Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 5

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Fundamentals of crime mapping chapter 5

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Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 5

  1. 1. In GIS, the line between research and  application is fuzzy at best. Many research studies are based on practical  applications, and many applications are evaluated and end up in peer-reviewed journals. Practitioner research needs to be done more  often
  2. 2. Common perception about public housing  projects is that they are violent and dangerous places. Few studies link Public Housing to crime 
  3. 3. Park DuValle  ◦ Main reasons for reduction:  Revitalization  Removal of the adjacent dilapidated, unattended private apartments  Relocation of the former residents of those two low- income public housing projects (Suresh & Vito, 2007)
  4. 4. Holzman et al  ◦ aggravated assaults and robberies were higher in public housing areas ◦ burglaries, larcenies, and thefts tended to be lower in public housing areas ◦ black females who lived in public housing in both cities were at higher risk of being victims of aggravated assault than black or white women who did not live in public housing
  5. 5. Roncek  ◦ robbery in the Bronx ◦ demographic, socioeconomic, and other variables were controlled for ◦ the existence of public housing projects had no effect on robberies ◦ Thus, characteristics of the people may be more important than characteristics of places for some types of crimes.
  6. 6. Fagan and Davies,et al  ◦ There are spatial and temporal differences in crime rates across public housing sites ◦ Crime rates are not stagnant but are dynamic and have “crime careers” ◦ Various problems exist in calculating population denominators ◦ They found that, in general, crime is greater within a 100- yard perimeter surrounding a housing project than it is within the boundaries of the project itself
  7. 7. Wernicke et al  Construction sites  Alert the public ◦ Work closely with builders and contractors ◦ Identify known offenders ◦ Checkpoints and detectives working weekend hours ◦  Overland Park Police Department noted a 26% reduction in stolen equipment.
  8. 8. Eisenberg & Schmerler,  Motels  ◦ 5 Motels accounted for large numbers of CFS ◦ Noon and at 11 pm temporal pattern Strategies:  strict screening of both guests and visitors ◦ increased access control ◦ using security guards ◦ clearly conveying the rules to guests ◦ posting signs around the motel property that displayed the ◦ rules ◦ employee training ◦ code enforcement ◦ limits on the length of stay were implemented
  9. 9. Reno (1998)  ◦ Concentration of daytime burglaries was located near a high school. ◦ Strategies:  Targeted area enforcement  Investigative stops  Truancy enforcement
  10. 10. Hendersen and Lowell (2000)  ◦ Focused on campus crime at Temple University ◦ Identified four clusters security kiosks  improved lighting  Increased patrols  provided escort services  Transit Stops –Block et al 
  11. 11. ◦ Many of these studies can be duplicated by analysts within their own jurisdictions. Analysts can thereby add to the research and eventual publications that deal with these crimeTransit Stops –Block et al a benefit for issues to create everyone involved in crime prevention and control.
  12. 12. Generally, hot spots are viewed as small  geographic areas that experience higher than average levels of crime for a consistent period of time Taylor suggests that hot-spot based  strategies, in general, have produced minimal impacts on crime and that these impacts are typically only achieved for the short term.
  13. 13. Many factors can contribute to  misinterpretation of hotspots May not tell the entire picture and creative  strategies to see reduction Multiple levels of analysis are needed to see  the entire picture in most cases
  14. 14. There are many and varied applications of GIS  with crime that need more research and duplication of studies Thousands of success stories of use of GIS to  map crime, find patterns and series, do analysis and intervene in crime occurring Local uses of GIS  Tactical efforts ◦ Proactive policing ◦ Event planning ◦ Community-based policing ◦ Problem-oriented policing ◦ Compstat ◦ Traffic and other Misc uses of GIS ◦
  15. 15. The possibilities for crime mapping in  small-, medium-, and large-sized departments are endless. The applications range from the facilitation of simple presentations to the development of complicated prediction models. In addition, the enhanced supervision and monitoring of parolees and probationers is also aided by the use of GPS and GIS. What other applications can you think of? 

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