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James' India Experience


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James' India Experience - completed as part of the Oklahoma State University Master of International Agriculture Program -

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James' India Experience

  1. 1. Shiroor & Talaguppa AGED 5900 Summer 2009 Internship Karnataka, India JamesOklahoma State University
  2. 2. Quick Facts Drive on left side of the road Population: 1,070 Million Currency: Rupee ~48 INR / $1 USDReligions: Hindu, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhist, Muslim, Christian Several Thousand Casts Fifteen National Languages National Anthem: Jana Gana Mana National Animal: Tiger National Flower: Lotus National Bird: Peacock Flag: Saffron (growth), White (peace), Green (agriculture), 24 Spoke Navy Blue Wheel (charity of Ashoka Chekra)
  3. 3. Recent History• British unified India’s kingdoms into one nation• British gave India a common language: English• Gandhi was the first person in freedom movement• India became an independent nation in 1947
  4. 4. Cultural Awareness• Men do not shake hands with women• Men do not kiss their wives in public (including in the home if others are present)• Tilting the head (left, right, etc.) means “ok” or gives permission• A head massage consists of pounding the head with the hands. Thus the word massage is very misleading• If you are invited to eat lunch with someone at 1PM, show up fifteen minutes late and expect to eat forty-five minutes later• Buying a used motorcycle involves an hour of socializing, 5 minutes of looking and talking about the bike, another hour of socializing, then exchanging cash and ownership certificates
  5. 5. Cultural Awareness• Plugging something into an outlet can involve putting individual wires in where prongs normally go• India is the US’ dumping ground for illegal pesticides and antibiotics, thus nobody is alerted of the problems one might have• The Indian National Highway is a 2 way road with pedestrians, cattle, dogs, goats, sheep, bicyclists, vehicles, etc …• The cast system is still alive• A pharmacy also sells toothpaste, snacks, and veterinary medicine• Most middle-class Indians do not eat from street vendors
  6. 6. Cultural Notes• Time: Now can mean within the next few hours, while tomorrow can mean within the next few weeks• Work Morale: Workers somehow know they are doing a good job without being told. Complementing them makes them think, “I’m a good worker, now I don’t have to show up for work.” Calling workers and telling them to come to work encourages them to show up late or not at all• Ego: The workers serve the ones paying. Not letting a worker do their job hurts their ego.
  7. 7. Lost in Translation?India English American EnglishThat’s what! I totally agree J: “The monsoon started late.” G: “That’s what!”Loose motion Diarrhea This caused you to loose motion last time.Huh, Ha, Awe, or Hmm Yes J: “Can I buy food here?” G: “Huh.”Feeling gitty Loss of energy You don’t look so great, you must be feeling gitty.X after Y before Z do X then Y then Z First you take X and then after Y before Z you take, Ok?Take this Eat this Take this, it’s good for health.Isn’t it? Am I right? You should drink some more water. Isn’t it?
  8. 8. Get Acquainted with IndiaWater Heater Shower
  9. 9. Get AcquaintedHouse Entrance House Plant
  10. 10. Getting AcquaintedLPG Gas Stove Rice Paddy Workers
  11. 11. AcquaintanceCrowd of People Around Accident Indian National Highway
  12. 12. Acquainted?Bull Cart Stores Auto Riksha
  13. 13. Acquaintance MadeBathroom Gutter
  14. 14. Ready for India?Saturday Market (all food) Your Water Source!
  15. 15. Here We GO! Electrical Outlet with Stick WelderCar Wash Plugged In
  16. 16. the Brake Inspectors
  17. 17. Daily Interruption—Power Outages• Power is turned off in rural areas by the electric company to maintain constant electricity flow for large cities• Private households use cellular batteries that store solar generated electricity, when power is out• Diesel generators provide power for larger buildings• In many places common tasks are still done by hand
  18. 18. Mugimane Farms, Shiroor• Beetle Nuts• Coconuts• Rice• Coffee• Pepper• Sugar Cane• Organic Farming
  19. 19. Shiroor Duties• Cutting Grass • Bio-Digester• Rolling Drip Irrigation Maintenance Hoses • Bio-Gas Digester• Plantation Maintenance Maintenance • Watering Trees• Banana Tree Dressing • Rice Paddy Cultivation• Cattle Watching• Plantation Supervision
  20. 20. Cutting Grass• Grass is hand cut with a sickle• 50 lb bundles of grass are hand brought to a cattle shed• Grass is fed through an electric cutting machine on one side• Grass is pulled into the machine by inside “teeth”• Wheel with a blade attached cuts grass on the other side
  21. 21. Rolling Drip Irrigation Hoses• Drip irrigation not needed during monsoon rains• Drip irrigation hoses for over 9,000 beetle nut and 250 coconut trees• Well over 18,000 meters of hoses to keep track of• Each hose has a valve to turn off water flow• Inspect hose for leaks and cracks while being coiled• Secure rolled-up hose and store
  22. 22. Plantation Maintenance• All tasks had to be learned before they could be supervised• Includes watching the workers: patch the reservoir dam, role drip line hoses, water trees with bio-digested fertilizer, dress banana trees, watch cattle, and pick fruit
  23. 23. Dressing Banana Trees• Take off top dead or decaying sheath• One hand pulls the sheath down while the other hand hacks it with a sickle• Caution keeping clear of the sickle path and others nearby.• Considered a “woman’s job”
  24. 24. Cattle Watching• Cattle are walked from the cattle shed to the rice paddy fields• Manure dropped on the way must be picked up and tossed into the plantation• Watched as they graze on the paddy• Kept from eating sugar cane• Watch for cobras and other animals that might disturb the cattle• Cattle are lead back up the driveway and into the shed where they are tethered, bathed, and fed
  25. 25. Plantation Supervision• Fertilize trees• Dress trees• Cut Grass• Watch cattle• Chase monkeys
  26. 26. Chase Monkeys• Dogs bark alerting workers of monkeys in trees, dogs chase monkeys• Workers take an air rifle and shoot at the monkeys to scare them away• If air rifle does not work, a small homemade cannon is used• Cannon produces a loud explosion that can be heard for a couple miles
  27. 27. Bio-Digester Maintenance• Cattle manure is scooped into a bucket and dumped into the bio-digester• Cattle urine is washed into it with water• Cattle waste sits in the bio-digester and moves into the holding tank where neem is poured on top of it• Neem is used to keep the mosquito population down• The liquid is then pumped from the tank into the hose and is used to individually fertilize trees or fertilize through a series of valves and pipes• During the monsoon, the bio-fertilizer levels become equal in the final two tanks and must be maintained as not to mix
  28. 28. Bio-Gas Digester Maintenance• Maintained for cooking gas• Cattle manure is dumped into a smaller digester which siphons into a holding tank where gas collects and is transported through a hose to the house• Gas hoses and valves lead to several gas stoves• Low maintenance, require attention when leakage occurs• Free gas
  29. 29. Watering Trees• Water trees with Bio-Digested fertilizer• Must know Bio-Digester valve location• Hose connected to valves• Watered at tree base• Contains high concentration of fertilizer• Low concentration of neem (for fungicide)• Has distinct odor
  30. 30. Two Types of Paddy Planting• Seed Planting Method• Transplanting Method
  31. 31. Seed Planting Method• Fifteen days before the monsoon starts, fields are plowed twice to soften the topsoil• After the 2nd and 3rd pre-monsoon rain, plow one more time• Plane the field with oxen
  32. 32. Plowing• Need two oxen, one yoke, plowing equipment, and a rope• One hand holds a small wooden whip, other hand guides plow• Small whip is actually a stick with a string tied to the end and a small stick about 2” long attached to the end• Whip is not used to whip oxen, but to steer them depending on how stick is held• Plow is almost a foot wide, made of iron or wood or both• Oxen are steered to make many parallel passes until entire paddy is plowed
  33. 33. Seed Planting Method• Flatten the field • Dig rows about 8” deep (powdered dry soil) and 6” wide according to plowing shovel width• Mix paddy (rice seed) with organic fine cow • Simultaneously, seeds dung, dry manure are sewn and manure is (powder-like) and neem mixed into the rows powder and other • The entire land area is pesticides in equal covered in rice paddy portion seeds evenly
  34. 34. Rice Paddy Planing• Rice paddies are plowed, planted, weeded, and flooded• A process in weeding is called planing• The plane is wood, circular in shape• Width is only about a foot, but at least five inches tall• When this process is finished, a rake is used to clean up the excess plants floating in the water
  35. 35. Seed Planting Method• 10 or 11 days after seeds • Paddy is weeded again 10 planted, ground is still days after monsoon starts moist • Weeded using same• Growing plants can be equipment as preparation seen on field • Weeds are uprooted and• Plant will be approx 5” tall float in the water when the monsoon starts • Weeds are swept up with• Oxen and equipment are a rake and thrown away used to weed the paddy • After raking, 2” of water left in the field
  36. 36. Seed Planting Method • After 15 to 20 days the• After 10 days weeds are paddy plant starts manually plucked flowering.• NPK fertilizer applied all • K fertilizers is spread over the field • Weeding, flowering, and• After one month paddy pesticide spraying continues plant grows to height of 1.5 for another 2 months inches with 10 to 13 • Pesticides are used to branches (depending on the destroy root & leaf eating variety of seed) insects and worms• Again NPK is spread with • Paddy flower converted to more K. paddy (hardened rice seed), then harvest into rice
  37. 37. Transplanting Method• Small part of field is selected• Field is flooded first part of monsoon season after fifteen days rainfall• Tiller or oxen used on field 3 times to soften the soil• Ground still quite muddy• Planes are made 3’ X 50’, using shovel• Shovel used for making small irrigation ditches separating the planes
  38. 38. Transplanting Method• Sprouted paddy (paddy soaked in water for a day) spread onto planes• 25 Kilos of paddy seeds are needed per acre evenly spread• Let sit for 20 days depending on the variety of paddy seed (some can go up to 30 days)• Paddy plants will be around 8”• Plow all the [muddy] fields 2 times using tiller (these are the fields that have not been seeded)• Water level 2-3” to make unwanted plants die (in unseeded fields)
  39. 39. Tilling with a Power Tiller• Power tiller uses a hand crank to start• Is driven by a driver which walks behind the tilling attachment• Handles protrude out the back for steering• A knob is used to switch direction and speed• Tilling takes twelve days to complete and is done twice, fifteen days apart
  40. 40. Transplanting Method • Separation mounts are dressed using shovel manually, separating the paddies • Mounds are around 1’ tall by 1’ wide by 50’ long • Mounds store water in the paddy • 3,000 Kg of cow dung manure is spread all over the field • Plowed again for weeding • Plant height 8”, hand plucked and put into 100 seedlings per bundle
  41. 41. Transplanting Method• Transplanted, spaced 5”apart• Water level kept at 2”• Manually weed after 15 days• Weeding is done only once
  42. 42. Transplanting Method• NPK (35 KGs per acre two times in the span of 30 days) applied, NP is more than K. Need to maintain water level• Pesticides sprayed if needed (Chloropyropos Monocrotophos etc.)• Before flowering, 40 kilos of K per acre applied• Harvest after hardening of paddy (when to harvest depends on variety)• Yield is 1800 KG per acre• 4 month cultivation process, max manpower at one time is 20 (on the day of plucking transplanting)
  43. 43. SGS IndustriesSGS Industries—forms pipes of varying sizes for government vehicles, tractors, and other machinery
  44. 44. SGS Industries• Receives private contracts which supply government vehicles• Break and muffler pipes• Employs 3-5 male workers• Process: Order proper number and sizes of pipes, Take inventory, Mark and cut to desired length, Shape the heads with a drill then dies, Inspect heads, Attach pipes on bending machine and hand bend each one, Inspect pipes, Weld muffler pipes and inspect, Recount, pack, and ship
  45. 45. AG Mechanics Maintenance• Indian agriculture employs its labor force and does not require much mechanization• Most popular mechanization is the power tiller• Agricultural machinery is cheaper to maintain and does not have to be fed year round, compared to oxen• Machinery maintenance is usually done by the owners themselves or mechanical workers• Those who do not have the proper tools for maintenance rely on SGS Industry to repair the needed items• Workers are advised on how job should be done• Workers are advised on structural soundness and welding techniques
  46. 46. Rice Mill, TalaguppaRice Mill—cleans and polishes several bushels of paddy a day, and turns it into riceTalaguppa—village of 10,000 people. Mostly farmers, some commuters to Sagar. Goods bought and sold
  47. 47. Rice Mill, Talaguppa• Family owned business• Serves company and family contracts• Rice dumped into a machine, fed through a series of augers and machinery which take the pulp off and polishes it• Most customers want fully polished rice, but some still prefer the partially polished rice• Fully polished rice is white, while partially polished rice is brownish white• My obligation: social networking of managers, staff, and customers
  48. 48. Questions?
  49. 49. That’s it!