Starting agriculture work in a developing country 4-6-12


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  • Extreme continental climateAverage temp 26oFWinter (8 mo)Summer (100-120 days)257 clear days/yearDry (8 to 9 inches/year) Climate a result ofLand-locked between China & SiberiaHigh altitude average 5,214 ft. elevationClimatic regions N to S includeTaiga, Steppe, Desert
  • 1206 Mongolia formed by Chinggis Khan1279-1368 Kublai Khan conquers & rules ChinaMuch of Europe & Asia conquered1691-1910 Mongolia controlled by China1912-19 Russian protectorate1919-21 China controls Mongolia1921 Mongolia claims independence from China1924 Mongolian People’s republic (a communist regime)1987 relations opened with U.S.1990 Mongolia becomes independent parliamentary republic
  • Mongolian agriculture:preferred herding to growing cropsProduction ofMeat-Milk-Fiber productsDuring Chinggis Khan’s timeFarming and farmers held in low regardBut . . .Once advantages realizedFarming was actually encouraged
  • 2005-2007 hunger increasedPrimarily due to rising food costsPeople at highest risk for hungerPoor in developing countriesHunger health risksReduced caloric intakeReduced dietary diversity2002 UNICEF nutritional surveyHigh % of young Mongolian women & children had micronutrient deficienciesSerious risk for health problems
  • Secure food systemMeans a secure countryMongolia Net exporter of meatLong history of animal productionImporter of food cropsWheatFruits & VegetablesIt’s evident from historyAbundant inexpensive food stabilizes societiesMongolia is currently listed as:FAO low income food deficit country
  • Dornod is in eastern MongoliaDuring Russian eraMajor production areaCollective farmsNatural resourcesGood soilsWater from rivers & lakesKOICA project atMr. Hwang working on site in Khalkhgol
  • FARM: Family Agriculture Resources MongoliaMongolian NGOAgronomistsTeaching displaced herders fruit & vegetable farming3 yr processObtain 15 acres from Govt.Teach farming, food preservation, marketingForm cooperative at end of training
  • Ag is complex & difficult to addressIncludes host of related systems & disciplinesFood production tied to:Adoption of technologiesMechanizationIrrigationImproved geneticsCrop cultureBecause it’s complexAgriculture has a large multiplication effect
  • OSU study abroad courseIntroduce students to MongoliaCultureNatural resourcesIndustriesService work with FARMEducational programDrip irrigation projectPossible variety trialsMIU short coursesProtective clothing courseOthers?
  • Starting agriculture work in a developing country 4-6-12

    1. 1. Mexico & Mongolia:Starting agriculture work in a developing country Dr. Lynn Brandenberger Department of Horticulture Oklahoma State University
    2. 2. Getting Started• Contacts• Learning about the country• Deciding how to help• Sticking with it• Funding
    3. 3. Same & Different• People – Understanding Oats Mexican Style – Respect• Desires• Agriculture –Basics same –How it’s done
    4. 4. • Networking Contacts• Many venues – Govt. funded projects – NGOs • FAS • Faith-based • Social-based • USAID • Agricultural-based • Familiar with: • FAO – Hunger Relief International – FARM • UNICEF – Vet Net – JCS – Sembradores de Cristo
    5. 5. • Websites to check out Learning About – U.S. State Department the Country • /cis_pa_tw_1168.html – Central Intelligence Agency • s/the-world-factbook/index.html• Safety in travel—listen to host• Mexico – Population: 114,975,406 – Mean age: 27 – Language: Spanish – Landmass: 1,964,375 sq km• Mongolia – Population: 1,300,000 – Mean age: 26 – Language: Mongolian, Russian – Landmass: 1,564,116 sq km
    6. 6. Deciding How to Help• Your expertise• Clientele’s needs – Their perception of needs – Your perceptions – Discuss prior to visit – Flexibility • Adjust after seeing • Don’t show up with a ridged plan • Be prepared
    7. 7. Sticking With It• Few need just one visit – First visits are often • Relationship building • Fact finding & planning • Some addressing of needs – Successive visits • Building trust • Addressing needs• You’ll need to consider – Don’t spread yourself too thin – How to fund visits • Sources – Clientele – Agencies – Self
    8. 8. Word of CautionBe on the look out for craziness in your traveling companions
    9. 9. MONGOLIA: Ancient Empire
    10. 10. A LAND BETWEEN TWO GIANTS1206 1924Mongolia Formed by Chinggis Khan Mongolian People’s Republic1279 1987Kublai Khan Conquers China Relations Opened with U.S.1691-1910 1990Mongolia Controlled by China Mongolia Becomes Independent Parliamentary Republic1912-1919Russian Protectorate1919-1921China Controls Mongolia1921Mongolia Claims Independence
    11. 11. Traditional Mongolian House “GER” Gers are covered with felt made from sheep’s wool
    12. 12. Many Mongolianswear theirtraditional dressduring thenational holiday ofNaadam
    13. 13. Meat & flour products are the main traditionalfood of Mongolians
    14. 14. MONGOLIAN AGRICULTURE Preferred Herding Meat-Milk-Fiber Production During Chinggis Khan’s Time Farming is encouraged
    16. 16. A HEALTHY AGRICULTURE SYSTEM IS VITAL Abundant inexpensive food stabilizes societies Mongolia is an FAO low income food deficit country Secure food system means a secure country Mongolia exports meat and imports food crops
    17. 17. DORNOD AGRICULTUREKOICA site in Khalkhgol Mongolian Interstate
    18. 18. FARM’S AGRICULTURAL EFFORTFamily Agriculture Resources Mongolia Sea buckthorn Hoop house vegetables FARM Director
    19. 19. MEXICO: It’sCaptured My Heart
    20. 20. Agriculture Near Palmas Altas Oats Mexican Style
    21. 21. Zacatecas: High & Dry
    22. 22. Agriculture Near Monte Escobedo
    23. 23. Folks in Laguna Grande
    24. 24. AGRICULTURE A DRIVING FORCE AGRICULTURE is Complex and Difficult to Address FOOD PRODUCTION is Tied to Technology Adoption AGRICULTURE Has a Large Multiplication Effect
    25. 25. 2012 PLANS OSU Study Abroad Course Introduce Students to Mongolia Natural Culture Industries Resources FARM Service Work Drip Possible Irrigation Variety Project TrialsMIU Service Work Turf Test Plots
    26. 26. References & Acknowledgements information Cultural information Geographic informationSpecial thanks to Orgilbayar Zorigt MongoliaInternational University for several slides