunity is SmallShenzhen1980 TodayFishing village ofseveral thousandCity of 7 million – big inelectronic man...
Need to think differently
When designing urban water systemskeep in mind the following• Urban Water Cycle is one system: understand theelationship b...
When designing urban water systemskeep in mind the following• Innovative technologies can play a role: in helpingkeep in m...
When designing urban water systemskeep in mind the following• Innovative technologies can play a role: in helpingkeep in m...
We need to break down barriersCatchmentKI WU … UP… Urban6Township
And involve all the players• Why?• Poor uptake of available research findingsPoor uptake of available research findings• F...
Example: Bogota, ColombiaIssue:• pollution of upper RioBogota (tanneries)Key players:• Association of tanners,Regulator, L...
Example: Lodz, PolandIssue:• restoring polluted riversKey players:• city office, University,y , y,Ecohydrology institute,s...
We need to put water in the minds of people?
Doing more with lessDoing more with less‘Integration the key’H li ti t hHolistic systems approachto the urban watershed
Tailored IUWM Framework forDeveloping Countries RequiredIntermittent& IrregularS lWaterScarcityIrregularEnergySupplyDevelo...
Case Study: Water Resources forNairobi and Satellite Townsa o a d Sa e e o s• Today 3.14 MInhabitantsInhabitants• Predicti...
IUWM Application 1 (stormwater,leakage, demand management)leakage, demand management)70000 m3/d 780831m3/d192851 m3/dDM=50...
IUWM Application 1 (stormwater,leakage, demand management)• Unit costs of US$ 0.29/m3 (cf. to 0.36)leakage, demand managem...
Nairobi - It’s about having aPortfolio of viable optionsPrivate BoreholesGreywater HarvestingPortfolio of viable optionsEx...
Phnom Penh’s Water Success Story• NRW reduced from 72% to6.19% (1993-2008)Water saving about• Water saving about25,000m3/d...
It’s already happening: Ethekwini
It’s already happening: WindhoekNGWRP Dam Water Groundwater66% 8%erConsumers26% 66% 8%10% Unaccountedfor Waterngwate90%Dom...
It’s already happening: SingaporeRain SeaRain SeaSecurity through diversityDirect Non-Potable Use
Unconventional water sources:more energy intensivemore energy intensiveNEWRI 2010
Natural systems can helpclose the water cyclebank filtration,close the water cyclesoil-aquifer treatment,constructed wetla...
Natural systems can helpclose the water cycleLBFclose the water cycleLake Bank FiltrationReservoirWater WWIrrigationEH 0.0...
Flows from Kibera pollute Nairobi DamNo longer used as a water sourceNo longer used as a water sourceGreywater fromi dPoll...
Urban water infrastructure provisionto Kibera benefit all of NairobiCost for provision of drainage andsanitation for Kiber...
Slum networking can provideimproved flood protection to cityimproved flood protection to citySlumFloodingCity
Slum networking can provideimproved water services to allPressurimproved water services to alleSlumCityIllegalconnectionsP...
Take home messageManage water supply wastewater & stormwaterManage water supply, wastewater & stormwatertogether (one urba...
We need to build connectionsbetween silosGrayWast StormPotable RainGrayWaterWastewaterStormwaterPotablewaterRainwaterG, I
The water sector can’t do it aloned l G ’ ffi i lLand plannersArchitectsDevelopersGov’t officialsFinanciersEnergy experts
Thi k b H iThink about HarvestingIntegrated Treatment
Entrepreneurs see theharvesting potential, Indiag pCollection, transport, treatment and reuse-system (GTZ,2009)
Entrepreneurs see theharvesting potential, Durbang p ,Fecal sludge into safe fertilizer: LaDePa machineFecal SludgeMedium-...
We’re harvesting for Agriculture: ChinaUnder the 11th five-year plan, 400 million m3 treatedwastewater available for agric...
MITIGATIONHarvesting heat from sewersHeat exchanger in sewersHeat is reclaimed from treated sewage water of the adjacent s...
Think about a Water MachinePotableWaterReclaimednon potableQualityA B CUrineSurface WaterWaternon-potable A,B,CGrey waterB...
Water Machine – ‘designer waters’T i I i ti RO (Single): RefineryTertiary: Irrigation RO (Single): RefineryNitrified: Cool...
Water Machine: Semi - CentralizedTU Darmstadt | Institute IWAR | Cornel et al. 
Xing Dao – water machine proposalTU Darmstadt | Institute IWAR | Cornel et al. 
But how will water machinesbe plumbed?e p u edChallenge: Deliver WaterQuality Fit for PurposeKitchen BathQuality Fit for P...
Take home messageDriver for water management should bebeneficiation –maximize value added(institutions & regulations to su...
Cl d A h UWMClustered Approach to UWMIn order to implement the principles a clusteredapproach to water management is helpf...
Clusters allow maximum efficiencywhile giving adaptive capacityg g p p yA supply and treatment unit (watermachine) for eac...
Energy sector is alreadythinking in these linesgCHPCHPCHPCHPCHPCHPCHPCHPCHPCHP CHPCHP
Look for opportunities to create newparadigms (not extended old ones)p g ( )FormalisedW t S tSmall scale providersWater Sy...
Xi’an – newly developed district asindependent water systemQujiang New DistrictQujiang New Districtindependent water syste...
ARUAMBALE
Central infrastructure core expanding
Let’s ring fence the old paradigmA1A2A3A4A4A8 A6A5A7
Let’s ring fence the old paradigmA1A2A3A3A4A4A8A6A5A7A6
Tailor made solutions for clusterGreywaterBlack waterPotablewaterA8Surface waterGreywaterGroundwaterBiogasProductionDischa...
Semi-Centralized is cheaper?A9Average Annual Costs3,787,000 US$Average Annual Costs5,148,000 US$
Take home messageManage water supply wastewater & stormwaterManage water supply, wastewater & stormwatertogether (one urba...
Smart ThinkingSmart Water, Smart Networks, Smart by Design
New low pressure/super strong membranes makethem attractive to developing countries0 4m hydrostatic pressureSource: eawagS...
Scalability of membranes makes them veryattractive across a continuum of optionspCity/Town ScalePoint-of-Use
Networks of the future willhave lives of their ownhave lives of their ownSmart Pipes• Nano scale sensorsSelf Healing• Vari...
‘Smart’ helps manage pipe-burstsmore effectivelymore effectivelyCalculate Location of Burst Optimal ValveIsolationAllen et...
‘Smart’ helps manage pipe-burstsmore effectivelymore effectivelyIsolate LeakAllen et al. 2011
‘Smart’ helps manage pipe-burstsmore effectivelyAlertC tmore effectivelyCustomerRepair TeamPipe BreakPipe Break- Location ...
‘Smart’ allows appliances to negotiatewith the water marketwith the water marketndWaterDemanDemandTimeElectricD
‘Smart’ allows appliances to negotiatewith the water marketSmartmeterwith the water marketSmartndSmartmeterWaterDemanDeman...
‘Smart’ allows appliances to negotiatewith the water marketwith the water marketndFlattened PeakWaterDemanDemandFlattened ...
T i i iTransitioning
TransitioningTransitioningExisting SystemFuture System Future SystemGraph Theory Transition SystemsyBased on Old SystemyTo...
0 10 20 30 40
0 10 20 30 40
0 10 20 30 40
0 10 20 30 40
0 10 20 30 40
0 10 20 30 40
0 10 20 30 40
0 10 20 30 40
0 10 20 30 40
0 10 20 30 40
0 10 20 30 40Sempewo, J., Vairavamoorthy, K. and Grimshaw, F. (2010)
Take home messageMove away from tinkering and think abouthow you might have designed from scratch -y g gthen look at trans...
Choices Before UsStay in Lane -Business asUsualTry Harder,Spend More forTraditional SysTruly DifferentApproachWhat YouKnow...
Th k YKalanithy VairavamoorthyThank Youvairavk@usf.edu
Future of Urban Water Management
Future of Urban Water Management
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Future of Urban Water Management

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presented by Kala Kairavamoorthy in Asia Water Week 2013, Manila 11-15 March 2013

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Future of Urban Water Management

  1. 1. FUTURE OF URBAN WATER MANAGEMENTKala VairavamoorthyUNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA + GWP
  2. 2. Water Security - Good News & Bad NewsGood News‘Open the loop’ - linear supply and disposalGood News• Upper income countries have revolutionized publichealth outcomeshealth outcomes• Also have made major progress in mitigation ofenvironmental damageBad NewsSystems built for narrow objectives with little• Systems built for narrow objectives with littleresilience – not suited to the challenges ahead• Extraordinarily resource intensivey• ‘All or nothing’ - Unaffordable to 2/3 of the planet
  3. 3. Bad News – External pressuresmake the future difficult• Entire earth system is changing!
  4. 4. The Urban Arithmetic for 2050• 155,000 persons per day155,000 persons per day• 90% in developing countries• ~90% in urban areas• ~850,000 per week in urban settings850,000 per week in urban settingsGrowing but also ‘Growing Up’
  5. 5. Opportunity to do Things DifferentlySource: UN (2003)G
  6. 6. Asia has fastest growing economies(World Bank, 2012)
  7. 7. Window of Opportunity is SmallShenzhen1980 TodayFishing village ofseveral thousandCity of 7 million – big inelectronic manufacturing
  8. 8. Need to think differently
  9. 9. When designing urban water systemskeep in mind the following• Urban Water Cycle is one system: understand theelationship bet een a io s componentskeep in mind the followingrelationship between various components• Urban water cycle closely linked to watershed:Cit d d d i t th id t h dCity depends on and impacts the wider watershed• Security through diversity: explore diverse andflexible options for water sources• Water should be fit for purpose – matching waterl d dquality to its intended use.• Maximize benefits: great potential for water, energyd t i t (b fi i ti )and nutrient recovery (beneficiation)
  10. 10. When designing urban water systemskeep in mind the following• Innovative technologies can play a role: in helpingkeep in mind the followingto serve more people with less• Adaptive systems work: IUWM must take intot th t th f t i i h tl t iaccount that the future is inherently uncertain• Water should be managed across institutions:d i iti l t ti li IUWMgood governance is a critical to operationalize IUWM• Involve all the players: integration of allk h ld d kstakeholders in decision-making process
  11. 11. When designing urban water systemskeep in mind the following• Innovative technologies can play a role: in helpingkeep in mind the followingto serve more people with less• Adaptive systems work: IUWM must take intot th t th f t i i h tl t iaccount that the future is inherently uncertain• Water should be managed across institutions:d i iti l t ti li IUWMgood governance is a critical to operationalize IUWM• Involve all the players: integration of allk h ld d kstakeholders in decision-making process
  12. 12. We need to break down barriersCatchmentKI WU … UP… Urban6Township
  13. 13. And involve all the players• Why?• Poor uptake of available research findingsPoor uptake of available research findings• Fragmented institutional arrangements• ‘Wicked’ problems - need for ‘integrated’ solutions• Who?• Policy makers, planners, regulators, serviceproviders, NGOs, researchers, developers…• How?• Inception (training, stakeholder analysis…)• Operational (visioning, planning processes..))B k t i t ( it i l ti )• Backstopping support (monitoring, evaluation…)
  14. 14. Example: Bogota, ColombiaIssue:• pollution of upper RioBogota (tanneries)Key players:• Association of tanners,Regulator, Localgovernment, NGO,University,…Outcomes:• Almost half of smallAlmost half of smallenterprises haveimplemented cleanerproduction principlesi 90% ll tiremoving 90% pollution
  15. 15. Example: Lodz, PolandIssue:• restoring polluted riversKey players:• city office, University,y , y,Ecohydrology institute,service providers,developersO tOutcomes:• Demonstrationtechnologies being scaledup as part of cityup as part of cityredevelopment• development of a city-wide strategic plan forg pwater
  16. 16. We need to put water in the minds of people?
  17. 17. Doing more with lessDoing more with less‘Integration the key’H li ti t hHolistic systems approachto the urban watershed
  18. 18. Tailored IUWM Framework forDeveloping Countries RequiredIntermittent& IrregularS lWaterScarcityIrregularEnergySupplyDeveloping Countries RequiredSupplyScarcityFast GrowingCitiesSupplyHighly PollutedWater BodiesLowPressureLack of High Levels of LeakageLack ofWastewaterCollection andTreatmentPoor SolidWasteManagementSource: CSIRO
  19. 19. Case Study: Water Resources forNairobi and Satellite Townsa o a d Sa e e o s• Today 3.14 MInhabitantsInhabitants• Prediction year 2035between 6 4 andbetween 6.4 and11.2 M Inhabitants• Huge supply/demand• Huge supply/demandgapCase study for the application of theCase study for the application of theframework and the principles.
  20. 20. IUWM Application 1 (stormwater,leakage, demand management)leakage, demand management)70000 m3/d 780831m3/d192851 m3/dDM=50537 m3/d111081 m3/dDemand =1205300 m3/d
  21. 21. IUWM Application 1 (stormwater,leakage, demand management)• Unit costs of US$ 0.29/m3 (cf. to 0.36)leakage, demand management)
  22. 22. Nairobi - It’s about having aPortfolio of viable optionsPrivate BoreholesGreywater HarvestingPortfolio of viable optionsExisting NewLeakage Mgt.Water SourcesNew Conventional SourcesStormwaterg gNew Conventional SourcesExisting HarvestingWater SourcesWater Demand Mgt.IUWM A hC ti l A h IUWM ApproachUnit costs US$ 0.29/m3Conventional ApproachUnit costs US$ 0.36/m3
  23. 23. Phnom Penh’s Water Success Story• NRW reduced from 72% to6.19% (1993-2008)Water saving about• Water saving about25,000m3/d (serving aboutone million more people)• Increasing revenues by overUS$ 20 million per annumBiswas and Tortajada 2009
  24. 24. It’s already happening: Ethekwini
  25. 25. It’s already happening: WindhoekNGWRP Dam Water Groundwater66% 8%erConsumers26% 66% 8%10% Unaccountedfor Waterngwate90%DomestiConsumersIndustrial7%rdrinkin83%Consumed38%Security through diversitycIndustrialWW Treatment45%WW Treatmenteusefor6%WW TreatmentIrrig. -ReOGWRO13%26%Irrig. -ParksgFodderRiverReuse for Irrigation
  26. 26. It’s already happening: SingaporeRain SeaRain SeaSecurity through diversityDirect Non-Potable Use
  27. 27. Unconventional water sources:more energy intensivemore energy intensiveNEWRI 2010
  28. 28. Natural systems can helpclose the water cyclebank filtration,close the water cyclesoil-aquifer treatment,constructed wetlands,hybrid systemsO2O2
  29. 29. Natural systems can helpclose the water cycleLBFclose the water cycleLake Bank FiltrationReservoirWater WWIrrigationEH 0.012 -0.024 $/m3(cf 0.05-0.15 $/m3)Lake Bank FiltrationDam WaterTrans.ConsumerPrimary Treatmentand/or CW & WSPDistribution Constructed WetlandsSt bili ti P dRBF(0.17 $/m3)River Bank FiltrationEcohydrologyStabilization PondsRiverSAT/ARREH$0.067/m3 (cf 0.28/m3)Soil Aquifer TreatmentArtificial Recharge RecoveryLow Energy – Water Efficient’ Closed Loopg y
  30. 30. Flows from Kibera pollute Nairobi DamNo longer used as a water sourceNo longer used as a water sourceGreywater fromi dPolluted runofff t tOverflow fromit l t iKiberaunservicedhouseholdsfrom streets pit latrinesNairobi DamNgong River
  31. 31. Urban water infrastructure provisionto Kibera benefit all of NairobiCost for provision of drainage andsanitation for KiberaCondominium sewersto Kibera benefit all of Nairobisanitation for Kibera• EAC US$ 1.0MSUDSC d i iDEWATS Potential water resources afterslum improvement• Yield 17 300m3/dCondominium sewers • Yield 17,300m3/d• Cost of water (0.16 $/m3)• More than US$ 800 000SUDSDEWATS• More than US$ 800,000revenue per year
  32. 32. Slum networking can provideimproved flood protection to cityimproved flood protection to citySlumFloodingCity
  33. 33. Slum networking can provideimproved water services to allPressurimproved water services to alleSlumCityIllegalconnectionsPressure deficitsEquity pressuredistribution
  34. 34. Take home messageManage water supply wastewater & stormwaterManage water supply, wastewater & stormwatertogether (one urban water cycle)……. and thinkcreatively about what could be your watery ysources (and don’t focus on the obvious ones).(educate future urban leaders on the integrated perspectiveof the urban water cycle and contextualize each componentof the water system within this perspective)
  35. 35. We need to build connectionsbetween silosGrayWast StormPotable RainGrayWaterWastewaterStormwaterPotablewaterRainwaterG, I
  36. 36. The water sector can’t do it aloned l G ’ ffi i lLand plannersArchitectsDevelopersGov’t officialsFinanciersEnergy experts
  37. 37. Thi k b H iThink about HarvestingIntegrated Treatment
  38. 38. Entrepreneurs see theharvesting potential, Indiag pCollection, transport, treatment and reuse-system (GTZ,2009)
  39. 39. Entrepreneurs see theharvesting potential, Durbang p ,Fecal sludge into safe fertilizer: LaDePa machineFecal SludgeMedium-waveInfrared Save PelletsFecal Sludge InfraredRadiation
  40. 40. We’re harvesting for Agriculture: ChinaUnder the 11th five-year plan, 400 million m3 treatedwastewater available for agriculture in Beijing in 2010wastewater available for agriculture in Beijing in 2010
  41. 41. MITIGATIONHarvesting heat from sewersHeat exchanger in sewersHeat is reclaimed from treated sewage water of the adjacent sewage treatment plantDalian-Xinghai (China) : Environment-friendly heating and cooling
  42. 42. Think about a Water MachinePotableWaterReclaimednon potableQualityA B CUrineSurface WaterWaternon-potable A,B,CGrey waterBrownwaterGround WaterRain WaterSolid wasteEnergyH i i dNutrients HygienizedSludgeNutrientsG,R,FX-S
  43. 43. Water Machine – ‘designer waters’T i I i ti RO (Single): RefineryTertiary: Irrigation RO (Single): RefineryNitrified: CoolingNitrified: CoolingPhotos courtesy: West Basin MWD RO(Double): Refinery2nd+RO+MF: AAR
  44. 44. Water Machine: Semi - CentralizedTU Darmstadt | Institute IWAR | Cornel et al. 
  45. 45. Xing Dao – water machine proposalTU Darmstadt | Institute IWAR | Cornel et al. 
  46. 46. But how will water machinesbe plumbed?e p u edChallenge: Deliver WaterQuality Fit for PurposeKitchen BathQuality Fit for PurposeKitchen BathToiletLaundryPipe Bundles for DifferentWater QualitiesGardenWater Machine Water UsersService water for toilet & laundryService water for gardenPotable water
  47. 47. Take home messageDriver for water management should bebeneficiation –maximize value added(institutions & regulations to support and not hinder)‘All water is good water: fit for purpose’(educate future urban leaders on all benefits of water –public health, aesthetics, economic development, drivegreen economy)green economy)
  48. 48. Cl d A h UWMClustered Approach to UWMIn order to implement the principles a clusteredapproach to water management is helpfulapproach to water management is helpful.
  49. 49. Clusters allow maximum efficiencywhile giving adaptive capacityg g p p yA supply and treatment unit (watermachine) for each district• Semi central supply and treatmentunit as part of clustered city structureunit as part of clustered city structure• Use scalability of treatmenttechnology (membranes)• Customized supply and treatment foreach cluster• Utilizing synergy effects andUtilizing synergy effects andre-use potentialsTU Darmstadt | Institute IWAR | Cornel et al. 
  50. 50. Energy sector is alreadythinking in these linesgCHPCHPCHPCHPCHPCHPCHPCHPCHPCHP CHPCHP
  51. 51. Look for opportunities to create newparadigms (not extended old ones)p g ( )FormalisedW t S tSmall scale providersWater SystemNewdemandGrowthDecentralizedcommunity basedExpansion of existingsystem to serve newdemand
  52. 52. Xi’an – newly developed district asindependent water systemQujiang New DistrictQujiang New Districtindependent water systemXi’anXi’anCentralCentralcitycityNorth lakeDistrict wastewaternetwork GardeningS th l kAssociatedwetlandDistrictwastewatertreatmentplant(Tertiary treatment)(Regulationlakes)ForestationMiscellaneoususesCar washingSouth lakeDistrict storm waterdrainage(Secondary treatment)(Tertiary treatment)
  53. 53. ARUAMBALE
  54. 54. Central infrastructure core expanding
  55. 55. Let’s ring fence the old paradigmA1A2A3A4A4A8 A6A5A7
  56. 56. Let’s ring fence the old paradigmA1A2A3A3A4A4A8A6A5A7A6
  57. 57. Tailor made solutions for clusterGreywaterBlack waterPotablewaterA8Surface waterGreywaterGroundwaterBiogasProductionDischargeDischargeto the river
  58. 58. Semi-Centralized is cheaper?A9Average Annual Costs3,787,000 US$Average Annual Costs5,148,000 US$
  59. 59. Take home messageManage water supply wastewater & stormwaterManage water supply, wastewater & stormwatertogether (one urban water cycle)……. and thinkcreatively about what could be your watery ysources (and don’t focus on the obvious ones).(educate future urban leaders on the integrated perspectiveof the urban water cycle and contextualize each componentof the water system within this perspective)
  60. 60. Smart ThinkingSmart Water, Smart Networks, Smart by Design
  61. 61. New low pressure/super strong membranes makethem attractive to developing countries0 4m hydrostatic pressureSource: eawagS0.4m hydrostatic pressureTo the tapSource: eawagStorClean waterstorage tankage Super smooth carbon nano-tubesBuckyball treated membranesRichard Merritt (2009)
  62. 62. Scalability of membranes makes them veryattractive across a continuum of optionspCity/Town ScalePoint-of-Use
  63. 63. Networks of the future willhave lives of their ownhave lives of their ownSmart Pipes• Nano scale sensorsSelf Healing• Various strategies: capsuleFrictionless• Slippery Liquid-Infused• Nano scale sensorsembedded into pipes duringmanufacturing.• Sensors monitor data onhydraulic, material, andVarious strategies: capsule,vascular, intrinsic• Pipes store healing agentsand polymerizers thatsolidify when mixedpp y qPorous Surfaces (SLIPS)• Super-thin Nano-substrates infused with aliquid lubricant creates ahydraulic, material, andenvironmental• Sensors provide geo-referenced data pointsso d y e ed• Healing efficiencies 100%• Recovery strength >100%smooth surface• Reduced biofilm formationby 96-99%Metje et al. 2011CorrosionformationCorrosionRepairWhite et al. 2011 Epstein et al. 2012
  64. 64. ‘Smart’ helps manage pipe-burstsmore effectivelymore effectivelyCalculate Location of Burst Optimal ValveIsolationAllen et al. 2011
  65. 65. ‘Smart’ helps manage pipe-burstsmore effectivelymore effectivelyIsolate LeakAllen et al. 2011
  66. 66. ‘Smart’ helps manage pipe-burstsmore effectivelyAlertC tmore effectivelyCustomerRepair TeamPipe BreakPipe Break- Location GPS- Pipe Material- Pipe Depth- …Allen et al. 2011
  67. 67. ‘Smart’ allows appliances to negotiatewith the water marketwith the water marketndWaterDemanDemandTimeElectricD
  68. 68. ‘Smart’ allows appliances to negotiatewith the water marketSmartmeterwith the water marketSmartndSmartmeterWaterDemanDemandTimeElectricDCentral ControlUnit
  69. 69. ‘Smart’ allows appliances to negotiatewith the water marketwith the water marketndFlattened PeakWaterDemanDemandFlattened PeakCentral ControlUnitTimeElectricD
  70. 70. T i i iTransitioning
  71. 71. TransitioningTransitioningExisting SystemFuture System Future SystemGraph Theory Transition SystemsyBased on Old SystemyTotally New System
  72. 72. 0 10 20 30 40
  73. 73. 0 10 20 30 40
  74. 74. 0 10 20 30 40
  75. 75. 0 10 20 30 40
  76. 76. 0 10 20 30 40
  77. 77. 0 10 20 30 40
  78. 78. 0 10 20 30 40
  79. 79. 0 10 20 30 40
  80. 80. 0 10 20 30 40
  81. 81. 0 10 20 30 40
  82. 82. 0 10 20 30 40Sempewo, J., Vairavamoorthy, K. and Grimshaw, F. (2010)
  83. 83. Take home messageMove away from tinkering and think abouthow you might have designed from scratch -y g gthen look at transitional pathways & don’tInstitutions are the origin of change and themedium for legitimizing changeMMM
  84. 84. Choices Before UsStay in Lane -Business asUsualTry Harder,Spend More forTraditional SysTruly DifferentApproachWhat YouKnow..What YouDon’t Know..What YouKnow..
  85. 85. Th k YKalanithy VairavamoorthyThank Youvairavk@usf.edu

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