Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 2


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Fundamentals of crime mapping chapter 2

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Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 2

  1. 1. As will be emphasized  throughout this text, it is crucial that crime maps and analyses convey the whole picture. Maps created without providing the accompanying environmental and social context are limited in their usefulness
  2. 2. Cesare Beccaria published his classic essay “On  Crimes and Punishments” (1764) ◦ Free Will ◦ Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham put forth his Introduction to the  Principles of Morals and Legislation. (1789) ◦ 4 objectives to prevent crime through punishment  The primary goal is the prevention of crime.  When punishment does not prevent crime, it must persuade the offender to choose to commit a less serious offense.  Punishment must persuade future offenders to use the least amount of force in committing a crime.  It must prevent crime at a cost-effective rate.
  3. 3. late 19th century  Scientific method heavily influenced  Primary elements:  ◦ Human behavior is influenced by biology, psychology, and to some extent the larger environment (social positivists) ◦ Second, the only way criminologists can learn about human behavior and solve social problems is to embrace the scientific method Deterministic view  Sociological Criminologists emerging 
  4. 4. France  Quetelet and Guerry  Crime in France was unevenly distributed  across people and places If crime was randomly distributed, there  would be little need for crime mapping
  5. 5. Developed Hypotheses and constructed  theoretical models about how crime was related to and caused by various social and environmental factors Park argued that cities grew from the inside out  through a process of invasion, dominance, and succession Burgess (1925), He argued that cities grow  outward from the center in concentric circles starting with the inner loop (Concentric zone theory) ◦ loop immediately surrounding the business district (zone in transition) would experience the highest levels of social disorganization
  6. 6. Social disorganization  ◦ high rates of residential turnover ◦ a heterogeneous population ◦ high levels of poverty Differential Association Theory  ◦ juveniles who lived in these disorganized neighborhoods learned values and techniques favorable to committing crime via their peer associations ◦ some neighborhoods are not disorganized but rather organized around different values
  7. 7. Social Efficacy  Recent research that examined social  disorganization has determined that crime is not necessarily the problem but rather a symptom of inadequate social networks (or lack of collective efficacy) that exist in these neighborhoods Programs designed to “weed” crime out of an  area by police sweeps and neighborhood clean- up programs ultimately fail in the long run if they do not address the notion of collective, or social, efficacy
  8. 8. Community-based policing  Wilson and Kelling’s “Broken Windows” piece,  published in 1982 Based on an experiment conducted by Stanford  psychologist Philip Zimbardo in 1969 When the “no one cares” cue is sent out, crime  can occur in any neighborhood ◦ Bronx and Palo Alto,CA car vandalism experiment Proponents of community policing maintain that  a law enforcement concentration on “minor disorders” will, in turn, “lead to a reduction in serious crime” (Mastrofski, 1988, p. 48).
  9. 9. Crime fuse  ◦ society allows problems such as crime to exist in certain areas and not others Not quickly or easily fixed by the criminal  justice system Demand community participation 
  10. 10. Ecological fallacy  ◦ People who have high risks for being criminals but do not despite their neighborhood or sociological environment Approaches do not explain all crime types  Misidentifying the causal order of the relationship  between variables ◦ Crime and social disorder both have to be addressed to cause change Multicollinearity  ◦ Variables used have concepts they are measuring overlap Imprecise measurements  ◦ Can’t always measure what you want to measure, and use something else to “proxy” for it
  11. 11. Although there is no single criminological  theory that can explain crime, we still need to make use of the research and knowledge that has been developed and focus our crime analysis on these theories when analyzing crime and try and avoid mistakes ◦ by being “initimate” with our data, ◦ and know how to provide analysis work products that effectively help, rather than hinder decision making.